Category Archives: Norway

挪威卑尔根高中教会学校曹一叶同学的优秀毕业生演讲

北欧绿色邮报网北欧中华网联合报道(记者陈雪霏)– 许多华人华侨都关心自己的下一代的成长。挪威北欧集团董事长曹侃和郑凤笙夫妇也不例外。不过,他们对儿子的成长还是非常满意的。他们今年也打算把儿子送到国内学习一段时间。他们的儿子曹一叶(Max Yiye Cao, Bergen Katedralskole)于 2018 年 05 月 22 日在挪威卑尔根高中教会学校作为学生代表发表了毕业演讲。本网记者是6月2日到奥斯陆参加北欧集团支持的一次讲座活动获得此信息的。看看他是怎样评价自己的学校,学习和同学的,他的心态是怎样的呢?下面是演讲全文和中文译文。

陈凌骅 甘霈原 / 译

Valedictorian Speech

Dear graduates, parents, teachers, and members of the administration:

Thank you for the opportunity to speak at this highly anticipated event. After two years of studying, tests, reflective statements, critical thinking, and most recently exams, we have completed the IB Diploma Programme.
Throughout these two years, we have made many decisions affecting the outcome of our exams, wellbeing and future. Some decisions have been good, some great, and some terrible. Overall however, I think we should be proud of our achievements, and I do believe the school is proud as well.

优秀毕业生致辞

亲爱的毕业生、家长、老师,以及学校的工作人员:

非常荣幸能够有机会在这个备受瞩目的毕业典礼上发言。经过两年的学习、测验、总结、反思, 还有近期的考试,我们已经完成了 IB 学制的大学预科课程。

在这两年的时间里,我们做出了很多的决定,它们影响着我们的成绩,我们的生活,还有我们 的未来。有些决定做得非常好,有些特别成功,而也有些决定却很糟糕。但总体而言,我认为 我们应该为我们所取得的成绩感到自豪;同时,我确信我们的学校也同样以我们为荣。

When students are asked, what is special or great about our school, two things are always mentioned. Firstly, the 800-year long and prosperous legacy of our school, a legacy teachers, staff and students alike all take great pride in being a part of. I think this class has contributed positively to this legacy, with good academic results, engagement in student-led activities, and good results in the science competitions. This year, our school will have four competitors representing Norway in the various international science Olympiads, including Victoria and myself, this is the most of any school in Norway.

每当被问到这个学校有什么亮点或特别之处时,我们总会提及以下两方面。首先,这是一所拥 有八百年悠久历史和光荣传统的学校,全体师生都以能成为其中一份子而感到骄傲。我们这一 届毕业生以优异的学习成果,丰富的课外活动以及突出的竞赛成绩,进一步为母校的历史传承 添砖加瓦。今年,我校将有四名同学代表挪威参加各类国际奥林匹克竞赛,其中也包括 IB 学 制的 Victoria 和我。我们学校是挪威所有学校中参赛选手最多的。

Secondly, we are proud of the diversity of students, accepting social environment and personal engagement in issues outside of the academic. The IB fits these descriptors exactly. Our class is made up of multiple nationalities from many continents, has a wide range of personalities and interests, and is omnipresent in the various extracurricular activities of our school. In every committee, club or other activity, such as the school paper and Hugin, IB students can always be found. This may of course, to some extent be due to our CAS requirement, but I do believe similar levels of engagement would be present regardless.

其次,多样的学生背景,包容的人文环境,以及学生们对课余活动的积极参与同样令我们自豪。 IB 项目的课程恰好与我前面所说的这些相吻合。我所在班级的同学们来自各个大洲多个国家; 他们风格各异,兴趣广泛,积极参与学校的各种课外活动。IB 的学生们活跃在学校的各个学生 组织中,各个兴趣社团里,例如校刊和 Hugin 学生会。当然,这在一定程度上也是由于我们的 课程中 CAS 部分的要求,但我确信, 即非如此,我们也同样会积极地参与这些活动。

It is also important to mention the academics. Though the Extended Essays and Individual Investigations was a headache for many and often resulted in some trivial, uninteresting investigations, it taught us important skills that other school systems do not provide. I therefore think it is important that we personally thank those who have guided us throughout these two years.

