Category Archives: World News

ÄR KINAS NYA SIDENVÄG EN SKULDFÄLLA? Dags att skilja fakta från fantasi!

Av   Hussein Askary *

STOCKHOLM, Feb.9(Greenpost)–Under 2018 riktades en störtflod av kritik mot Kinas Belt & Road Initiative (BRI), den stora satsningen på ”nya sidenvägar” som ska underlätta förbindelserna inom och mellan Eurasien och Afrika med hjälp av modern infrastruktur, som järnvägar, motorvägar, hamnar, flygplatser, kraftverk, dammar, kanaler och telekommunikationsnätverk. BRI har redan omskapat de internationella ekonomiska förbindelserna i synnerhet i den s.k. utvecklingssektorn och sätter fart på den ekonomiska utvecklingen och fattigdomsbekämpningen i många länder runt om världen med en kraft som inte går att hejda.

Misstänksamhet och kritik mot Kina från nyhetsmedier och politiska krafter i väst är inget nytt, men nu kläs den i andra ord. BRI framställs som ett sätt att lura utvecklingsländer att skuldsätta sig genom stora infrastrukturprojekt för att Kina ska kunna dra politiska och strategiska fördelar, framför allt när dessa länder sedan inte kan betala tillbaka lånen de fått från Kina.

Detta låter ju inte alltför långsökt, med tanke på den skurkroll som kineser, ryssar och andra icke-europeiska regelmässigt tilldelas i väst, inte bara i James Bond-filmer. Vi förväntas inte heller granska ”fakta” som vi blir serverade av etablerade experter och nyhetsmedier, som inte sällan på ett eller annat sätt är kopplade till eller till och med avlönade av staten.

Och varifrån kommer kritiken? Den kommer oftast inte från experter på ekonomi i USA eller Europa, utan från säkerhetsexperter och geopolitiska analytiker som har liten eller ingen kunskap om ekonomi.

Debtbook Diplomacy, ”skuldfälla-diplomati”[1], lanserades som begrepp i en rapport beställd av USA:s utrikesdepartement, som kom ut i maj 2018. Den rapporten användes sedan av amerikanska UD för att ringa i alla varningsklockor i hela världen om vilka konsekvenser Kinas BRI kunde få. Etablerade nyhetsmedier rapporterade vad rapporten hade ”kommit fram till” som om det var fakta. Men rapportförfattaren, en ung akademiker vid namn Sam Parker, som samma år hade avlagt sin magisterexamen på Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs vid Harvard Kennedy School, saknade kända ekonomiska meriter och hade inte heller publicerat någonting om ekonomin vare sig i Kina eller något annat land. Han kom i stället till Harvard efter att ha tjänstgjort flera år på USA:s departement för inrikes säkerhet![2]

Sri Lanka: Inget ”paradexempel”

Experterna och medierna har aldrig presenterat några egentliga belägg för vad de påstår är Kinas strategiska ”avsikter”. Det som de beskyller Kina för är snarare en projektion på Kina av de europeiska ländernas eget koloniala förflutna, som egentligen inte har någonting med Kinas faktiska historia eller utrikespolitik att göra.

Det enda exemplet på vad man hävdar är den kinesiska modellen, som man hela tiden återkommer till, är hamnen i Hambantota i Sri Lanka. Parker menar att Kinas övertagande av hamnen i Hambantota ska lyftas fram i alla sammanhang som ett ”paradexempel” på hur Kina tänker behandla andra länder. Vilken betydelse denna hamn har för Sri Lankas nu aktuella och framtida utvecklingsplaner bryr man sig inte om. Det enda man säger är att chansen att hamnen skulle generera intäkter ända från början var lika med noll, och att Kina pumpade in pengar i hamnen med den enda avsikten att sedan kunna lägga beslag på den.

Projektet, till en kostnad av sammanlagt 1,1 miljarder dollar, var inte en kinesisk idé, utan en del av den lankesiska regeringens plan för att avlasta den enda större hamnen i landet, Colombo Harbor Port, genom att anlägga en ny hamn och bygga ett industriområde i dess närhet. Den planen gick tillbaka till 2002, långt innan BRI var påtänkt. Att bygga kraftverk och anlägga nya industriområden var ett led i satsningen ”Regaining Sri Lanka”, med tonvikt på att stimulera den ekonomiska aktiviteten i landets södra del.

Arbetet med att anlägga hamnen i Hambantota påbörjades 2008 av China Harbour Engineering Company och Sinohydro Corporation. Projektet finansierades till 85 procent genom ett lån från China Export-Import Bank. Hamnen öppnades formellt för kommersiell trafik 2010, men godshanteringen blev inte den förväntade. De låga intäkterna och betydande finansieringskostnaderna gjorde att hamnmyndigheten i Sri Lanka 2016 tecknade ett avtal med innebörden att det statliga kinesiska holdingbolaget China Merchants Port skulle få leasa 70 procent av hamnen i 99 år och få en 85-procentig ägarandel i hamnen och industriområdet, mot att man förband sig att fortsätta investera i en uppgradering av faciliteterna där. Det kinesiska bolaget skulle investera ytterligare 700-800 miljoner dollar i utvecklingen av hamnområdet. Syftet med avtalet var att lätta på skuldbördan för Sri Lanka.

Kritikerna utgår från att Sri Lanka alltid kommer att förbli ett fattigt land utan industri, modernt jordbruk eller annan modern ekonomisk verksamhet som skulle ställa krav på en modern infrastruktur, som denna hamn. Dessutom nämns det nästan aldrig att merparten av den kommersiella sjöfarten mellan Ostasien och Europa passerar förbi bara 6-9 sjömil söder om Sri Lankas sydkust, och att den lankesiska ekonomin uppenbarligen skulle kunna dra fördel på olika sätt av de enorma handelsvolymer som färdas genom dessa vatten. Hamnanläggningen i Hambantota har alla möjligheter att kunna erbjuda sjöfartsrelaterade tjänster såsom skeppsklarering, omlastning av gods med mera samt har ett utmärkt läge för industrier som kan dra fördel av den direkta tillgängligheten till världsmarknaden.

Ena stunden beskrivs Hambantota som ett meningslöst och dyrt projekt, andra stunden som en betydande strategisk tillgång för det expanderande Kina.

 

Sjöfartsvägar förbi Sri Lanka. När hamnen i Hambantota rycks ur sitt sammanhang får man intrycket att Kina har byggt en hamn på en öde strandremsa mitt ute i ingenstans. Men Hambantota ligger bara 6-9 sjömil från en av de livligast trafikerade kommersiella handelsrutterna i världen.

 

Gav Kina lån till Sri Lanka till ett projekt som var dömt att bli ett affärsmässigt fiasko, bara för att sedan kunna ta hamnen i beslag när lånet förföll till betalning? Absolut inte. Men det är det som Parker vill få oss att tro.

Finns det någon annan rimlig förklaring? I den mån som just detta specifika exempel skulle vara utslag av en allmän trend, så är det att det visar att de internationella finansinstitutionerna och deras allierade ställer sig helt kallsinniga till utvecklingsländers önskan om att ta sig ur fattigdom och ekonomisk underutveckling. Parker skriver själv att Sri Lanka, efter ett förödande, decennielångt inbördeskrig, ”vände sig till Japan, Indien, IMF, Världsbanken och Asiatiska utvecklingsbanken med en förfrågan om finansiering för att anlägga en betydande hamn i det outvecklade Hambantotaområdet, men nekades finansiering på grund av frågetecken kring mänskliga rättigheter och affärsmässig bärkraft.” Kina sa inte nej till Sri Lanka, utan hjälpte till att göra verklighet av ett mål som landet självt hade satt upp.

En viktig ekonomisk poäng som vår tids journalister och ”experter” inte tar hänsyn till, är att infrastrukturens värde inte främst ligger i dess förmåga att generera finansiell avkastning; den avgörande betydelse som infrastruktur har för varje lands utveckling till en modern ekonomi ligger i att den höjer produktiviteten i hela den nationella ekonomin. ”Avkastningen på investeringen” är inte avgifterna som kan tas ut från dem som brukar infrastrukturen ifråga, utan intäkterna som flyter in till de produktiva industri- och jordbruksföretag som drar nytta av denna infrastruktur. Vi ska återkomma till detta.

Fakta i målet

Afrika. Den ”bild” som målas upp i den anti-kinesiska rapporteringen motsägs av fakta. Till exempel framgår det av den väldokumenterade forskning som gjorts av China Africa Research Initiative vid Johns Hopkins-universitetets School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS-CARI)[3], att merparten av de afrikanska skulderna inte är till Kina, utan till västländer och västligt dominerade institutioner som IMF och Världsbanken.

I sin vitbok om mötet i Peking i september 2018 med Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) skriver SAIS-CARI: ”Vi konstaterar att kinesiska lån för närvarande inte är en betydande orsak till skuldsvårigheter i Afrika. Många länder har ändå tagit stora lån från Kina och andra. Nya FOCAC-låneutfästelser kommer sannolikt att ta med Afrikas växande skuldbörda i beräkningen.” Kina lånade enligt vitboken ut 133 miljarder dollar till Afrika under perioden 2000-2016, med ett mycket stort belopp på 30 miljarder dollar 2016, efter FOCAC-mötet i Johannesburg 2015. Många afrikanska länder har fått lån från Kina, men i bara tre fall – Djibouti, Kongo-Kinshasa och Zambia – är Kina den största långivaren. I Kamerun, på fjärde plats vad gäller andelen kinesiska lån i förhållande till den totala utlandsskulden, är andelen kinesiska lån mindre än en tredjedel.

Pakistan. Pakistan är ett land som har suttit fast i en skuldfälla i många år, men det är inte Kina som är fordringsägare utan stater och finansinstitutioner i väst. Och, som vi ska visa nedan, om det är någonting som ska kunna hjälpa Pakistan att ta sig ur denna fälla, så är det samarbetet med Kina om att bygga den kinesisk-pakistanska ekonomiska korridoren, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

I sin Debtbook Diplomacy-rapport, under rubriken ”USA:s intressen på spel”, låter Sam Parker den imperialistiska undertonen i rapporten träda i dagen. Som ”punkt 1” slår Parker fast att ”Kinas expanderande regionala inflytande och tillgång till hamnar i Sydasien och Stilla havet på sikt kan ändra den regionala maktbalansen bort från USA:s effektiva dominans till sjöss”. Värre blir det i punkt 2: ”Kinas lån underminerar USA:s möjligheter att använda sitt eget ekonomiska bistånd till att gynna USA:s säkerhetspolitiska målsättningar. Detta bistånd har gett USA ett kraftfullt medel att främja sina intressen i Pakistan rörande kärnvapensäkerhet och terrorismbekämpning.”

Parker, liksom de flesta i väst med en kritisk inställning till Kina, beskyller Kina för att underminera västvärldens strategiska grepp över världen, genom att försvåra för västvärlden att använda ekonomiskt bistånd och lån för att kontrollera andra länder för strategiska syften. Ett märkligt argument!

Idag är det enskilda stater organiserade i den s.k. Parisklubben (nästan uteslutande västländer) och multilaterala långivare med IMF och internationella storbanker i spetsen som är Pakistans största långivare, inte Kina, enligt Pakistans officiella statistik[4]. 2018 uppgick Pakistans utlandsskuld till drygt 95 miljarder dollar, och skuldåterbetalningar (ränta och amorteringar) beräknas 2022-2023 belöpa sig till 31 miljarder dollar. Under innevarande budgetår kommer Pakistan att betala 4,2 miljarder dollar till dessa huvudsakligen västliga långivare. Skuldtjänsten på lånen till CPEC inleddes 2018, men utgörs av knappt 80 miljoner dollar i amorteringar, enligt uppgifter i den pakistanska dagstidningen The Dawn.

Mot den bakgrunden är det rätt ironiskt att den amerikanske utrikesministern Mike Pompeo, som basar över det departement som beställde Parkers rapport, i juli 2018 varnade IMF angående en förfrågan från den pakistanska regeringen om ett nödlån på 12 miljarder dollar. ”Förstå mig rätt. Vi håller ögonen på IMF”, sa Pompeo i en intervju på CNBC. ”Det finns ingen anledning att IMF-dollar, förknippade med de USA-dollar som är en del av IMF:s långivning, ska gå till att lösa ut kinesiska obligationsinnehavare eller Kina direkt”, sa Pompeo.

IMF, och därmed de västliga långivarna i Parisklubben, har aktivt blandat sig i Pakistans ekonomiska politik och suveränitet genom olika omförhandlingar av skulderna och de lånevillkor som alla IMF-lån är förenade med, med hjälp av mekanismer som Extended Fund Facility. Den senaste faciliteten i Pakistans fall var ett lån 2016 på 6,4 miljarder dollar. Ett villkor var att budgetunderskottet inte fick överstiga 4,2 procent, något som i princip omöjliggör statligt finansierade investeringar i infrastruktur. Ett annat var en nedskalning av Pakistans egna utvecklingsplaner med ca 1,6 miljarder dollar. Följden blir, som överallt annars där IMF och Världsbanken går in med sina s.k. räddningspaket, att skulden växer sig ännu större och ekonomin backar ännu mer, eftersom landet ifråga inte tillåts bygga upp en bas för framtida tillväxt. När nya lån går till att betala gamla skulder så spär det bara på den totala skuldsättningen.

Pakistans växande utlandsskuld är en direkt följd av landets enorma handelsunderskott. Varje år de senaste fem åren har underskottet varit minst 23 miljarder dollar, och det ökar dramatiskt. De viktigaste exportvarorna är textilier och livsmedel (huvudsakligen ris). Pakistan har också haft en fordonsindustri. Livsmedel är känsliga för prisfluktuationer, och textil- och fordonssektorerna är inte längre konkurrenskraftiga på grund av den dåliga energiförsörjningen i landet. Pakistans största importvaror (och orsaken till den negativa handelsbalansen och därav utlandsskulden) är olja, naturgas och raffinerade oljeprodukter (bränsle). Det är där Kinas insats genom CPEC kommer att spela den största rollen eftersom det förutom transportkorridorerna är just på energisidan som Kina koncentrerar sina investeringar, när man bygger den kinesisk-pakistanska ekonomiska korridoren[5].

 

Det står helt klart att om Pakistan, som varje år importerar olja och gas för 13-14 miljarder dollar, ska ha en chans att ta sig ur den ekonomiska krisen och skapa förutsättningar för en framtida blomstrande industrisektor, så är det absolut nödvändigt att man satsar stort på att öka den egna kraftproduktionen. Och det är det som Kina nu hjälper till med. Följande investeringar på energisidan är antingen färdigställda, under byggnad eller under förhandling: kolkraftverk (8.580 MW), vattenkraft (2.700 MW), andra värmekraftverk, däribland gaseldade (825 MW), solkraft (900 MW), vindkraftsparker (350 MW). Den förväntade nya kraftproduktionskapaciteten uppgår till sammanlagt 13.355 MW, att jämföra med Pakistans nuvarande installerade kapacitet på 25.000 MW.

Den sammanlagda kostnaden för denna nya kraftproduktion (inklusive kolutvinning och kraftnät) beräknas till 23-30 miljarder dollar, vilket motsvarar ungefär två års import av olja och gas, och mindre än hälften av det årliga handelsunderskottet.

Men i internationella medier fortsätter man att peka ut Kina som problemet, och det händer att rena falsarier kastas in i medieelden som om de var fakta.

Den pakistanska tidningen The News International basunerade till exempel ut i en rubrik den 29 september 2017, att ”Pakistan ska betala tillbaka 100 mdr dollar till Kina till 2024”.[6] Utan att ge någon förklaring till denna absurda siffra påstod man: ”Till 2024 måste Pakistan betala tillbaka 100 miljarder dollar till Kina, av en total investering på 18,5 miljarder dollar, som Kina i form av banklån har investerat i 19 snabbavkastande projekt huvudsakligen på energiområdet inom ramarna för China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). ”Artikeln återkommer aldrig till detta hårresande påstående och ger ingen förklaring till siffrorna.

I Dagens Industri den 20 augusti 2018 påstod Johan Nylander[7] att: ”Under de tre senaste åren har Pakistan lagt på sig skulder till Kina på runt 270 miljarder dollar.” Nylander hänvisar till ”analyshuset IHS Markit” som sin källa, men där hittar vi inga sådana siffror[8]. Siffran 270 miljarder dollar står heller ingenstans att finna eftersom Pakistans samlade skuld till hela världen är mindre än 100 miljarder dollar. Men läsaren av DI förväntas bara svälja dessa uppgifter eftersom de kommer från en av de etablerade nyhetsmedierna.

Produktiva krediter kontra skulder

Sambandet mellan satsningar på avancerad infrastruktur och höjd produktivitet i hela ekonomin har påvisats allra tydligast av studier som gjorts på USA:s egen ekonomi.

I alla frågor som rör långivning är den viktigaste frågan som måste ställas inte hur lånevillkoren ser ut (räntesatser, betalningsfria perioder eller löptider) utan vad lånet ska användas till. Det handlar om skillnaden mellan ”pengar” och ”krediter”. Skillnaden ligger i vad som är ändamålet med utgivningen av nya pengar resp. krediter. Man ser det tydligt i den nu rådande, katastrofala penning- och finanspolitiken i det trans-atlantiska området.

Centralbankerna i USA, EU och Japan, ”the big three”, har sedan slutet av 2008 skapat i runda slängar 13-14 biljoner dollar i nya pengar (genom det som kallas ”kvantitativa lättnader”), och har därutöver pumpat in likviditet i bankerna i form av tillfälliga lån motsvarande ytterligare många biljoner dollar. Men ingenting av dessa pengar – varken pengar i omlopp eller i elektronisk form – har getts ut för något ekonomiskt syfte, inte heller för handel. De har getts ut enkom för ett finansiellt syfte: att förse dessa länders storbanker med tillräckligt mycket kapital och likviditet för att de ska kunna hålla näsan ovanför vattenytan trots massiva förluster och osäkra fordringar.

Krediter däremot, som ges ut av stater, är en skuld som staten ifråga tar på sig, och som ”betalas tillbaka” med ”ränta” genom den generellt höjda produktivitet som den kommande generationen kommer att åtnjuta. Kort sagt, det är den höjda framtida produktiviteten som är säkerheten för den utgivna krediten.

Total faktorproduktivitet

Det finns ett starkt samband mellan kreditgivning till nya infrastrukturprojekt och den så kallade totala faktorproduktiviteten. Den senare parametern är ett försök att mäta den andel av den ekonomiska tillväxten som beror på tekniska framsteg. Den högsta årliga produktivitetstillväxten i USA inföll, med detta mått mätt, under de perioder då man gjorde de största investeringarna i infrastruktur som byggde på ny teknik – ny transportteknik för vägbyggen, kanaler, järnvägar och så småningom rymdfärder, kraftproduktionsteknik, vattenbyggnadsteknik, kommunikationsteknik. Allra snabbast ökade den totala faktorproduktiviteten under 1930-talet, med 3,3 procent årligen, tack vare president Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal och Four Corners-programmet, med sina stora infrastruktursatsningar. Detta enligt en rapport från U.S. National Bureau of Economic Research från 2013. Stapeldiagrammet visar total faktorproduktivitet i USA-ekonomin (årlig tillväxt per decennium)

Ett i tiden mera närliggande exempel på detta nära samband är Kinas makalösa ekonomiska tillväxt de senaste 20 åren. En utomordentligt hög investeringstakt i vattenregleringar, kärnkraftsutbyggnad och på andra tekniskt avancerade infrastrukturområden – att Kina efter en tioårig satsning plötsligt hade fler kilometer höghastighets- och magnetsvävarräls än resten av världens länder tillsammans är ett i mängden av hyllade exempel – har gett mycket höga tillväxttakter i total faktorproduktivitet och i ekonomisk tillväxt och framåtskridande över huvud taget. Sedan 2008 har Kinas största statliga banker också skapat krediter motsvarande ca 12-13 biljoner dollar, lika mycket som de ovan nämnda västerländska bankerna. Skillnaden är att Kina förvandlade dessa krediter till realekonomiska värden och en högre produktivitet och välfärd för sin befolkning.

Hur Kina har hanterat det egna landets ekonomiska utveckling smittar av sig på landets förbindelser med andra länder.

Bryter med västländernas koloniala attityd

Det är påfallande hur vanligt det är att politiker, akademiker och skribenter i Europa och USA talar till och om utvecklingsländerna och deras representanter i en nedlåtande ton, som om de var barn som inte kan tala för sig själva. Det skvallrar om hur djupt rotad den koloniala attityden, ”den vite mannens börda”, alltjämt är i västvärlden. Afrikaner framställs underförstått, och ibland helt ogenerat, som mindre vetande krakar, som de förslagna kineserna lätt kan lura skjortan av.

I en intervju nyligen på China-Africa Podcast[9] förklarade W. Gyude Moore, tidigare minister för offentliga arbeten i Liberia och andre stabschef åt det landets president, den afrikanska synen på kinesisk hjälp med finansiering, utifrån sin egen erfarenhet av att ha förhandlat med Kina om många infrastrukturprojekt. Han sa:

”När Kina framställs som den här stora, stygga aktören, som är bakslug och överhopar länder med skulder, så tänker man bort nästan all medverkan från ländernas egen sida. Det är nästan som om de afrikanska länderna är naiva och inte begriper vad som händer och Kina slår blå dunster i ögonen på dem. Man nästan infantiliserar afrikaner och afrikanska ledare. … På grund av den begränsade mängd pengar som kommer från internationella finansinstitutioner måste länder som Liberia söka sig åt ett annat håll. … Ett av de få länder som faktiskt är berett att tala med ett land som Liberia, som kanske inte har det bästa kreditryktet, efter att just ha fått lån för nästan 5 miljarder dollar uppsagda, är Kina. … För ett land som Liberia är det helt omöjligt att förlita sig enbart på Världsbanken eller Afrikanska utvecklingsbanken för finansiering av infrastruktur – det går bara inte.”

Som ett förtydligande av skillnaden mellan skuldsättning och investeringar i framtiden, tillade Moore: ”Om länderna ska kunna betala tillbaka sina skulder måste deras ekonomier ha kommit dithän att de faktiskt genererar intäkter, och utan infrastruktur går det inte. Det är som med hönan och ägget.”

Moore bemötte användningen av hamnen i Hambantota som exempel på kinesisk finansieringspolitik: ”Alla hänvisar till hamnen i Sri Lanka, men Kina har lånat ut miljardtals med dollar. Att hamnen i Sri Lanka är det enda exemplet som folk kan dra upp, det tycker jag visar att detta Sri Lanka-exempel, detta enstaka fall, inte kan tas för hela sanningen om hur Kina vinner sina partner.”

Industrialiseringstrappan: Vart går USA och Europa?

De farhågor som många känner inför BRI och det nya paradigm som det håller på att skapa i de internationella förbindelserna är obefogade. Det är felaktiga föreställningar om ekonomi och maktförhållanden mellan länder som driver USA och många länder i EU till att inta denna negativa hållning till BRI.

Man kan likna industrialiseringsprocessen vid en smal trappa. Kina och många utvecklingsländer klättrar uppåt i trappan, medan USA och EU är på väg nedåt, mot avindustrialisering. Båda parter kommer till en punkt där de möts öga mot öga mitt i trappan, och spärrar vägen för varandra. Det är här som spänningarna stiger. Det är här som den ena sidan måste bestämma sig för att gå samman med den andra och röra sig åt samma håll, vilket skulle underlätta för båda att röra sig fritt.

Dessutom skulle båda parter vinna på att bredda trappan så att alla får plats, eller, som president Xi säger när han beskriver Kinas utvecklingspolitik, ”göra kakan större”, så att alla kan få sin rättmätiga del, i stället för att kivas om en krympande kaka.

 

* Hussein Askary är styrelseledamot i Belt and Road Executive Group for Sweden (BRIX), www.brixsweden.com

Paul Gallagher och Jason Ross bidrog med material till denna artikel.

Översättning till svenska: Astrid Sandmark

[1] Debtbook Diplomacy, Sam Parker, Gabrielle Chefitz, maj, 2018 https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/debtbook-diplomacy

[2] Om Sam Parker: https://www.belfercenter.org/person/sam-parker

 

[3] China Africa Research Initiative, The School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS-CARI), Johns Hopkins University, augusti 2018: http://www.sais-cari.org/s/Briefing-Paper-1-August-2018-Final.pdf

[4] Den pakistanska centralbankens egen statistik för finansåret 2017-2018: http://www.sbp.org.pk/ecodata/pakdebt.pdf

 

[5] Budgetåret 2017-2018 uppgick Pakistans import till 60,86 miljarder dollar, vilket var 2,6 gånger mer än exporten, som inbringade 23,22 miljarder dollar, med ett rekordstort handelsunderskott på 37,64 miljarder dollar som följd. Importen dominerades återigen av energi (olja och gas), till ett belopp av 14,43 miljarder dollar. Pakistan har lånat från bland annat västerländska banker för att finansiera sina köp av petroleumprodukter på den internationella marknaden. Den 3 augusti 2018 uppgav den pakistanska tidningen Express Tribune att den brittiska Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) skulle ge ett affärslån till Pakistan på 200 miljoner dollar till 4,2 procents ränta för att finansiera import av flytande naturgas. SCB är en av Pakistans största långivare, som enbart 2016-2017 lånade 1,1 miljarder dollar till landet. För att förstå hur viktigt det är för Pakistan att utveckla en egen kraftproduktion, kan man se på följande siffror: Den totala installerade kapaciteten för produktion av elkraft är 25.000 MW (2017) med en genomsnittlig förbrukning på 19.000 MW. Energislagen är: 1. Olja och gas: 14.635 MW (64,2 procent). 2. Vattenkraft: 6.611 MW (29 procent). 3. Kärnkraft: 1.322 MW (5,8 procent).

[6] The News International, 29 september, 2017, “Pakistan to pay back $100 bn to China by 2024”  (https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/233333-Pakistan-to-pay-back-100-bn-to-China-by-2024 ).

[7] “Nya Sidenvägen hotar bli skuldfälla”, Johan Nylander, Dagens Industri, Aug 20, 2018. https://www.di.se/nyheter/nya-sidenvagen-hotar-bli-skuldfalla/

[8]  En av IHS Markits rapporter från 2018 finns här: https://ihsmarkit.com/research-analysis/a-difficult-year-ahead-for-pakistan.html

[9] https://chinaafrica-podcast.com/an-insiders-view-of-the-china-africa-debt-trap-debate

EU urges Maduro to deal with new elections within 8 days

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Jan. 26(Greenpost) — On January 26th, various Member States urged Mr. Nicolás Maduro to take the necessary legal steps for democratic presidential elections to be announced within 8 days.

On that same day, the EU High Representative / Vice President issued a statement on behalf of the 28 EU Member States, also calling for the urgent holding of free, transparent and credible presidential elections and indicating that, in the absence of an announcement on the organization of fresh elections with the necessary guarantees over the next days, the EU would take further actions, including on the issue of recognition of the country´s leadership, in line with article 233 of the Venezuelan constitution.

Finland along with Spain, Portugal, Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark, the Netherlands, France, Hungary, Austria, Belgium, Luxemburg, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Sweden and Croatia takes note that Mr. Nicolás Maduro has chosen not to set in motion the electoral process. Subsequently, and in accordance with the provisions of the Venezuelan Constitution, they acknowledge and support Mr. Juan Guaidó, President of the democratically elected National Assembly, as President ad interim of Venezuela, in order for him to call for free, fair and democratic presidential elections.