For me personally, I would like to thank all my teachers, including Per Kristian, Tor Edvard, and Åshild.

• I would especially like to thank Jens-Petter and Øystein for giving me the freedom to learn and develop independently, whilst also providing guidance when needed.

• I would also like to thank Christa, the platonic ideal of teachers, who corrected every past paper we wrote leading up to the exams, provided us with a wide range of resources to improve our writing, and gave exceptional guidance with outstanding personal engagement during our two years in English class.

• Lastly, but most importantly, I would like to thank Erik Holst, who provided me with inspiration, challenges, support and guidance in maths for three years, making maths my favourite subject.

课业学习当然也同样重要。虽然长篇论文和案例调研对许多人来说都是一件头痛的事情,其中不乏琐碎而枯燥的调查,但它教会了我们很多其它学制中没有涉及的重要技能。因此,我们应当衷心地感谢在这两年中引领我们走过这一切的指导教师。
  • 对我个人而言,我要感谢所有教导过我的老师,这其中包括 Per Kristian,Tor Edvard, 以及 Åshild。
  • 我特别感谢 Jens-Petter 和 Øystein 给予我的独立发展和学习的自由,并在有需要时提 供的悉心指导。
  • 我还要感谢 Christa,一位柏拉图式的教师典范。她总在考试之前尽心帮助我们修改论 文,努力为我们提供了丰富的学习资源,在这两年的英语课程中,竭尽全力给予我们最高水平的指导。
  • 最后,我要感谢对我而言最重要的一位老师,Erik Holst。三年以来,他给予了我无限 的启发、挑战、支持和教导,并让数学成为了我最喜爱的学科。As we got closer to the end of our years at IB, I, along with all my classmates expected a profound sense of relief and happiness to strike the moment our last exams were finished. For me, this was supposed to be on the morning of the 17th of May, an additional cause of celebration. And though we all undoubtedly celebrated, I was never struck by the sudden sense of liberty, freedom and joy. I consulted with my friends on this matter, and they all had the same experience, or rather the lack of any experience. We all still felt that there was another exam tomorrow, and the day after that, and so on. After traumatic experiences, for example war, many are diagnosed with something called post-traumatic stress disorder. I think we all have post-exam stress disorder.随着我们的 IB 课程临近结束,我和同学们都热切期待着最后一场考试收卷的那一刻,以及它将带给我们的由衷的欣慰与幸福。对我而言,那应该是万众狂欢的挪威国庆节五月十七日的上 午——一个额外的庆祝理由。尽管我们也都庆祝了,但我从未被那突然到来的自由、自主和喜悦的瞬间所打动。也许是因为我们阅历尚浅,没有足够的承受能力,当我和朋友们讨论这时, 他们也都表示有同样的感受。我们甚至仍然觉得明天还会有一场考试等着我们,然后还有后天, 无穷无尽。在遭受心理创伤时,比如说战争过后,许多人会患上创伤后应激障碍。我想,我们这也可以叫作“考试后应激障碍”。The cause may be a subconscious anticipation, or rather anxiety for the exam results on the 6th of July. The judgment of whether or not university conditions will be met, on whether or not applications for retakes will be submitted, and on whether or not dreams will be crushed. For consolation, I would like to quote the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. “Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts”. This is also the time to thank parents and family, for providing us with comfort and encouragement when we need it the most.究其缘由,可能是我们潜意识中对于七月六日考试结果的期待,或者说是焦虑,因为这个结果将决定我们能否满足大学的入学条件,是否需要补考,又是否会梦想破灭。为了能够得到一丝慰藉,我愿引用英国前首相 Winston Churchill 的一句话,“成功并不是终点,失败也不是尽 头:唯勇气长存”。现在也是感谢我们的父母和家人的时刻,因为他们总会在我们最需要的时候带来安慰和鼓励。Another cause of post-exam stress may be anticipation and fear of the future. The realisation that our years at Katten are finished, and that we will soon embark on a journey to the unknown and unfamiliar. Though the IB Programme at times was filled with torment and anguish, it has nevertheless been a safe and consistent experience. Now, there is less certainty of what our futures hold. For encouragement, I would like to quote the American author John Shedd. “A ship in harbor is safe – but this is not what ships are built for”.