Analysts hold that this was an ultimatum from EU to Venezuela and it is a good example of intervention of an independent country’s internal affairs by EU.

Prime Minister Löfven says Sweden enters new era

 By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM,  Jan. 22(Greenpost) — All around Europe, extreme right-wing movements are spreading. In several countries, forces with an antidemocratic agenda have made it all the way to government. But in Sweden we stand up for the equal value of all people. We are choosing a different path, said Swedish Prime Minister Stefan Löfven to the Riksdagen, Swedish Parliament on Monday.

“We are now beginning a historic form of cooperation. Sweden will now have a Government made up of the Social Democratic Party and the Green Party that will cooperate on the budget and the direction of policy in several areas with the Centre Party and the Liberal Party”.

Now we can finally make a fresh start. The problems in society cannot wait.
Jobs must increase and climate emissions must be reduced.
Welfare must improve and integration must become more efficient and effective.
Security must increase and crime must be combated.

Sweden is in need of major reforms. We can now address these, together, across the old political blocs.

This morning, hundreds of thousands of Swedes got out of bed, had a cup of coffee, made breakfast, reminded their children not to forget their gym bag.

There may have been a minor battle in the hallway about coats and gloves before everyone got out the door. Children off to preschool and school. Adults off to work. And most people are too busy to listen to today’s Statement of Government Policy. It’s the hard work of ordinary people that is building Sweden.

The Swedish economy is strong. The budget deficit has been turned into a surplus, employment levels are at their highest in more than 25 years, and the national debt is at its lowest since the 1970s.

We now have room for manoeuvre. We now have major opportunities. When things are going well for Sweden, this should benefit everyone.

In the last electoral period, historic investments were made in welfare. Over the next four years, these resources will be strengthened by an additional SEK 5 billion per year for welfare.

Pensions will increase for those who have worked their whole working life on low wages. They have fought hard for Sweden’s welfare. Now they should get the respect they deserve.

Employers’ social security contributions will be reduced. It will be cheaper for business owners to hire their first employee.

The first steps will be taken towards a family week. This country’s parents should have more time with their children.

Future generations must have access to clean air, healthy oceans and thriving natural environments. The climate transition will permeate policy.

Our society must be strong – and our development sustainable.

* * *

Everyone who can work should work. Our economy must be kept in good order. The agreement on the fiscal policy framework remains in place. There must be full preparedness for a downturn in the economy.

A major new tax reform will be implemented. This is how we will promote jobs and competitiveness, reduce disparities and increase equality. This is how we will secure welfare and contribute to achieving the climate and environmental targets.

The last vestiges of the tax on pensions will be abolished. The austerity tax and extra taxation on generation changes will be removed. Tax deductions for household work will be expanded. Swedish industry and Swedish businesses, both small and large, must have good conditions to grow and employ more people. The problem of skilled people being expelled from Sweden must be resolved.

Sweden is a leading research nation. We will defend this position. Independent research must be guaranteed, and at the same time research policy must respond to global and national challenges in society.

The work of the National Innovation Council will continue. An export initiative for more jobs throughout the country will be implemented. Green obligations will be trialled. Collaboration, innovation and the climate transition make Swedish companies world leaders.

Together we are equipping ourselves for the future.
Together we are building a strong Sweden.

* * *

The Government’s objective is not only for the whole country to live. The whole country must thrive.

The national plan to invest SEK 700 billion in roads and railways will be completed.

New main lines for high-speed trains will be laid and the railways in northern Sweden will be expanded. More long-haul freight transport will shift from lorries to trains and ships.

A national ticketing system will be introduced for all public transport throughout Sweden. The travel deduction will be based on distance and will be neutral in terms of mode of transport. Foreign travel by train will be made easier – more people should be able to take the train down to the continent.

Trains must be more punctual. Investments in railway maintenance will increase. Commuting by bike will be made easier. Road maintenance will improve.

Broadband and mobile services will be expanded throughout the country and more service points will be opened.

It must be possible to live and work all over the country. Sweden must hold together.

* * *

Rarely do people feel as free as when they put the key in the door to their first apartment.

Housing construction must be faster, cheaper and more sustainable. Mobility on the housing market must increase. The renting model will be reformed by allowing rents to be set freely for new builds. The quality and location of an apartment will have a greater influence on how the rent is set.

Investment support for the construction of rented housing will be concentrated, streamlined and targeted at rented housing throughout the country. Interest on the amount deferred when moving house will be abolished. Penalties for selling black market contracts will be tougher, and the purchase of such contracts will be criminalised.

The housing shortage will disappear, reform by reform.

* * *

The Swedish forest industry must be sustainable and it must grow. Private forest ownership rights must be guaranteed. Landowners must receive fair financial compensation for restrictions to their right of ownership and right of use.

It should be a great deal easier to build close to shorelines in unexploited rural areas. At the same time, shore protection and the right of common access will be guaranteed in exploited areas.

An effective farming package will be put together to strengthen Swedish food production. Agriculture’s dependence on fossil fuels must be reduced.

Consumer demand for organic food must be met and food waste must be tackled.

Mr Speaker,

Sweden will be the world’s first fossil-free welfare nation. There is no time for hesitation.

The transition required is considerable. A lot of work remains to be done. But we are at the forefront. With electric lorries and public transport. With increased construction using timber. With coal-free steel production and new textiles from recycled clothing.

The climate policy framework remains in place. All relevant legislation will be reviewed. The climate objectives must be achieved.

The energy agreement will be implemented. It should be easy and worthwhile to invest in your own production of renewable energy.

Sweden will push for a climate law at EU level. The reform efforts to implement the Paris Agreement will be intensified. The 1.5-degree target must be met.

A robust green tax shift will be implemented. Taxes will be raised on activities that are damaging to the environment and reduced for work and entrepreneurship.

The major climate impact of aviation must be reduced. Climate requirements for aviation will be tightened. It should be possible to charge and fuel fossil-free vehicles throughout the country. Climate bonuses and climate fees for cars will be strengthened and simplified. No new petrol- or diesel-driven cars will be sold after 2030. This is how we will reduce the major climate emissions from the transport sector.

Prospecting and new exploitation of coal, oil and fossil gas will be prohibited. A major drive will be initiated to sequester some previous emissions.

The climate investment programmes and the urban environment agreements promote local investments for global sustainability and they will be developed and made more efficient.

Children should be able to walk and cycle to school safely, and outdoor activities should be promoted.

Sweden must further develop a resource-efficient, circular and bio-based economy. Swedish consumers should be able to make sustainable and toxin-free choices.

More steps will be taken to make it easier to recycle and re-use. A minimum service level for household waste will be introduced. Deposit requirements will be introduced for more products and the spread of microplastics will be combated.

Biological diversity must be protected. Ecosystem services must be safeguarded. The appropriations for the protection of valuable natural environments will be increased.

Marine environments must be improved. Eutrophication, use of environmental toxins and emissions of pharmaceutical waste must be minimised. Fisheries must be sustainable. Controls will be tightened to stop illegal fishing, and bottom-trawling will be prohibited in protected areas.

Groundwater levels will be secured and access to drinking water protected.

Twenty years ago, the Riksdag took a crucial decision: we will pass on to the next generation a society in which the major environmental problems have been solved. The environmental objectives system must now be developed and new interim targets set.

The magic of Sweden’s old forests. The trilling of the lark. The buzzing of honey bees. It is our duty to preserve Sweden’s natural environment for our children and grandchildren.

 

Mr Speaker,

Language and work are the way into society.

During the electoral period, comprehensive reforms for better integration will be implemented. The entry agreements negotiated by the social partners for newly arrived immigrants and long-term unemployed people will be launched. It should be possible for the model to be used by temporary work agencies and also companies without collective agreements. An entry deduction will be introduced whereby the employers’ social security contribution for young people without an upper secondary education and newly arrived immigrants is removed for the first two years.

An integration year – the Swedish New Start – will be introduced with intensive vocationally oriented Swedish language instruction, work experience, vocational education and training, obligatory civic orientation and a one-year mentorship programme.

Women and men must have equal opportunities to support themselves and control their own lives. There will be a special focus on women’s establishment in the labour market.

The provisions in the Reception of Asylum Seekers and Others Act on making one’s own living arrangements will be limited to reduce segregation.

Passing an examination in Swedish and basic civic studies will be a requirement for receiving citizenship. We are raising ambitions and efforts to ensure that everyone learns Swedish, through a language obligation, enhanced Swedish for Immigrants, language preschool and language training for people on parental leave. More career posts for teachers will be introduced in areas of social exclusion.

Setting high standards for people and giving them a lot of opportunities helps them to grow.

* * *

We live in a modern knowledge society. Everyone must be able to build on their knowledge and reshape their skills.

The Swedish labour market must be characterised by security and flexibility. Employment law must be adapted to the labour market of today, while a fundamental balance between the social partners is maintained. Companies will be given greater opportunities to adapt, and individual workers will be protected against arbitrary termination of employment.

If the social partners do not reach an agreement, a legislative amendment will be implemented to clearly expand the exemptions from the rules on order of selection. At the same time, an enhanced right to skills development will be introduced, and a better balance will be created in employment protection for staff with different terms of employment.

Arbetsförmedlingen, Sweden’s public employment service, will be fundamentally reformed. Independent actors will help to match people with employers and equip job seekers. Unemployment insurance will be developed so that more people qualify for compensation, and the incentives to apply for new jobs and retrain will increase.

At the same time, the study support system will be made more generous for older people wanting to further educate themselves or retrain. State support for short-time work will be developed. Professional development time will be introduced to enable skills development and entrepreneurship.

The Adult Education Initiative will be expanded and access to higher education and distance learning will increase throughout the country.

This way, everyone can be equipped for a rapidly changing labour market.

* * *

Thanks to major efforts from headteachers, teachers and pupils, school performance in Sweden is improving.

In Södertälje, a quality drive across political blocs has helped improve school performance for the eighth year in a row. At Hovsjöskolan, the number of pupils achieving the grades they need to qualify for upper secondary school has doubled.

Nonetheless, a major reform effort is still needed to reinstate our country as a leading knowledge nation.

All pupils must be given a fair chance, regardless of their background or where they live. The focus on knowledge will be strengthened and quality requirements increased in all schools. The School Commission’s proposals for increased equality in schools will be implemented. State support will be increased.

Material will be produced for a decision that will create the conditions for schools to be answerable to central government. There will be a moratorium on the establishment of independent compulsory and upper secondary schools with a confessional focus.

Teacher education will be reformed, standards will be raised and the admission requirements will be increased. It will be easier for academics to choose the teaching profession. Resources will be added to employ more teaching assistants.

Teachers must receive the support they need so that grading is fair and equitable throughout the country. Schools that want to should be able to introduce grading from year four. Subject grades will be introduced in upper secondary school. Grade inflation must be combated.

A national plan for peaceful study environments and security in schools will be produced. Mobile phone bans will be introduced. Vigorous action will be taken to tackle bullying. It should be easier to exclude or move pupils who have threatened others or subjected them to violence.

No pupil should be left behind, and those who want to should be able to get ahead. The reading-writing-arithmetic guarantee will become a reality. A proposal will be drawn up to make a ten-year compulsory school possible. Preschool and after-school care groups will be made smaller. It should be easier to get special support in smaller teaching groups. Support for children with neuropsychiatric disabilities will increase. Resource schools will be developed and schools for pupils with learning disabilities will be strengthened.

A homework guarantee and a priority timetable will be introduced so that pupils at risk of not achieving the necessary grades to qualify for upper secondary school can receive more teaching in the subjects they need. An increased pace of study will be offered to pupils who can achieve the knowledge objectives more quickly. Pupils in the upper years of compulsory school should be able to study upper secondary courses, and upper secondary pupils should be able to study higher education courses.

Let there be no doubt about where we are heading. The Swedish school system must be the greatest pride of our society.

 

Mr Speaker,

When a new life is on the way. When something hurts, or doesn’t feel right. When the pain is constant. It is then, at our most fragile moments in life, that Sweden’s health care system should be there offering security.

No one should have to wait too long for treatment or an operation. A general plan for shorter queues will be drafted, along with an updated ‘waiting list billion’. There will be a particular focus on ill health among women. There will be new investments in ambulance care, cancer care and maternity care. A broad primary care reform will be implemented. It must be more attractive for doctors to work in primary care, and easier to provide health care in rural areas.

A person who is sick should be informed about their care plan and who they should call. The patient contract system will be developed. The right to continuity of care in general practice will be safeguarded. It should be possible to impose fines or sanctions on care providers that do not meet the care guarantee.

Sickness insurance should provide financial security in the event of illness. It should be easy to return to work upon recovery. Rehabilitation and occupational health services are crucial.

The conditions and working environment of those employed in health and social care must be improved, so that more young people choose to apply to the sector and remain in it – in the knowledge that their job is not only important, but also stimulating. The professional role of assistant nurses will be strengthened by means of a register or protected professional title. More people should be able to study on full pay to become specialist nurses.

Psychiatric care will be expanded. Mental health must be tackled. A new form of care for patients with minor mental health issues will be investigated. A zero-queue target will be introduced for child and adolescent psychiatric services.

Children living in sheltered accommodation need better support.

Elderly care should maintain a high standard. Continuity of care in home-help services will be introduced throughout the country. Home-help staff should receive work uniforms free of charge.

The prospects of a job, a good life and meaningful leisure time will be improved for everyone with any form of disability. The right to assistance for self-care, breathing and tube-feeding should be reintroduced. The definition of normal parental responsibility will be narrowed. The right to assistance due to a need for supervision will be strengthened. The question of who should have overall responsibility for personal assistance will be investigated.

Anyone who is entitled to personal assistance must receive it.

 

Mr Speaker,

A century ago, the Riksdag took the first of two decisions that gave women and men equal suffrage. The best way to honour those who showed the way in the fight for democracy is to continue their work in a new era.

Democracy in Sweden is strong, but we can never take it for granted. It must constantly be defended – generation after generation, electoral period after electoral period.

Democratic institutions must be protected. The independence of courts and public service media must be strengthened. The electoral system’s resilience to manipulation will be improved. The media support system will create better conditions for independent journalism throughout the country.

We will preserve the reform ensuring free entry to state-owned museums. Culture schools will be developed, and all children should have the opportunity to benefit from them.

Astrid Lindgren once said that “children create miracles when they read”. She was right. For this reason, access to school libraries with trained librarians will increase. The Reading Delegation’s proposals will be implemented. We want more miracles in Sweden!

The sports movement and civic organisations should be supported and encouraged. Financial security for artists and cultural creators should be improved.

We are a feminist government. The Swedish Gender Equality Agency will remain. The rights of LGBTQ people will be strengthened. The Discrimination Act will be made more stringent.

The self-determination and influence of the indigenous Sami people will be strengthened. An independent human rights institution will be established.

Work on the national plan to combat racism will continue. Xenophobic hate crimes against minorities will be vigorously combated.

Wherever anti-Semitism exists, and however it is expressed, it must be identified and fought. In 2020, Sweden will host a new international conference on remembrance of the Holocaust, and Swedish young people should be given the opportunity to visit memorials in Europe. A new museum will be established to preserve and pass on the memory of the Holocaust.

Never forget – this was the promise we made to each other. Sweden will never forget.

 

Mr Speaker,

Criminality must be fought with everything society has. Record numbers of women and men are now applying for police training programmes. They should be supported by substantial resources, coordinated agencies and more effective legislation.

Ten thousand more people should be employed in the Swedish Police Authority by 2024. Policing must be an attractive profession. There must be increased protection for police officers and other emergency services staff. The penalties for offences linked to disputes among criminals should be tougher. New legislation on data storage will be presented to the Riksdag shortly. Police will be given the right to take decisions on camera surveillance in public places.

The minimum penalty for obstructing the course of justice will be increased substantially. A crown witness system will be investigated. Unregistered pay-as-you-go mobile SIM cards will be banned. The penalties for those who transfer narcotics to others will be tightened.

Serious offences committed by young people under the age of 15 must always be investigated by the police. Actions to combat tax evasion and tax avoidance will be stepped up. Measures will be taken against the use of false identification documents, and against organised crime targeting our welfare systems.

People who are arrested and convicted must be handed effective sentences that can lead to life changes. The penalties should be tougher for those who recruit young people to criminal activities. Prisoners who do not cooperate in care and treatment should have their time in prison extended.

Crime prevention begins with the fight against poverty and segregation. A national exit programme will be introduced to allow more people to leave criminality behind them, and more community liaison workers and community police officers will be employed to ensure that fewer people are enticed into crime.

We are tough on both crime and its causes.

Society is always stronger than the gangs.

* * *

The new Consent Act enables more rape prosecutions. The work to realise a culture of consent will now continue.

More resources will be allocated to prevention efforts, and sex and relationship teaching in schools will be modernised. The minimum penalty for rape will be increased. A new offence classification of gross sexual molestation will be introduced. Statutory limitation periods will be extended, and removed entirely for sexual offences against children. More reception centres for victims of sexual offences will be established.

The Government will increase its initiatives against domestic violence. This applies to immediate support to victims and their children, preventive efforts, and initiatives to make those who perpetrate such violence change their behaviour.

* * *

Standing up for your life and your love, even when you know that your family refuses to accept it, takes great courage. And telling the world about it to bring about change for others takes even greater courage.

Fadime Sahindal had that courage. And because of this she was murdered, exactly 17 years ago today. This is how she concluded her speech to the Riksdag a few months before her murder:

“It should be a given that you can have both your family and the life you want for yourself. Unfortunately, it is not a given for many girls. I hope that you won’t turn your backs on them. That you won’t close your eyes to them.”

I wish I could say that honour culture has been suppressed. But this is not the case. It persists, and it still threatens people’s freedom and safety. Previous action has not been sufficient. We must do more. We will do more.

We must impose tougher penalties, increase awareness and strengthen efforts in schools and social services.

It should be easier to expel non-Swedish citizens who commit honour-related offences and hate crimes. At the same time, there should be greater protection against expulsion for victims of honour-related crime.

It should be possible to offer young people a greater degree of intervention without their parents’ consent where there is a suspicion of honour-related crime. Society must act immediately on any suspicion that someone is going to be subjected to female genital mutilation or be married off against their will.

 

Mr Speaker,

The fight against terrorism and violent extremism must be uncompromising. The legislation will be made tougher. Participation in a terrorist organisation will be criminalised. The Swedish Security Service will be given the possibility to read encrypted traffic. The internal border controls will remain in place as long as is necessary.

Terrorism and extremism are unfortunately just parts of the complex security threat targeting all open and democratic societies.

The work to create a modern total defence continues. The national security strategy must be implemented based on a broad security analysis. A national centre will be set up to increase information and cyber security. A new government agency will be established to strengthen our psychological defences against influence operations and similar. Our civil preparedness will be equipped to better handle climate-related crises such as health threats, fires, drought and flooding. Our vigilance against foreign attempts to acquire sensitive infrastructure will increase.

Sweden will maintain its security policy line. The defence appropriations will be gradually increased to strengthen Sweden’s military capabilities and our cooperation with other countries and organisations will be deepened.

Our military non-alignment serves our country well. Sweden will not apply for membership of NATO. However, we will safeguard the transatlantic link, develop our defence cooperation, particularly with Finland, and deepen cooperation for increased security around the Baltic Sea.

If another Nordic or EU country suffers a disaster or an attack, Sweden will not remain passive. We expect these countries to act in the same way if Sweden is similarly affected.

* * *

Membership of the European Union is a foundation stone of Sweden’s national, European and global action.

Sweden will work for an effective EU – an EU for the citizens, that creates jobs and increases the security of its people. An EU that tackles the threat of climate change and improves its competitiveness in the global economy.

Together with the rest of the EU, Sweden will continue to work to ensure that the planned withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU is accomplished in an orderly way. We are prepared to handle various scenarios.

Member States that break with the EU’s values and the rule of law should face severe consequences. History teaches us what can happen if we close our eyes to abuses of democratic rights and freedoms.

* * *

Our term on the UN Security Council has now come to an end – but Sweden’s international work for peace and democracy continues.

A number of serious challenges need to be dealt with:

The conflicts in Syria and Yemen pose serious security threats with catastrophic humanitarian consequences. Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea and intervention in Ukraine are flagrant breaches of international law. The Rohingya in Myanmar are being subjected to crimes against humanity. The violence must cease, and those responsible must be brought to justice. The Korean Peninsula must be rid of nuclear weapons. A lasting peace between Israel and Palestine requires a two-state solution.

Sweden is working actively to promote necessary reforms of the UN. International law must be safeguarded. The role of women in peace processes must be strengthened. Peace and democracy must be promoted through efforts for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, for easing of tensions and disarmament, for mediation and dialogue. Trust between people and countries is a powerful tool against war and conflicts.

That is how common security is created.

* * *

The right of asylum must be safeguarded in Sweden, in Europe and internationally. More countries must take greater responsibility. Sweden’s reception of refugees must be sustainable in the long term. The Act Temporarily Restricting the Possibility to Obtain Residence Permits in Sweden will be extended for two years, while at the same time persons eligible for subsidiary protection will be given the same right to family reunification as refugees.

The Government will work to establish a common asylum system in the EU that distributes the reception of refugees fairly and proportionately. Asylum seekers should be offered a legally certain reception with short waiting times. Those with grounds for protection must rapidly become a part of society, and those without such grounds must return promptly.

The most important tool to stop refugee disasters is action for development and conflict resolution.

The feminist foreign policy will be developed. The rights of women and minorities around the world must be strengthened. Gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights are essential parts of global development policy.

In a time of trade wars, Sweden must defend free trade and stand up for fair conditions. Investments in Sweden and international trade agreements must safeguard the environment, human health and workers’ rights.

The Swedish Global Deal initiative brings together almost 100 governments, enterprises and organisations. The OECD is now taking over as host organisation. Sweden will continue to promote social dialogue for better working conditions and increased productivity.

The Government will continue Sweden’s extensive development cooperation and maintain development assistance equivalent to one per cent of GNI. Development assistance should focus even more on promoting democracy. We remain committed to high ambitions for climate financing. Our leadership for globally sustainable oceans will continue.

As other countries reduce efforts for global sustainability, Sweden will increase them. We must be at the vanguard for the 2030 Agenda.

* * *

Mr Speaker,

The electoral period began in the autumn. Winter has now arrived, but today, 21 January, a new Government will begin its work. We have less time than usual, but together, and in broad cooperation, we can and will achieve all the more.

This is a new era, a challenging and crucial era. The parliamentary cooperation that begins today is historic.

Sweden’s new Government consists the PM and 22 ministers

Stockholm, Jan. 22(Greenpost)–Today, Prime Minister Stefan Löfven presented the Statement of Government Policy in the Riksdag and announced the ministers that make up the Government. The change of government took place at a Council of State at the Royal Palace presided over by His Majesty the King.

Sweden’s new Government consists of the Prime Minister and 22 ministers.

Prime Minister’s Office

Prime Minister
Stefan Löfven

Minister for EU Affairs
Hans Dahlgren

Ministry of Culture

Minister for Culture and Democracy, with responsibility for sport
Amanda Lind

Ministry of Defence

Minister for Defence
Peter Hultqvist

Ministry of Education and Research

Minister for Education
Anna Ekström

Minister for Higher Education and Research
Matilda Ernkrans

Ministry of Employment

Minister for Employment
Ylva Johansson

Minister for Gender Equality, with responsibility for anti-discrimination and anti-segregation
Åsa Lindhagen

Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation

Minister for Enterprise
Ibrahim Baylan

Minister for Rural Affairs
Jennie Nilsson

Ministry of the Environment

Minister for Environment and Climate, and Deputy Prime Minister
Isabella Lövin

Ministry of Finance

Minister for Finance
Magdalena Andersson

Minister for Financial Markets and Housing, Deputy Minister for Finance
Per Bolund

Minister for Public Administration
Ardalan Shekarabi

Ministry for Foreign Affairs

Minister for Foreign Affairs
Margot Wallström

Minister for International Development Cooperation
Peter Eriksson

Minister for Foreign Trade, with responsibility for Nordic affairs
Ann Linde

Ministry of Health and Social Affairs

Minister for Health and Social Affairs
Lena Hallengren

Minister for Social Security
Annika Strandhäll

Ministry of Infrastructure

Minister for Infrastructure
Tomas Eneroth

Minister for Energy and Digital Development
Anders Ygeman

Ministry of Justice

Minister for Justice and Migration
Morgan Johansson

Minister for Home Affairs
Mikael Damberg

Commentary: China shows sincerity in talks while the US shows its destroyer

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Jan.7(Greenpost) — Sino-US trade talks began in Beijing on Monday while the US sent a  missile destroyer to the South China Sea area.

This round of trade talk started with China’s sincerity to stop the trade war and really start trade talks.  To show China’s sincerity, China has announced to buy American soybeans and even rice. China has decreased four times the import tariff.  All these measures show that China is very sincere to suspend the trade war because a trade war is neither good to China nor to America or any other country.

Why? Because the economic law shows that only by trading more, the world economy can be vital, protectionism will lead to slow down of the world economy which will be good to nobody.

On the contrary, Trump sent a missile destroyer to South China Sea to show his muscles.  But analysts hold that this action only shows that Trump is either stupid or he really played such a game that he would let people know that he is very unpredictable.

He has shown that when he first met Xi Jinping in his Florida villa when he said he sent a bomb to Syria just before they began to talk Sino-US relations.

And after he and Xi announced to have three months ceasefire of the so-called “trade war”, Canada arrested a Chinese business-person.  So the American action, to be precise, the Trump action shows that he is really not very confident and he wanted to show that he was tough and not easy to deal with.

The current world still requires more cooperation than conflict to meet the demands of the people.

China has always tried all means to promote development by various peaceful means and policies and sometimes even take initiative to benefit all parties such as the Belt and Road Initiative.

As many historians and sinologists have pointed out, China has always been a peace loving country and it has never invaded any country, thus, its action mostly aims to get people more jobs, reduce poverty and build a prosperous China as well as the world.

Analysts hold that China could further reduce the import tariff. On the one hand, it will make the US feel more balanced, on the other hand, it will be good for the Chinese buyers too.  This is a good way to satisfy the Chinese demand of international famous brands and they don’t need to buy it abroad, but buy it in China through more imports.

This will not only help solve the trade surplus issue, but also let Chinese people enjoy the higher living standards. When the Chinese are satisfied with their demand on famous brands, they will love their own country even more because those so called famous brands are just normal brands in other countries. For example, the watch in Switserland, Ford in America, Volvo(China’s now) in Sweden, these brands in China are treated as famous, but in its own country, for example, volvo in Sweden, it is just so natural that people buy it just as if Chinese will buy a red flag or a Chinese tooth paste.

So when the border is open and easier to go across, the imbalance will be solved and that will be conducive to the world.

China definitely should be thankful for the entry of WTO, but Chinese also work very hard to realize its development.  It makes the Chinese feel also awkward that it is always the west that complains about China and gives pressure to China.

Recalling China’s economic situation in 1980s when China just began to open up, China was very cautious of opening up and worried that the western power would buy up China’s land or ownership and so on, and that is why the 49 percent and 51 percent of ownership was established.