考试结束后压力无法消散,这更是源于对未来的期待和不安。我们意识到,高中生涯已经结束, 大家都即将踏上通往未知和陌生的旅途。虽然 IB 学制偶尔也令人倍感煎熬,但它仍不失为一 个安全平稳,始终如一的避风港。而现在,我们尚不确定未来将会把每个人引向何方。我想用 美国作家 John Shedd 的一句话来鼓励我们,“船舶停在港湾固然安全,但那并不是造船的意 义”。

After two years in each other’s company, it is now time for each one to embark on a journey, all to different locations, and though our dreams and ambitions span a wide range, I believe that our paths will cross again, sometime in the future, when we are all a bit older, and a bit wiser. Sometimes I like to think back to myself two or three years ago, and am amused by how little I knew, bathing in the bliss of ignorance, thinking I knew so much. Now I stand here today, having attained a broad and balanced body of knowledge, but instead of feeling enlightened, I am more curious than ever for what more there is to learn. For inspiration, I would like to quote the Italian painter Michelangelo. “The greatest danger for most of us is not that our aim is too high and we miss it, but that it is too low and we reach it.”

Stay hungry. Thank you!

两年以来,风雨相伴。而今天,我们即将为了各自的目标开始新的征程。虽然每个人怀着不同 的梦想与雄心,但我相信,我们还会在未来重逢。那时的我们,应是成长了很多,也睿智了很多。有时,我会回想起两三年前的自己,感觉甚是好笑。那时的我无忧无虑,所知甚少而又踌躇满志。此时此刻,我站在这里,固然有了更广阔更全面的知识体系,但却并未自满,反而对未知的一切充满好奇并迫切地想要去探索。在此,意大利画家米开朗基罗可以给我们以启发, “对于大多数人而言,最大的危险不是目标太高而难以企及,而是目标太低以至垂手可得”。

(让我们继续保持)求知若渴。 谢谢大家!

下面的链接是曹一叶18岁成人礼时父母对他的评价。

file:///Users/xuefei/Downloads/Max18%20-%20Tekst.pdf

本文之所以被登出来,是想让读者了解一个挪威华人二代在挪威学习生活的感受和心态。 取长补短,相互交流。

Top news: Chinese Dongfeng Race Team win the Volvo Ocean Race 2017-18

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, June 25(Greenpost, Chineseonline)– Chinese Dongfeng Race Team won the Volvo Ocean Race 2017-18 in the closest pass in race history.

Skipper Charles Caudrelier led his team to victory on the final leg of the race, a 970-mile sprint from Gothenburg, Sweden to The Hague.

Incredibly, it marked the first leg win for the team — it couldn’t have come at a better time.

Three teams started Leg 11 of the race on Thursday in a dead heat on the overall leaderboard. The finishing order between MAPFRE, Team Brunel and Dongfeng Race Team at The Hague would determine their place on the overall race podium.

Each of those three teams led at various points on the leg and had their opportunities to grab the prize.

But it was Caudrelier and his crew who made a bold call on Saturday evening to take a coastal route to the finish, which squeezed them tight against the shoreline and separated from the other leaders by a series of Exclusion Zones.

“We were not in such a good position, but we trusted our choice and we pushed,” Caudrelier said. “The others didn’t follow us, but we believed and we won…”

The decision hurt the team in the short term as they tumbled down the leaderboard. But by Sunday morning, with less than 100 miles left to race, weather routing projections had the top boats finishing within minutes of each other. None had been able to break away overnight, despite the significant splits on the race course.