When I came to Sweden 12 years ago and asked Swedish whether they worried about their selling of companies to the Germans for example Siemens,  do they worry about ownership? They said they didn’t worry because as long as the company is in Sweden, it will pay tax to Sweden and provides jobs.  But now when China wanted to buy a port or something, Sweden began to worry about sovereignty and secrecy and so on.

Eight years ago when Li Shufu’s Geely purchase Volvo, many people also worried about Chinese companies will bring Volvo to China.  But now it shows that Geely keeps its promise and this has become the successful purchase case between China and Sweden and even in the world.

Why is that? I think it shows that if a company develops well and it will go international. Once it becomes international, it will benefit many people who involve in it. It will promote the world economic development.

But if one shows protectionism, it will stimulate conflicts not just in economic field, if one is not careful, it will involve other factors. That is why there is war and conflict.  Thus as responsible countries, big powers should take the consideration of the world economic situation, not just think it is only about you and me.

Obviously protectionism shows a county’s weak points and that is why it wants to protect its own economy.

Sweden is a small country, but it has a big mind and always been open in trade and let its companies compete in the international economy. Many companies died young, but it also raised the world’s largest per capita famous brands and innovation.  And why people like to try innovation? Because they think in the long term and try the best for anything they like. Time tells who will win in the end.

On this point, I think both US and China should learn from Sweden.

Finally, just heard the news that Tesla has launched a grand ceremony to open production factory in Shanghai now. This is another real action China has taken to allow foreign enterprise to establish solely foreign owned enterprise in China. This is the fulfilment of China’s promise of market access.

This should be a very positive action from Chinese side to turn the trade war into a trade talk.  It forms a sharp contrast with the sending of missile destroyer.

Ambassadör Gui Congyou accepterade en skriftlig intervju med svenska kinesiska medier

Av Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, 3 Januari (Greenpost) — Kinas ambassadör Gui Congyou accepterade en skriftlig intervju med svenska kinesiska medier den 29 december, 2018 på kinesiska.  Här är en översättning av intervjun.

Fråga: Kära ambassadör Gui Congyou, hur utvärderar du utvecklingen av förbindelserna mellan Kina och Sverige under det senaste året?

Svar: 2018 var ett mycket viktigt år för både Kina och Sverige. År 2018 var det första året för Kina att fullt ut genomföra den 19: e partikongressens anda och 40-årsdagen av Kinas reform och öppnande. Sverige höll allmänt val i september detta år. Under det gångna året har förbin­del­serna mellan Kina och Sverige upprätthållit en stabil utveckling totalt sett, och nya presta­ti­oner har gjorts genom samarbete inom olika områden. För det första upprätthöll de två sidor­na utbyten och utbyten på alla nivåer och inom olika områden. De två ländernas diplo­matiska avdelningar upprätthöll regelbunden kommunikation. Svensk infrastrukturminister Tomas Ene­roth ledde en delegation att delta i den första ”China International Import Expo” som hölls i Shanghai i början av november. På regional och kommunal nivå har ett flertal besök och utbyten ägt rum inom ekonomi, handel, vetenskap och utbildning. Detta i god pragmatisk anda som gagnat vidare samarbete mellan våra länder.

För det andra fortsatte det ekonomiska och handelssamarbetet att växa snabbt. Från januari till oktober ökade den kinesisk-svenska bilaterala volymen med 17% till 12,4 miljarder US-dol­lar. Den årliga volymen och Sveriges handelsöverskott med Kina förväntas nå nya höjder. Kina-Sverige “One Belt, One Road”-samarbetet har gjort positiva framsteg. China Eastern Airlines har öppnat ett direktflyg från Shanghai till Stockholm. Det svenska länet Dalarna har öppnat sina dörrar till staden Ganzhou i Jiangxi-provinsen i östra Kina. Under mötet i Shang­hai ”China International Import Expo” tecknade svenska företag kontrakt för 500 miljoner US-dollar med kinesiska företag.

För det tredje har utbyten och samarbete inom vetenskap och teknik, kultur och utbildning fortsatt i bra fart. Professor Chen Zhu, en berömd kinesisk vetenskapsman, vann det svenska Sjöberg-priset. Kinas förening för vetenskap och teknik och Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan undertecknade ett samarbetsavtal. Den första kinesiska kulturfestivalen hölls framgångsrikt i välkända Kungsträdgården i Stockholm. Flera välkända kinesiska artist-trupper uppträdde under året i: Stockholm, Göteborg och Falköping, och blev mycket väl mottagna av lokal­befolkningen.

För det fjärde har Kina och Sverige genomfört nära kommunikation och samordning på den multilaterala arenan. Mot bakgrund av den internationella situationen, full av osäkerhet, stöder Kina och Sverige stark multilateralism, förespråkar frihandel och motsätter sig uni­lateralism och protektionism. De två länderna har genomfört en effektiv samordning inom ramen för den multilaterala ramen, såsom FN: s säkerhetsråd, och genomförde sund kom­munikation om heta frågor t.ex. i DPRK: s kärnvapen och Jemen och gemensamt engagerade för att upprätthålla världsfred, stabilitet och utveckling.

Samtidigt såg vi också att förhållandena mellan Kina och Sverige har störts av några negativa faktorer under året. Den svenska polisens behandlingen av tre kinesiska turister hotade deras grund­läggande mänskliga rättigheter, såsom personlig säkerhet och värdighet. SVT produ­cerade ett inslag om dessa kinesiska turister i ett satirprogram som vi uppfattade som grovt förolämpade och orsakade stark indignation och högljudda protester från alla kineser och det stora antalet utländska kineser. Detta skadade den goda bilden av Sverige i Kina. Vi fortsätter att uppmana den svenska sidan att öppet och uppriktigt be om ursäkt för den negativa hän­delsen. Några politiker och media i Sverige har anklagat Kina, men de förstår inte Kina och vad vi anser vara Kinas inre ange­lägenheter. Dessa negativa faktorer har utan tvekan skapat onödiga hin­der för utveckling av vänskapligt samarbete mellan Kina och Sverige. Vi är starkt emot detta.

I allmänhet anser jag att det vänliga samarbetet är det viktigaste för de kinesisk-svenska förbindelserna. Att främja den positiva utvecklingen av de bilaterala förbindelserna är de båda folkens gemensamma ambitioner. Fördjupningen av de kinesisk-svensk förbindelserna har djup potential och breda utsikter. Kina har alltid varit engagerat i att främja den fortsatta utvecklingen av samarbete Kina-Sverige. Vi hoppas att den svenska sidan kommer att gå hand i hand med den kinesiska. Vi försöker bygga konsensus och skapa vinn-vinn-samarbeten som ger gynnsamma förutsättningar för en sund och stabil utveckling av förbindelserna mellan Kina och Sverige. Detta i en anda av ömsesidig respekt och likabehandling, men förstås med reservation för de skillnader här är i synsätt.

Fråga: Svenska medierna har en ny förståelse för dig. De tycker att du verkligen gillar att möta svenska medier. Du pekar ofta på sina misstag. Vad är din kommentar till den här kommentaren?

Svar: Medierna är en viktig bro mellan de två folken och spelar en viktig roll för att öka den ömsesidiga förståelsen mellan de två sidorna. Jag har noterat att med den snabba utvecklingen i Kina och den fortsatta expansionen av samarbetet mellan Kina och Sverige, ger de svenska medierna allt mer uppmärksamhet åt Kina. Det finns många objektiva och positiva rapporter om utvecklingen av Kinas reformer och att landet öppnats under de senaste 40 åren. Ömse­sidigt samarbete i ekonomisk och handelsinvestering, vetenskaplig och teknisk innovation, energibesparing och miljöskydd. Sådana rapporter kommer att hjälpa det svenska folket att fullständigt och bättre förstå Kina och underlätta en jämn utveckling av de bilaterala för­bin­delserna.

Samtidigt finns det fortfarande några medier och journalister i Sverige som tittar på Kina med färgade glasögon. De är fulla av fördomar, stereotyper, okunnighet och arrogans mot Kina och klandrar Kina för ‘kallt krig’ mentalitet. Detta Kina som de skriver om är långt borta från det riktiga samtida Kina. Vissa medier tillåter bara att de snedvrider Kina, men de kan inte låta andra prata om Kinas prestationer och Kinas ställning. Det här är en allvarlig kränkning av journalistiken moraliska principer. Det är en typisk media-tyranni och den allmänna opini­ons­diktaturen, och bidrar inte till en smidig utveckling av de kinesisk-svensk relationerna.

För att förhindra att dessa snedvridna rapporter gör svenskar misstänksamma och på sikt påverkar det vänliga samarbetet mellan våra folk måste vi påpeka dessa misstag och klargöra Kinas position. Vi välkomnar de svenska vännernas konstruktiva kommentarer, men tvekar inte att försvara vad vi uppfattar är rätt och vill motverka att fördomar mot kineser och Kina som land sprids.  Vi påpekade att vissa medier och journalister har gjort misstag i hopp om att de ska fortsätta bidra till kinesiskt-svenskt vänskapligt samarbete. Vi hoppas att svenska folket ska ha full tillgång till information och förstå ett autentiskt Kina på ett objektivt sätt. Jag hoppas att några svenska medier och journalister kommer att släppa arrogans och för­domar, och verkligen följa journalistikens etik och behandla Kina på ett objektivt och rättvist sätt. Som ambassadör är dörren till dialog och kommunikation alltid öppen.

Fråga: 2019 är 70-årsdagen av Kinas grundande av Folkrepubliken Kina och 69-års­jubileet för inrättandet av diplomatiska förbindelser mellan Kina och Sverige. Vilken är din syn på kinesisk-svenska relationerna under den här viktiga historiska perioden? Vilka större händelser förväntas inträffa?

Svar: 2019 är 70-årsdagen för grundandet av Nya Kina. Det är ett viktigt år för att nå målet att bygga ett välfungerande samhälle på ett allsidigt sätt och uppnå målet för det första år­hund­radet. Erfarenheten från de gångna 40 årens reformer och öppnade mot omvärlden, lär oss att vi måste fokusera framöver på innovation, samordning, ”grön utveckling”, öppenhet och del­ning och sätta mycket långsiktiga mål. Återupplivandet av den kinesiska drömmen fortsätter. Det kommer definitivt att ge nya viktiga möjligheter till utvecklingen av de kinesisk-svenska förbindelserna.

År 2019 kommer Kina och Sverige att genomföra fler dialoger och utbyten på alla nivåer och på olika områden för att öka utbytesfrekvensen och förbättra ömsesidig förståelse. Den svenska regeringsbildandet pågår fortfarande. När den nya svenska regeringen har tillträtt är vi villiga att kommunicera med den svenska sidan för att gemensamt planera utvecklingen av de bilaterala förbindelserna i nästa steg. De två sidorna bör fortsätta att utöka det pragmatiska samarbetet inom olika områden, genomföra det konsensus som nås och aktivt utvidga sam­arbetet inom områdena innovation, grön ekonomi, energibesparing och miljöskydd samt avancerad tillverkning, så att de två folken kan få mer känsla av vinst.

Vi är villiga att gå hand i hand med svenska vänner för att fira 70-årsdagen för Folkrepubliken Kinas grundande och 69-årsdagen för upprättandet av diplomatiska förbindelser mellan Kina och Sverige. Vi kommer att vidarebefordra den traditionella vänskapen mellan de två länder­na och fullt ut utveckla potentialen för samarbete för att injicera positiv energi och ny driv­kraft i de kinesiskt-svenska förbindelserna.

Fråga: Vilka är dina förväntningar för de utländska kineserna i Sverige?

Svar: I 2018 implementerade ambassaden resolut Xi Jinpings socialistiska ideologi med kinesiska egenskaper i den nya eran, upprätthållande av principen om “diplomati för folket”, aktivt genomförande av partiet och regeringens Huiqiao Huimin-politik (politik som är bra för kineserna) och säkerställande att moderlands oro för det stora antalet utomeuropeiska kineser genomförs. Ambassaden uppskattade och stödde aktivt de utländska kineserna i deras an­strängningar att bygga ett harmoniskt samhälle, genomföra kinesisk utbildning och skydda landets legitima rättigheter och intressen i Sverige och genomföra en rad praktiska åtgärder för att söka konsulära handlingar. Ambassadens konsulära avdelning kommer år 2019 offici­ellt att byta namn till konsulatavdelningen. Denna förändring framhäver den allt viktigare betydelsen av det kinesiska arbetet i ambassadens övergripande arbete och återspeglar am­bas­sadens beslutsamhet för att bättre tjäna de utländska kineserna. Jag hoppas att det stora antalet utländska kinesiska följeslagare genom våra ansträngningar kommer att känna mer verkliga känslor av lycka och lycka.

Den stora processen av reform och öppnande i Kina under 40 år, har visat att det stora antalet utländska kineser är viktiga vittnen, deltagare och bidragsgivare till reform och öppnande. Det hoppas att de utländska kinesiska landsmännen kommer att utnyttja den historiska möjlig­he­ten till den nya reformrundan och öppningen av moderlandet, fortsätta att vidarebefordra den härliga patriotismens tradition och älska landet, stäkra skydda moderlandets återförening, ta hand om och stödja moderlands utveckling, aktivt främja det pragmatiska samarbetet och humanistiska utbytet mellan Kina och Sverige och främja enastående kinesisk kultur. Att göra nya bidrag till den kinesiska drömmen om att bygga ett välskött samhälle på ett allsidigt sätt och inse den stora föryngringen av den kinesiska nationen.

Inför 2019 skulle jag vilja ta tillfället i akt att utvidga välsignelserna för det nya året till det stora antalet kineser. Jag önskar er allt det bästa under det nya året, dra fördel av moderlands utveckling, dela moderlandets utbyte av välstånd och väckelse, och uppnå bättre livsstil.

 

In future, only charges provided by law could be collected from clients of health and social services

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Dec. 14(Greenpost)–The Government is proposing a new Act on Client Charges in Health and Social Services that would apply to health and social services organised by counties. In future, only service charges provided by the Act on Client Charges in Health and Social Services could be collected from clients.

The aim is that the service charges would be reasonable and not prevent people from using the health and social services they need.

The client’s own county would charge the client. Counties could also charge less than the maximum fee, or let their residents use services free of charge. The client would always pay the same sum for the same service organised by the county, irrespective of who provided the service. The county would use the same client charges for services provided by the county itself and for services bought from other service providers against the client’s health and social services voucher or personal budget. The service provider would be allowed to charge for unattended appointments that had not been cancelled.

As before, there would fixed client charges and client charges based on the client’s ability to pay (income-related charges). When determining income-related charges, only the clients’ continuous, regular income would be taken into account, not their property. Regulations concerning forest income would remain unchanged.

Scope of application of payment ceiling becomes broader

The aim is not to change the level of the current annual payment ceiling (EUR 683). In future, the following costs would be included when calculating whether the client’s total costs reach the payment ceiling: appointment and processing charges for oral health services, charges for temporary home nursing and hospital at home, charges for prehospital emergency medical services, and charges paid from the person’s income support.

Providers would be allowed to charge the same sums for distance services as for services received during traditional appointments. Charges for distance services would be included in the client’s costs for the payment ceiling. Payment practices in primary services and specialised services would be harmonised. In future, each appointment to a doctor, nurse or therapist would be charged separately, as well as each appointment for serial treatment.

The obligation to monitor when the client reaches the payment ceiling would be transferred from the client to the county.

The provision obliging to reduce or waive a charge would be made more effective and the provision would be extended to cover even the charges for short-term institutional healthcare. Clients should be informed about the possibility to apply for payment reduction. Payment reduction would be preferred rather than granting income support.

Free-of-charge health services to minors and for preventive purposes

In future, health services to minors would always be free of charge. The change would also apply to institutional healthcare and specialised medical care.

As before, preventive services would mainly be free of charge. Appointments to outpatient care services relating to mental health and substance abuse problems would be free of charge.

Charging criteria for home care, service housing and institutional care will be harmonised

The Act on Client Charges in Health and Social Services would lay down charges for long-term service housing. In the same connection, the principles for income-related charges for long-term or continuous and regular services would be harmonised.

Continuous and regular home care would be comparable to ordinary long-term service housing because both arrangements bring services to the clients’ homes and the clients do not need services 24 hours a day. The income limits for home care charges would be raised.

Long-term service housing with 24-h assistance would be considered equal to long-term institutional care as both service arrangements provide clients with intensive 24-hour care. The Act would require that a client shall have at least EUR 160 at his or her personal disposal in service housing with 24-h assistance. In institutional care, the sum is EUR 108.

The Act is scheduled to enter into force on 1 January 2021.

Sino-Russian and US-Russian relations are studied in Finland

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Key changes in the Sino-Russian and US-Russian relationships can have significant consequences for the global balance of power and the international order at large. A report published today shows how vulnerable the recently deepened Sino-Russian relationship is as it represents a joint reaction towards the US hegemony rather than a deep strategic alliance.

The relationship is imbalanced and relies on Chinese self-restraint. The relationship between the US and Russia again suffers from a long-term structural problem as the US refuses to recognise the great power status, which Russia is longing for. Both relationships include important uncertainties as factors related to regime succession might decisively affect their future direction.

The Sino-Russian relationship has deepened during the past few years with cooperation in energy policy and military security in its core. The cooperation corresponds to the strategic needs of China, which has the upper hand in defining its future. Both great powers engage in their own regional projects in Central Asia, the Chinese Silk Road Project and the Russian-led Eurasian Union. Thus far an open competition between them has been avoided. Whilst China and Russia share a common interest in safeguarding their authoritarian political systems from Western values, their approaches to the Western led international order differ. This creates a key obstacle for any far-reaching alliance between them.

The relationship between the US and Russia has been constantly deteriorating after the end of the Cold War due to very different expectations about the relationship. The person factor forms an important determinant: the Donald Trump presidency was expected to respond to the long-term Russian demands on bargaining with Russia. The domestic controversies on Russian election hacking have, however, made the future of this relationship increasingly unpredictable. Taking the key driving forces into account it is less likely to change in the near future than the Sino-Russian relationship.

This publication is part of implementing the Government’s plan for analysis, assessment and research in 2018 (www.tietokayttoon.fi).

Source: www.tietokayttoon.fi

Commentary: What is the significance of commemorating the end of the First world War?

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Stockholm, Nov 12. (Greenpost) —  A grand celebration was held in Paris with participation of major first world war countries leaders including Putin, Trump, Merkel and Macron.

Actually at the end of 2014, after holding back of my breath for a year and suddenly I felt relieved. Another year went by without the break of any world war. But someone said in fact modern war is a war without smoke.

For example, that year, Russian economy almost crashed with financial crisis with pressure from the US.

But at least the real gunpower was not used.  I think it has great significance to commemorate the first world war.

Recalling back, one can realize that the reason for the first world war was due to the economic market reason and ignited by the accidents of the assasination of the Austrain King.  Nationalism was very strong at that time and there was no thoughts of   how big loss it will be  one all the countries involved in the war.

Looking back, one can see that the war was faught very barbarianly. It was fought with more weapons and lives.  Human beings lost their ration and they fought just because they belonged to different nation or different ethnic groups. It was very primitive and yet, 60 million lives were taken away.

Thus, after four years they all came to the conclusion that they should stop the war. But one lesson was that France wanted to ask Germany to pay much more.  Namely to cut Germany’s colonies.

The Versais Palace Treaty was unfair not just to Germany, mainly it was to China.  China joined the war and fought together with France and other countries, but in the end, its land in Shandong province was given to Japan. It was unfair.

Later Germany thought the treaty was too harsh on it and that led to hatred to the neighbors and wanted to fight back later.  Thus with leadership of Hitler, extremism permeated in Germany.

This could be a great lesson to draw.

Currently  you have a leader like Trump who likes to use his power and you have a leader who doesn’t care about any pressure, such as Putin.

And some Europeans said irresponsibly that there might be a war in South China Sea.  This is very irresponsible.

Through this commemoration, one should realize that the war is so harmful that it will be detrimental to everyone.

Two lessons should be drawn from the first world war. One is to forgive. Like China forgives Japan and didn’t ask Japanese to compensate so much.

Two,  one should treat every country equally.  And these lessons were drawn after the second world war. That was to build the United Nations.

Many other international organizations have been established.

The current world should learn from the lesson and gave up too much nationalism. Internationalism should be promoted. Simply when anybody thought of war, you must try your best to avoid war. If you don’t want to create a war, you shouldn’t stimulate a war, you shouldn’t put people to test.

China is a peace loving country. I don’t think it will launch a war.  But if you push on it a war,  it is a country who will do all it can do to fight back.

History shows that anyone who fought with the Japanese, win it or not, in the end, it all has been Chinized.

For example, the Mongolians and the Manchurians have all been chinized and they all accepted the Chinese culture in the end. Why? Because Chinese culture has great essence in it. It always gives out the best it has and that is always a wisdom and a virtue. Man can not fight with this kind of behaviour.  It always treats people as brothers and sisters.

Its socialist ideas mean that no matter big or small, any country is equal with others. Thus, countries should also help each other, but not fight with each other.

For example, belt and road initiative is jus the idea of peace and development.

Anyway, one should draw lessons from history and try our best to safeguard the world peace and continue development.

Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Utländska journalister Besöker Xinjiang-serien (17) – Xinjiang-informationskontor Biträdande direktör Shaliyef: Xinjiang har sett stora förändringar genom BRI and Tourism

Av Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, 1 november (Greenpost) – Vid lunch den 31 augusti var det dags att  säga adjö. Det här var sista gången vi alla åt lunch tillsammans. Under dessa åtta dagar har Xinjiang Information Office biträdande direktör Ailiti Shaliyef hela tiden följt oss, men han har inte sagt så mycket, bara hjälpt till att uppfylla alla önskemål från oss journalister.

När vi journalister nu är på väg att lämna talade han äntligen. Han sa att huvudsyftet med att bjuda in alla journalister här var att låta  oss alla ta en titt på Xinjiang och uppleva personligen något av livet i Xinjiang.  Hoppas ni förstår att vi tycker att socialism ledd av kinesiska kommunistparti passar Xinjiang mycket bra.

“Xinjiang ligger är en viktig del av den nygamla sidenvägen. Staten har investerat stora pengar i Xinjiangs utveckling. I slutet av 2017 har investerats 200 miljarder yuan eller cirka 30 miljarder dollar i infrastrukturbygge. Xinjiang bygger sex tunnelbanelinjer och två av dem kommer förhoppningsvis att vara i drift i slutet av detta år. Snabbtåg mellan Lanzhou i Gansu-provinsen och Urumqi i Xinjiang är redan i drift. Snabbtåg mellan Peking och Xinjiang är i slutfasen av drifttagning. När den är i full drift kommer restiden mellan Peking och Urumqi att förkortas från tre dagar till en dag. De flesta stora städer i Kina har förbindelse med Xinjiang”, sa Shaliyef.

Shaliyef sa också att Xinjiang har tillräckligt med energi, inklusive traditionell kol och olja, men också stora vindkraftparker, solkraftverk och vattenkraft. Xinjiangs el kan överföras till provinserna Henan och Hebei.

“Nu finns det också många flygbolag som kopplar Xinjiang med andra provinshuvudstäder. Många stora städer kan ha charter-flygbolag direkt för att gå till Altay. Detta kommer starkt att främja turistindustrin. I slutet av juli i år har antalet turister ökat till 75 miljoner”, sa Shaliyef.

Sedan 2014 har cirka sjuttiotusen cardres och partimedlemmar varit på landsbygden för att hjälpa bönder och herdar att hjälpa dem med kunskap, utbildning och förbättringar baserat på berövad vetenskap.  Detta har förbättrat relationerna mellan olika etniska grupper och mellan regionala ledare och lantbrukare. Bönder och herdars bostadsförhållanden har förbättrats och dricksvatten, el och även internet har påtagligt förbättrats.

“Alla dessa förändringar beror på investeringar från staten och de 19 provinserna brorstöd. Socialism under ledning av CPC passar Xinjiang mycket bra”,  sammanfattar Shaliyef.

Shaliyef talade också något om upploppet som ägde rum i Xinjiang 2009. Han sa att detta berodde på infiltrering av en liten grupp extremister som spred extremistiska och separatistiska idéer med ursprung från 1990-talet. De försökte på alla sätt att sabotera stabiliteten i Xinjiang. Under dessa år vågade människor inte gå till Bazar för att sälja saker på grund av den osäkra situationen. Men nu är det mycket säkert.  Folk kan gå till nattmarknaden för att ta en promenad och ta en titt. Alla är glada för att det är säkert och stabilt nu. “Jag vill  ge dig ett exempel: I Kasgar finns en gammal stad, där finns 75000 Ugyor boende. Under årtiondena har det aldrig varit några upplopps-aktiviteter. Varför? Eftersom de gör bra affärer runt templet. Det finns många trevliga turister där. Så med bra affärer och liv, lever Ugyor också ett bra liv “, sa Shaliyef.

Men varför uppstod upploppet i Urumqi? Shaliyef menar att det bara berodde på externa krafter. De ville bara ha ett stort inflytande här. Shaliyef betonar att Xinjiang stabilitet kom från partiets korrekta ledning på olika nivåer. Xinjiang behöver fortsätta att utvecklas och detta kräver en trygg och säker miljö och bra allmän ordning. Säkerhet är också en stor fråga för många länder i alla delar av världen. Ibland har de som aldrig kommit till Xinjiang bara hört några rykten och tror på dem. Jag hoppas att ni kan rapportera den verkliga situationen nu i Xinjiang genom era artiklar. Självklart är vi fortfarande på utvecklingsstadiet.

“Belt and Road” -initiativet är bra för länderna längs bältet och handelsvägen eftersom det är inte bara Kina som vill utveckla denna. Det är flera ländernas önskemål. Den gamla sidenvägen skapade många stora städer. Jag tror att det aktuella “Belt and Road Initiative” kommer att hjälpa många länder och städer att utvecklas ytterligare. Naturligtvis är vissa utländska medier kritiska till detta initiativ.  Men i verkligheten syfta Kinas initiativ till att hjälpa alla berörda länder att utvecklas och genom samarbete och realisera en win-win-situation. Vi är 14 utländska journalister från 14 länder, inklusive Belgien och Sverige, och 23 kinesiska journalister från de statliga medierna i Kina som deltar i denna 8-dagars rapportresa.  De har sett möjligheter för turism och kultur i Xinjiang och hur den lokala regeringen prioriterar turism och kultur som en pelare för industrins utveckling i Xinjiang. De förstår också hur detta bör hjälpa Xinjiang-provinsen att bättre integreras med andra provinser i Kina och med andra länder längs den nygamla sidenvägen.

Foto och text Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Chinese Ambassador Gui says China pays great attention to China-Europe relations

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 10(Greenpost)– Chinese Ambassador Gui Congyou said that China attaches great importance to China-Europe relations and he likes to listen to all the participants opinion on how to better improve China-Europe relations.

Ambassador Gui said that this year marks the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up in China. Reform and opening-up, started 40 years ago, have transformed China from a country shackled by rigid planned economy to a vibrant socialist market economy, and from a closed economy and society to one increasingly interconnected with the world. All the Chinese people benefit from reform and opening-up, as no one will live under the poverty line and all will lead a good life. Global economy benefits from China’s reform and opening-up as China’s economic growth contributes over 30% to global growth. Countries around the world benefit from China’s reform and opening-up because China generates tremendous development opportunities and dividends as it is set to become the world’s largest consumption market.