“We knew that we would fall behind initially and that if it came good it would only be at the end. The last position report (1300 UTC on Sunday) we were 27-miles from the finish and they were 20-miles and we thought it was over. But then I did a small weather routing and it showed we could end up one-mile ahead so I woke everyone up and said, ‘let’s push!’”

As the teams finally converged again on Sunday afternoon, just a few miles from the finish, it was Dongfeng Race Team, flying down the coast from the north sliding in front of the offshore group, to earn their first leg win, propelling Caudrelier’s team to overall victory.

“We always trusted each other. Nobody thought we were going to win this last leg, but I had a good feeling,” an emotional Caudrelier said, after thanking his supporters and team. “I said ‘we can’t lose, we can’t lose, we can’t lose’… and we won!”

© Ainhoa Sanchez/Volvo Ocean Race

The overall results make this the closest finish in the 45-year history of the race and marks the first win for a Chinese-flagged team. It also means Carolijn Brouwer and Marie Riou were on board as the first women sailors to win the Volvo Ocean Race.

Xabi Fernández’s MAPFRE was third on the leg, which put the team into second overall.

© Ainhoa Sanchez/Volvo Ocean Race

“It has been tough,” Fernández admitted. “We sailed very well the whole way around the world and on this leg as well, so naturally we’re a bit disappointed. We were very, very close this time, but it was not quite enough. So we have to say congratulations to Dongfeng who sailed a little bit better than us.”

Team Brunel skipper Bouwe Bekking would have liked nothing more than to win the race for the first time in eight tries with a home finish in The Netherlands. But it wasn’t to be. His fourth place leg finish left the team in third place overall.

© Ainhoa Sanchez/Volvo Ocean Race

“Third place, still on the podium, I think we can be pretty proud of that as a team,” he said. “We thought we had made the right choice (to go further offshore) and we expected a windshift. It came 90-minutes too late and that was the race. But that’s yacht racing. And of course we have to congratulate Dongfeng and MAPFRE for their results.”

Second place on the final leg into The Hague was Dutch skipper Simeon Tienpont and his team AkzoNobel, who had previously secured fourth place on the overall leaderboard.

“It’s incredible to finish on the podium in our hometown,” Tienpont said. “We would have loved to have been fighting into The Hague for the final podium but to have set the 24-hour speed record and to get six podium finishes in the race is a testament to the job everyone on our team – on the boat and on shore – have done.”

Vestas 11th Hour Racing had already been locked into fifth place on the scoreboard and after a promising start to Leg 11, had a disappointing seventh place finish on the leg.

“We have a great group of folks on this team,” skipper Charlie Enright said. “We’ve been through a lot and I’m not sure any other group could have dealt with the challenges we have faced the way we did. It’s something special and we’re going to continue to work together moving forward. This was a tough way to go out certainly, but we have one more opportunity with the In-Port Race this weekend.”

That In-Port Race, scheduled for Saturday afternoon, will determine the sixth and seventh place positions in this edition of the Volvo Ocean Race. Both SHK/Scallywag and Turn the Tide on Plastic finished the Volvo Ocean Race on equal points.

The tie-break mechanism is the In-Port Race Series, where David Witt’s Scallywag team currently holds the lead. But Dee Caffari’s Turn the Tide on Plastic is just three points behind and a strong finish on Saturday could lift them off the bottom of the leaderboard.

© Ainhoa Sanchez/Volvo Ocean Race

“We can’t help but smile today. We’ve done it,” said Caffari. “This leg was like the longest In-Port Race ever. A lot of corners to go around, and we gave it 100 per cent and left nothing in the tank.”

For David Witt, the finish was bittersweet the loss of John Fisher overboard in the Southern Ocean top of mind.

“I have very mixed emotions right now,” Witt said dockside immediately after finishing. “I’m incredibly proud of our team both on and off the water. We’re very tight and we have gone through a lot… But I’m also sad of course. I didn’t finish it with my best mate (John Fisher) who we started with. So very mixed emotions, but I’m glad we finished it.”

The teams will celebrate their accomplishments and take well-earned rest on Monday. The rest of the week will see activities in The Hague building towards the final In-Port Race and Awards Night on June 30.

Volvo Ocean Race Leg 11 Final Leaderboard — Saturday 23 June
1. Dongfeng Race Team – 3 days, 3 hours, 22 minutes, 32 seconds
2. team AkzoNobel – 3 days, 3 hours, 38 minutes, 31 seconds
3. MAPFRE – 3 days, 3 hours, 39 minutes, 25 seconds
4. Team Brunel – 3 days, 3 hours, 45 minutes, 52 seconds
5. Turn the Tide on Plastic – 3 days, 3 hours, 56 minutes, 56 seconds
6. SHK / Scallywag – 3 days, 4 hours, 01 minutes, 32 seconds
7. Vestas 11th Hour Racing – 3 days, 4 hours, 05 minutes, 36 seconds

Volvo Ocean Race Overall Points Leaderboard after Leg 11
1. Dongfeng Race Team – 73 points
2. MAPFRE – 70 points
3. Team Brunel – 69 points
4. team AkzoNobel – 59 points
5. Vestas 11th Hour Racing – 39 points
6. SHK / Scallywag – 32 points *
7. Turn the Tide on Plastic – 32 points *

* Should there be a tie on the overall race leaderboard at the end of the offshore legs, the In-Port Race Series standings will be used to break the tie.

Source: www.volvooceanrace.com

Sweden holds presidency of Nordic Council of Ministers this year

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Finland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs Timo Soini will attend the Nordic foreign ministers’ meeting in Stockholm from 17 to 18 April 2018, according to a statement from Finland’s government. 

The Nordic foreign ministers will discuss, among other things, topical UN affairs and international questions, such as North Korea and Syria, the development of transatlantic relations and Russia, Ukraine, and security in the North Atlantic. Topical EU issues will also be on the meeting agenda, including Brexit and the Western Balkans.

The Nordic foreign ministers meet approximately three times a year on the invitation of the Presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers. This year, the Nordic Presidency is held by Sweden.

图片新闻:挪威维格兰德博物馆和雕塑公园

北欧绿色邮报网图片报道(记者陈雪霏)– 至今难忘挪威首都奥斯陆的雕塑公园。

维格兰雕塑公园,又名弗罗格纳公园,是一座以雕像为主题的公园,园内展出了挪威雕像家古斯塔夫·维格兰的212座雕像作品。公园内的雕像集中突出人类“生与死”的主题,从婴儿出世开始,经过童年、少年、青年、壮年、老年,直到死亡,反映人生的全过程,发人深思。在众多雕塑中最著名的当属“愤怒的男孩”(Sinnataggen)和大石柱(The Monolith)。巨型石柱十分显眼,足有14米高,石上共雕刻了121个人物。至于“愤怒的男孩”,位于前往巨型石柱的小桥上的左侧,不留意很容易错过。

我想这可能表达了挪威人的心声。这是一个生命之源。生命之园。这里有无数的小孩儿,有很多有力的男人。在这个地球最北的地带,人必须有强大的生命力才能抗击自然的不利条件。

生命的全过程。

人们的团结和相互依赖。

或许这个园子就是伊甸园。到了这里,关于人的一切你就都明白了。它激发人很多思考。

他彷佛穷尽了艺术的极致。不给其他人留下任何可以超越他的空间。佩服佩服!