China’s reform and opening-up also contributes to world peace and security. The fact that China maintains social and political stability and is delivering a better life to nearly 1.4 billion people undoubtedly generates strong impetus to keep the momentum of global and regional security and stability.

Gui said that “some people speculate that China’s development threatens other countries, to which I would like to stress that it is not in the DNA of the Chinese nation to threaten and invade other countries. In the 5000 years of Chinese history, China has never waged a war of conquest against other countries. As a nation that endured over a hundred years of colonial invasion and enslavement by Western powers, we know too well the pain of being occupied and enslaved. As Chinese people often say, “do not do to others what you would not have them do to you.” In the vocabulary of China’s foreign policies, words like “invading other countries” and “seeking hegemony” have no place”. Gui said.

“There are also people saying that China is more assertive, which is a serious misunderstanding and misinterpretation of China’s foreign policies. Over a hundred years of colonial invasion and occupation of China led to the fact that China is still yet to realise complete national reunification. Anti-China separatist forces, such as “Taiwan independence”, “Tibet independence”, “East Turkestan” as well as “Hong Kong independence”, are doing everything to sabotage and hinder the reunification of China. What we must do in response is to firmly uphold national unity and advance the process of national reunification. In other words, we will not let any country, any force, any organization or any individual take away any inch of China’s rightful territory. What we are doing is opposing others to break into our house and rob our things rather than barge into others’ house and rob their things.” said Gui.

Gui said that Sweden is the first Western country to establish diplomatic ties with China. As a major Nordic country and an important member of the EU, Sweden leads the world in innovative, green and sustainable development. Just like China, Sweden is committed to upholding world peace and security, and resolving disputes through political and diplomatic means. These factors set up the foundation and favorable conditions for long-term and steady growth of China-Sweden relations. With high importance attached to its relations with Sweden, China is willing to strengthen dialogue, communication and cooperation in all areas, and work with Sweden to make contributions to world peace, development and security .

It is true that our two countries are different in our political systems and ideologies. But it is exactly these differences that make dialogue, exchanges and cooperation more necessary. Because we are different, we need to improve together by learning from each other. However, we oppose exaggerating or politicising these differences and turning them into obstacles of our relations, rather we hope to work together to turn these differences into highlights and propellers of our relations. To make this happen, we need to treat each other as equals, respect each other, refrain from interfering in each other’s internal affairs and work together for shared benefits.

Gui said that the 19th CPC National Congress that was successfully convened last October established the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and set the goal to build China into a great modern socialist country by the middle of this century.

To achieve the goal, China will deepen reform, open up wider to all countries and regions of the world, and carry forward with reform and opening-up with utmost resolve and confidence. The first China International Import Expo that is being held represents a major initiative and effort reaffirming China’s determination to open up wider. Like I said at the beginning, China’s reform and opening-up benefits the whole world, and deepened reform and opening-up will only benefit the world even more. We are committed to improving socialist democracy and rule of law, upholding and improving human rights and delivering a better life to all Chinese people. These efforts will bring about greater social and political stability and economic prosperity.

But no matter how much progress China makes in its development, even when China’s GDP per capita reaches the level of Sweden at USD 50,000, China will still stick to a peaceful development path and its peaceful foreign policy, remain committed to building a community with a shared future for mankind rather than interfere in other countries’  internal affairs, invade other countries or seek world dominance. Thousands of years of human history told us one thing, that is any empire that invades, enslaves or occupies other countries will eventually fail and crumble. That is what all of us need to learn and more importantly heed from history.

The Chinese side attaches great importance to developing China-Europe relations. In terms of how, I prefer to hear your thoughts and suggestions, concluded Gui.

Swedish Queen Silvia supported Children’s Nobel announced

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 8(Greenpost) —Three Child Rights Heroes who are candidates for the Swedish Child Rights award The World’s Children’s Prize (WCP) has been announced recently. Millions of children participate in a Global Vote and choose the recipient of the prize, often called the “Children’s Nobel Prize” by media around the world. 

The nominees are:

  • Spès Nihangaza, Burundi, for her 25-year fight for orphaned children who have been severely affected by the AIDS epidemic and a brutal civil war.
  • Ashok Dyalchand, India, who has been campaigning against child marriage and fighting for girls’ rights for 40 years.
  • Guylande Mésadieu, Haiti, who has been fighting for 20 years for children who have been forced into slavery, children in prison and children on the street.

The candidates have been selected by a jury of children from 15 different countries.
Since its launch in 2000, some 42 million children have participated in the World’s Children’s Prize Program, which is the world’s largest annual rights and democracy education initiative for children. Patrons of the World’s Children’s Prize include Malala Youzafsai, the late Nelson Mandela, Sweden’s Queen Silvia and Sweden’s Prime Minister and Minister for Children.

Children from around the world, here in Cambodia and Sweden, participate in a Global Vote to decide who receives the World’s Children’s Prize.

Supporting vulnerable children
The World’s Children’s Prize Program educates and empowers children to become changemakers who stand up for human fellowship, the equal value of all people, the rights of the child, democracy and sustainable development. The majority of the children involved in the program live in fragile states and many  discover for the first time that they have rights and are able to make their voices heard.Recipients honoured in Sweden
Tributes will be paid to all three Child Rights Heroes at a ceremony in May 2019 at Gripsholm Castle in Mariefred, Sweden. The children will be assisted by Sweden’s Queen Silvia in presenting the awards. The prize money, which totals SEK 700,000, is used to support the Child Rights Heroes’ work and since the start in 2000 it has helped improve the lives of tens of thousands of the world’s most vulnerable children.

Global patrons
Patrons of the World’s Children’s Prize include Malala Youzafsai, the late Nelson Mandela, Sweden’s Queen Silvia, Graça Machel, Desmond Tutu and Sweden’s Prime Minister and Minister for Children.
The WCP Program is supported by 70,000 schools in 116 countries, as well as the Swedish Ministry of Education and 778 organisations. Since the program’s launch, half a million teachers have been trained to enable them to work with children’s rights, democracy and sustainable development in schools.

The World’s Children’s Prize Foundation (WCPF) is supported by a number of organisations, including the Swedish Postcode Lottery, Sida, Forum Syd, Julia & Hans Rausing Trust, H.M. Queen Silvia’s Care About the Children Foundation and the Survé Family Foundation.

 

Prime Minister Sipilä says to engage China and US while meeting EU president Jean-Claude Juncker

 By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 8 (Greenpost)–Prime Minister Juha Sipilä and President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker met today, on 8 November, in Helsinki, according to a statement from government office reaching here.

In their meeting, Sipilä and Juncker had a wide-ranging discussion on the development of the EU and the challenges it will face in the future. The leaders also discussed Finland’s upcoming Presidency of the Council of the European Union, as well as the country’s priorities for the Commission’s new five-year work programme.

Sipilä and Juncker’s discussions focused on topics including the EU’s measures to respond to migration, questions concerning international trade and the development of the EU’s internal markets.

“When it comes to migration, we must focus above all dealing with the root causes and engaging in cooperation with the countries of origin. We also need more effective control of the EU’s external borders, including reform of the Common European Asylum System. During its Presidency term, Finland is committed to continue seeking a way forward in migration issues in a pragmatic and result-oriented manner,” commented Prime Minister Sipilä.

Sipilä and Juncker agreed that strengthening the rules-based international system of trade must continue to be a top priority of the EU’s trading policy.

“The EU has to maintain its leading role in modernising the World Trade Organization (WTO).  At the same time, we must work to engage the United States and China in this process,” Prime Minister Sipilä said.

Prime Minister Sipilä and European Commission President Juncker also discussed the development of the EU’s defence cooperation and preparedness for hybrid threats, the status of the Brexit negotiations, cooperation between the EU and Africa, climate issues and the EU’s new multiannual financial framework.

In addition to European Commission President Juncker, Sipilä met today, on 8 November, with Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov. Today’s discussions were part of a series of meetings leading up to Finland’s term as President of the Council of the European Union. Prime Minister Sipilä will meet with the heads of all EU Member States before the start of Finland’s Presidency term.

Inquiries: 

《李克强总理正式访问荷兰》 ——两国共同跨上大台阶续写合作伙伴关系新篇章

北欧绿色邮报网报道(驻荷兰特约记者张卓辉 编辑陈雪霏)–中国国务院总理李克强总理偕夫人程虹率领中国政府代表团于2018年10月14日乘专机抵达阿姆斯特丹,开始对荷兰进行正式访问。

中荷关系最好时期

在出席上海合作组织成员国政府首脑(总理)理事会第17次会议并结束对塔吉克斯坦正式访问后,李克强总理伉俪、国务委员兼外交部长王毅,全国政协副主席、国家发展和改革委员会主任何立峰等陪同人员同机飞抵达荷兰首都。荷兰政府内阁成员和中国驻荷兰大使等到机场迎接。

这是李克强总理首次访问荷兰,是继前国务院总理李鹏(1998年2月)、朱镕基(2000年7月)和温家宝(2004年12月)之后,中国理时隔14年再次正式访问荷兰。10月15日上午,荷兰吕特首相在荷兰海牙议会大厦广场举行隆重仪式欢迎李克强总理。当国宾车队抵达时,吕特首相在国宾车前迎接李克强总理并共同登上检阅台,军乐队高奏中荷两国国歌,两国国旗迎风飘扬。随后他陪同中国总理一起检阅仪仗队。

近年来,中荷两国领导人频繁互访,政治互信不断加深,充分显示了两国对发展双边关系的高度重视。2014年,中国国家主席习近平对荷兰进行国事访问,这是中国元首第一次访问荷兰,双方确定了两国开放务实的全面合作伙伴关系新定位。2015年,荷兰国王威廉•亚历山大和首相马克•吕特分别访华。为中荷关系未来发展奠定了坚实战略基础。

今年2月底和4月初,亚历山大国王偕王后马克西玛,和吕特首相再次先后访华,当时吕特首相率领了四位大臣和荷兰史上最大的经贸代表团。这个月,中国国家总理李克强将正式访问荷兰,持续推进中荷两国经贸关系发展。两国关系进入了历史最好时期,政治互信不断深化,各领域交往合作成果丰硕。中荷关系正站在新起点上,面临新的发展机遇,两国将通过共建“一带一路”开展更多的互利合作,推动中荷双边关系再上新台阶。

两国都为出口大国

访问期间,李克强同荷兰首相吕特举行会谈、共同会见记者、见证合作文件签署,会见荷兰国王威廉•亚历山大和议会两院议长,出席中荷经贸论坛并发表演讲,参观荷兰高新技术展并同荷兰企业家进行交流。

“20年前,我作为中国中部省份的省长曾经到访过荷兰,对荷兰农业现代化留下深刻的印象。”李克强说,“今天我们不仅要继续扩大两国农业合作,而且要在制造业、服务业领域进一步放宽准入、深化合作。中荷两国在贸易投资方面已经形成了深厚基础,相信我们不断扩大开放的合作,会很快形成丰硕果实。”

目前,中荷两国都为出口大国。荷兰现已成为中国在欧盟内第二大贸易伙伴,中国是荷兰在欧盟外第二大贸易伙伴。近年来,中荷贸易投资保持高位运行。据中国海关统计,2017年中荷货物贸易额达784亿美元,创历史新高,同比增长16%。荷兰是中国在欧盟内重要外资来源地和直接投资目的地。截至2018年8月,荷兰在华实际投资金额190亿美元;截至2017年底,中国对荷直接投资存量185亿美元。投资领域已从传统的贸易、运输等领域拓宽至电信、机械制造、农产品加工、银行、保险、专业商业服务等诸多行业。此外,每年有35万中国游客来荷旅游,近1万名中国留学生在荷求学。

见证签近80亿欧元

10月16日在海牙(Den Haag)举办“2018 中国–荷兰经贸论坛”,中荷双方能达成更多的合作,为中荷企业加强交流提供了良好的机会,250家荷兰企业和此次与李克强总理随行的中国国际贸易促进委员会(CCPIT)为首的大型经贸团涉及金融、园艺、家居、建筑、医药、食品等行业的150家中国企业逾500多人共济一堂进行交流,签署了多项协议。

中荷经贸论坛在海牙市立博物馆室内广场召开。身高1米95的荷兰首相走上讲坛,并没有从工作人员搭好的小台阶跨上去,而是从下面大步跨上讲台,发表演讲。随后,李克强也以这种方式跨上演讲台,并发表即席演说:“我刚才和吕特首相一样,没有走你们主办者设计的小台阶,我们两位是一步跨了一个大台阶,是要显示中荷的关系,尤其是中荷的历史合作,已经迈上了新的大台阶。”这话引起了与会者热烈的掌声。

“你们看今天我们在这样一个会场,召开经贸论坛。很透明啊,太阳光直接照在我的脸上。(热烈掌声)中荷双方的主办者,都愿意在一个公开透明的环境下召开这个论坛,表明我们愿意在公开透明的环境下进行贸易。” 利用演讲场地的透明天花板,李克强再次强调在公开透明的前提下,发展自由贸易的重要性。

李克强表示,中方愿在平等合作的基础上与荷方开展积极对话,增进相互了解。“欢迎荷兰企业扩大对华投资,也欢迎中荷双方扩大人员往来。中荷两国合作潜力巨大,我们的共同利益远远大于分歧。”中国总理说。

 吕特回应道:“荷兰是欧洲的‘门户’。荷方愿同中方巩固政治互信,深化务实合作,为更多中荷企业互利合作搭建桥梁。”