 

 

 

图文/陈雪霏

2018诺贝尔和平奖候选人是329/2018 Nobel Peace Prize has 329 candidates

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 据挪威诺贝尔和平奖委员会网站,2018年诺贝尔和平奖提名活动已经于2月1日凌晨截止。据统计,2018年诺贝尔和平奖提名数量是329,其中个人是216人,组织是113个组织。

这个数量比数量最多的年份2016年的376名候选人减少了47个。不只是否这是因为2016年诺贝尔和平委员会对提名人或单位的资格规定进行了修改。

  • 国家大会(议会,人大)成员,有主权的国家政府领导人,内阁成员,部长,目前的国家元首,
  • 海牙国际正义法庭的成员和海牙永久仲裁庭的成员底特律国际研究所成员
  • 大学历史,社会学,法律,哲学,神学和宗教系教授,荣誉教授,副教授,大学校长和相当于大学校长的大学主任和平研究所和外交政策研究所的主任。
  • 曾经获得过诺贝尔和平奖的组织的主要理事会主席或者是相关的职位负责人。
  • 目前和前任挪威诺贝尔委员会成员(该提名只要在2,3月份委员会首次开会前提名就行。)
  • 自己为自己提名是不可以的。

2,3月份挪威诺贝尔委员会将开会汇总提名名单,该名单是不会发表的。根据诺贝尔遗嘱,该名单可以在50年之后发表揭秘,届时人们会知道是谁提名了谁。汇总的同时就是大大缩短名单。

3月到8月顾问委员或委员会将提供提名信息。到9月,最后,准备接受提名名单。10月份的第一个或第二个星期五宣布诺奖获得者到底是谁。

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, April 2(Greenpost)–

 There are 329 candidates for the Nobel Peace Prize for 2018 out of which 216 are individuals and 113 are organizations, according to the information from Nobel Peace Prize website.

329 is the second highest number of candidates ever. The record of 376 candidates was set in 2016.

The deadline for 2018 nomination was January 31st.

Who is qualified for nominations?

From the statutes of the Nobel Foundation:
Proposals received for the award of a prize, and investigations and opinions concerning the award of a prize, may not be divulged. A prize-awarding body may, however, after due consideration in each individual case, permit access to material which formed the basis for the evaluation and decision concerning a prize, for purposes of research in intellectual history. Such permission may not, however, be granted until at least 50 years have elapsed after the date on which the decision in question was made.

Process of Nomination and Selection

The Norwegian Nobel Committee is responsible for selecting the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates. A nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize may be submitted by any persons who are qualified to nominate.

Qualified Nominators

Revised September 2016

According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, a nomination is considered valid if it is submitted by a person who falls within one of the following categories:

Members of national assemblies and national governments (cabinet members/ministers) of sovereign states as well as current heads of states
Members of The International Court of Justice in The Hague and The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague
Members of Institut de Droit International
University professors, professors emeriti and associate professors of history, social sciences, law, philosophy, theology, and religion; university rectors and university directors (or their equivalents); directors of peace research institutes and foreign policy institutes
Persons who have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Members of the main board of directors or its equivalent for organizations that have been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
Current and former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee (proposals by current members of the Committee to be submitted no later than at the first meeting of the Committee after 1 February)
Former advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Committee

国家大会(议会,人大)成员,有主权的国家政府领导人,内阁成员,部长,目前的国家元首,

海牙国际正义法庭的成员和海牙永久仲裁庭的成员

底特律国际研究所成员

大学历史,社会学,法律,哲学,神学和宗教系教授,荣誉教授,副教授,大学校长和相当于大学校长的大学主任和平研究所和外交政策研究所的主任。

曾经获得过诺贝尔和平奖的组织的主要理事会主席或者是相关的职位负责人。

目前和前任挪威诺贝尔委员会成员(该提名只要在2,3月份委员会首次开会前提名就行。)

Unless otherwise stated the term members shall be understood as current (sitting) members.

Candidacy Criteria

The candidates eligible for the Nobel Peace Prize are those persons or organizations nominated by qualified individuals, see above. A nomination for yourself will not be taken into consideration.

Selection of Nobel Laureates

The Norwegian Nobel Committee is responsible for the selection of eligible candidates and the choice of the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates. The Committee is composed of five members appointed by the Storting (Norwegian parliament). The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, not in Stockholm, Sweden, where the Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and the Economics Prize are awarded.

How Are the Nobel Laureates Selected?

Nomination process.
Below is a brief description of the process involved in selecting the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates.

September – The Norwegian Nobel Committee prepares to receive nominations. These nominations will be submitted by members of national assemblies, governments, and international courts of law; university chancellors, professors of social science, history, philosophy, law and theology; leaders of peace research institutes and institutes of foreign affairs; previous Nobel Peace Prize Laureates; board members of organizations that have received the Nobel Peace Prize; present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee; and former advisers of the Norwegian Nobel Institute.

February – Deadline for submission. In order to be considered for the award of the year, nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize shall be sent in to the Norwegian Nobel Committee in Oslo before the 1st day of February the same year. Nominations postmarked and received after this date are included in the following year’s discussions. In recent years, the Committee has received close to 200 different nominations for different nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. The number of nominating letters is much higher, as many are for the same candidates.

February-March – Short list. The Committee assesses the candidates’ work and prepares a short list.

March-August – Adviser review.

October – Nobel Laureates are chosen. At the beginning of October, the Nobel Committee chooses the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates through a majority vote. The decision is final and without appeal. The names of the Nobel Peace Prize Laureates are then announced.

December – Nobel Laureates receive their prize. The Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony takes place on 10 December in Oslo, Norway, where the Nobel Laureates receive their Nobel Prize, which consists of a Nobel Medal and Diploma, and a document confirming the prize amount.

The nominations are kept secret for 50 years

The statutes of the Nobel Foundation restrict disclosure of information about the nominations, whether publicly or privately, for 50 years. The restriction concerns the nominees and nominators, as well as investigations and opinions related to the award of a prize.

Submission

Submission of Nominations

The Norwegian Nobel Committee has launched an on-line nomination form. Please read more here: https://www.nobelpeaceprize.org/Nomination

Deadline for Nominations

Nomination deadline is 31 January at 12 midnight CET. Nominations which do not meet the deadline are normally included in the following year’s assessment. Members of the Nobel Committee are entitled to submit their own nominations as late as at the first meeting of the Committee after the expiry of the deadline.

Submission Confirmation

A letter or e-mail confirming the receipt and validity of the submitted nomination is normally sent out within a couple of months of the submission deadline.

Selection Process

At the first meeting of the Nobel Committee after the February 1 deadline for nominations, the Committee’s Permanent Secretary presents the list of the year’s candidates. The Committee may on that occasion add further names to the list, after which the nomination process is closed, and discussion of the particular candidates begins. In the light of this first review, the Committee draws up the so-called short list – i.e. the list of candidates selected for more thorough consideration. The short list typically contains from twenty to thirty candidates.

The candidates on the short list are then considered by the Nobel Institute’s permanent advisers. In addition to the Institute’s Director and Research Director, the body of advisers generally consists of a small group of Norwegian university professors with broad expertise in subject areas with a bearing on the Peace Prize. The advisers usually have a couple of months in which to draw up their reports. Reports are also occasionally requested from other Norwegian and foreign experts.

When the advisers’ reports have been presented, the Nobel Committee embarks on a thorough-going discussion of the most likely candidates. In the process, the need often arises to obtain additional information and updates about candidates from additional experts, often foreign. As a rule, the Committee reaches a decision only at its very last meeting before the announcement of the Prize at the beginning of October.

The Committee seeks to achieve unanimity in its selection of the Peace Prize Laureate. On the rare occasions when this proves impossible, the selection is decided by a simple majority vote.

50 Year Secrecy Rule

The Committee does not itself announce the names of nominees, neither to the media nor to the candidates themselves. In so far as certain names crop up in the advance speculations as to who will be awarded any given year’s Prize, this is either sheer guesswork or information put out by the person or persons behind the nomination. Information in the Nobel Committee’s nomination database is not made public until after fifty years.