荷兰国家电视台NOS称,中荷企业在两国总理的见证下举行了一场“激动人心”的签字仪式。双方企业签署8项合作协议,涉及能源、金融、航空、农业科技等领域,总金额约80亿欧元。习近平主席曾提到过,荷兰是中国农业转型的真正伙伴。作为中荷企业签订的首个协议,浙江省嘉善经济技术开发区与荷兰著名锂能沃克斯公司(Lithium Werks B.V.)价值16亿欧元(18.5亿美元)的大项目将落户浙江中荷(嘉善)产业合作园。在长江三角洲地区设立新能源锂电池超级工程项目并设立中国研发基地。荷兰《共同日报》(AD)称,李克强访华期间,荷兰企业“争相与中国总理握手”,因为“赢得中国就相当于赢得了世界”。

人民总理人民热爱

早在中国代表团抵荷当天10月14日下午,荷兰华侨华人、中资企业及留学生代表受到中国国务院总理李克强接见。

全荷华人社团联合会秘书长、荷兰青田同乡会名誉会长陈龙见到总理很激动。他说,与总理握手,心中似有一股暖流。“中国经济增长稳定,改革开放的大门也会越开越大,以前我们是从媒体上看到这些话,今天从总理口中听到这样的话语,让我们更加相信中国改革开放的力度之大。开放与荷兰、与旅居荷兰的华侨华人直接相关。此次总理来访,两国要签署近百亿欧元的合作协议,而华侨华人在荷兰各个产业也多有参与,对我们来说这也是一个难得的发展契机。”

“李克强总理在繁忙的访荷工作中间抽时间与大家交流,让人感动。” 荷兰华人总会会长孔海峰说,“中国与荷兰关系处在历史最好时期,我们作为旅荷华侨华人中的一员,感到非常荣幸。祖国的强大,也是我们华侨华人的强大,我们的腰杆也挺得更直了。希望祖国全面进步,经济、科技、文化、社会发展越来越好。”

荷兰中文教育协会主席、荷兰皇家餐饮业公会高级顾问、陈华钟来荷兰已有45年。受到过多名中国领导人的接见,他最大的感受就是中国越来越自信了,越来越有底气与世界对话,强大的祖国成为了每一个华侨华人坚实的后盾。

在总理到来之际,中国留荷的学生们怀着对总理热爱之情聚集在海牙街头,打着中荷两国国旗和“热烈欢迎李克强总理(中英文对照)”的巨幅横额标语夹道迎接,展示了海外赤子诚心意切。荷兰荷中商务文教协会与鹿特丹妇联的侨领们更是大清早从鹿特丹赶来,带着华二代和华三代的青少年们一起欢迎李克强总理访问荷兰。

    而李克强总理在繁忙的行程中,还特别旋风式地访问了莱顿大学,和校长Carel Stolker以及汉学系的师生见面,交谈。

紧接访问欧盟首都

李克强总理伉俪及随行部长们于10月15日晚上在海牙诺代恩德(Noordeinde)宫会见荷兰国王威廉-亚历山大与王后马克西玛。李克强首先转达习近平主席对威廉•亚历山大国王的亲切问候。并表示,近年来中荷关系取得快速发展,特别是两国元首实现互访,为双边关系打开广阔前景。中荷关系的发展不仅有利于两国人民,对中欧关系也有重要意义。中方愿同荷方深化各领域合作,加强投融资、普惠金融合作,为两国企业、特别是中小企业开展合作创造有利条件,欢迎荷兰企业抓住机会来华投资兴业。威廉•亚历山大国王表示,近年来荷中高层交往密切,有力推动两国关系向前发展,带动两国互利合作与企业相互投资。面对当前世界面临的挑战,荷中更需要加强团结合作,共同应对不确定因素带来的风险,维护国际贸易体系和世界稳定与发展。

今年是中国改革开放40周年,是中欧建立全面战略伙伴关系15周年。也是《欧洲联盟条约》签署25周年(也称《马斯特里赫特条约》[1993-2018])。荷兰作为欧洲的门户,是中国与欧盟建立长期贸易伙伴关系的桥头堡。在圆满成功访问荷兰之后,中国国务院总理李克强总理于10月17日赶赴欧盟首都布鲁塞尔,对比利时进行国事访问,同时比利时首相米歇尔举行会谈,中比将努力促进欧中关系发展,加快「中欧投资协定」谈判。

百尺竿头更进一步,首届中国国际进口博览会将于11月5-10日在上海举行,一向奉行自由贸易政策的荷兰对这次盛会积极响应。荷兰作为首批受邀参加进口博览会国家展的欧洲国家之一,将派外贸与发展合作大臣卡格率团赴上海出席进口博览会及虹桥国际贸易论坛。荷兰共有16家企业预定了1500多平方米展位面积,其中包括飞利浦、恩智浦、阿斯麦、喜力等国际知名企业。此外,荷兰多个地方投资促进机构将组织当地企业作为专业观众参与进口博览会。

(部分图片来自相关媒体综合)

【注明】

据悉,今年年初,Lithium Werks首席执行官就宣布,未来将投资16亿欧在中国建设电池厂。Lithium Werks是全球知名的锂离子电池公司,近几年通过加快收购步伐,成为世界上最先进的磷酸铁锂储能系统集团。其实,Lithium Werks在中国已设有工厂,但中国近年来电池需求一直在增长。比起其他国家,中国的发展速度很快,且效率很高。新建电池厂的产量每年预计能达到8兆瓦时,相当于为16万轿车同时提供动力。且将在2021年初投入生产。

【附件1 】

李克强总理访荷之际,发表署名文章:《故友新知 共创未来》

中国国务院总理李克强14日在《欧洲时报》发表署名文章,全文中英文对照如下:

故友新知 共创未来

A time to renew friendship and embrace a brighter future

 

中华人民共和国国务院总理 李克强

Li Keqiang

Premier of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China

 

很高兴作为中国总理首次访问荷兰。于我而言,荷兰不但不陌生,反而很熟悉。20多年前,我在中国地方工作时就曾到访荷兰,贵国发达的现代农业、旅游业、港口、物流等,给我留下深刻印象。可以说,我这次来,也是探访故友。

It is a great pleasure for me to visit the beautiful country of the Netherlands for the first time as Chinese Premier. To me, this country is by no means a strange, faraway land, but a familiar place. About 20 years ago when I was working in a Chinese province, I visited the Netherlands and was deeply impressed by its modern agriculture and thriving tourism, ports and logistics, to name just a few. So this is like a visit with old friends.

这些年,尽管没有到访,但我一直关注荷兰发展和中荷关系。我高兴地看到,近年来两国关系与合作不断向前发展。特别是2014年习近平主席成功对荷兰进行国事访问,中荷建立起开放务实的全面合作伙伴关系。今年以来,威廉-亚历山大国王和吕特首相2个月内相继访华,创造了中荷关系史上新的纪录。

Although I haven’t had many chances to come back, I have been following the development of this country and that of China-Netherlands relations. I am glad to see continued progress in our bilateral ties and cooperation in recent years, most notably the establishment of an open and pragmatic partnership for comprehensive cooperation during President Xi Jinping’s successful state visit here in 2014. Another milestone was recorded in the history of our relations earlier this year when King Willem-Alexander and Prime Minister Mark Rutte paid visits to China within two months.

中荷两国有句意思相近的成语——趁热打铁。我愿通过此次访问荷兰,推动两国关系与合作持续发展。

There is a proverb in both Chinese and Dutch which urges people to strike while the iron is hot. I hope my upcoming visit will do the same and promote further progress of the interactions and cooperation between our two countries.

荷兰所能引发的联想非常丰富——在历史学家、经济学家的眼中,荷兰是第一家股份制公司、股票交易所和现代银行的诞生地;企业家们说起荷兰,津津乐道于这片土地培育了一批知名跨国公司;人文学者们仰慕荷兰在艺术、哲学等领域对世界的贡献;在游客的旅行印象里,荷兰是风景如画的“欧洲花园”“风车之国”。

The Netherlands has been associated with many achievements. To historians and economists, it is the birthplace of the world’s first share-holding company, first stock exchange and first modern bank. To business leaders, it is home to many renowned multinationals. Humanities scholars admire your country for its contribution to arts and philosophy. In the travelogues of tourists, the Netherlands is the picturesque Garden of Europe and Land of Windmills.

早在几个世纪前,中国的丝绸与瓷器就运到荷兰。荷兰是最早承认新中国、最早同中国开展长期性科研合作的西方国家之一。回顾我们各自的历史与奋斗历程,在“中国故事”与“荷兰故事”中,有一种相似的精神气质。

On the Chinese side, silk and porcelain made in China arrived in this country as early as centuries ago. The Netherlands was among the first western countries to recognize the People’s Republic and enter into long-term cooperation on scientific research with us. If we compare our histories and national journeys, we can find similarities in national traits between the Chinese story and the Dutch story.

荷兰在漫长的岁月中抵御自然灾害,克服环境局限,修堤筑坝、围海造田,最大化利用自身资源趋利避害,完成了从抗海而生、向海而生、出海而生的华丽蜕变。这种勇于拼搏、敢为人先、开放务实的精神浓缩为一句镌刻在荷兰国徽上的铭文——“坚持不懈”。

In the long fight against natural disasters, the Dutch people have built dams and dikes and reclaimed land from the sea to overcome the constraints imposed by the natural environment and make the most of its somewhat limited resources. Through centuries of hard work, your country has accomplished a great transformation from fighting the sea, to harnessing the sea, and to thriving and prospering by the sea. Such an enterprising, pioneering, open and pragmatic spirit is best captured by the motto on your coat of arms — Je Maintiendrai (I will maintain).

回顾中华民族几千年历史,我们曾饱经内忧外患,正是在一次次攻坚克难、爬坡过坎中发展壮大,锤炼出勤劳勇敢、不屈不挠的民族品质。改革开放40年来,我们直面很多从未遇到过的风险与挑战,笃定前行,毫不动摇。如果说我们在“积跬步”中取得了“至千里”的成就,其中一个重要的经验就是——“坚持不懈”。

For the Chinese nation, it has faced many turmoil and challenges both internal and imposed from the outside through the centuries. But the Chinese people have always emerged stronger by overcoming the difficulties and obstacles and forged a national character of industry, courage and perseverance. Similarly, in the past four decades of reform and opening-up, we have encountered unprecedented risks and challenges; but we stayed the course and never flinched. A long journey is made through taking small steps. If there is one thing that we have learned along the way, it is that we shall always maintain.

如今,面对单边主义、保护主义的逆流,面对气候变化、恐怖主义的挑战,未来何去何从?是开放还是保守?是前进还是倒退?

Today, facing the headwinds of unilateralism and protectionism as well as the challenges of climate change and terrorism, we need to be clear about the direction where we are going. We should ask ourselves the question: do we opt for openness or stay behind closed doors,go forward or backward?

以贸易立国的荷兰和致力于开放发展的中国,都是以规则为基础的多边秩序的受益者,相信我们会给出一个共同的答案——筑牢多边主义、自由贸易、经济全球化、开放型世界经济的堤坝,以实际行动携手合作,让历经曲折的全球经济复苏坚持不懈,让“荷兰故事”和“中国故事”坚持不懈,让世界的和平与发展坚持不懈!

The Netherlands is a trading nation and China has been pursuing development through opening-up. As beneficiaries of the rules-based multilateral order, our two countries are likely to give similar answers to the above question. We would agree that the answer lies in making a stronger commitment to uphold multilateralism, free trade, economic globalization and an open world economy, and striving to sustain the hard-won global recovery with concrete and concerted efforts. Let’s join hands to maintain the Dutch story and the Chinese story and promote world peace and development.

说荷兰是新知,不仅因为面对当今世界的新问题,中荷要共迎新挑战,更因为中国新一轮改革开放的发展进程,给了中荷合作新空间。荷兰有句谚语,与人分享,快乐加倍。我们认为,与人分享,机遇也会加倍。

We need to build on our friendship and further enhance it. This is because we need to rise up to new challenges in the global context. Moreover, the development driven by a new round of reform and opening-up has created new space for cooperation between our countries. As a Dutch saying goes, happiness doubles when you share it. Likewise, opportunities will multiply when we share them.

处于不同发展阶段的中荷两国,有着很强的经济互补性。共建“一带一路”倡议的推进,将为荷兰充分发挥欧洲门户的区位优势和水陆空交通的便利、助力中欧互联互通提供新机遇;中国经济新动能的蓬勃发展和产业结构的转型升级,将为中荷在诸多领域开展技术合作开辟新高地;中国广大民众对生活品质的追求和消费能力的不断提升,将为荷兰优质产品进入中国打开新市场;中国创新驱动发展战略的深入实施,将为荷兰发挥创意产业优势参与中国的创新经济增长注入新动力;中国一系列深化改革、扩大开放措施的逐步落地,特别是服务业、金融业外资准入的放宽,将使中国成为荷兰企业投资兴业更广阔的热土。

China and the Netherlands, at different development stages, have much to offer each other economically. Efforts to advance the Belt and Road Initiative will provide more opportunities to leverage the advantageous location of the Netherlands as the gateway to Europe and facilitate connectivity between China and Europe by making full use of the convenient land, sea and air transportation in this country. The boom of new growth drivers and upgrading of the industrial structure in China will cultivate new areas of technological cooperation. Chinese people’s pursuit of a better life with higher household spending promises a new market for quality Dutch products. China’s innovation-driven development strategy being implemented in full swing will offer new impetus for creative industries in the Netherlands to join in the development of the innovation economy in China. With a host of measures in place to deepen reform and expand opening-up, especially to widen market access for foreign investment in services sectors, the financial sector included, China will generate more promising business opportunities for Dutch companies and investors.

中国在优化营商环境、扩大外资市场准入、保护知识产权等方面的力度会更大,步伐会更快,这是我们对世界的承诺,更是中国自身发展的需要。我们会朝着既定的目标坚持不懈走下去。中国改革开放的进程,就是与国际通行规则不断接轨、与世界各国的发展不断对接的过程。我们欢迎包括荷兰在内的各国分享中国的发展机遇,也有信心在良性的竞争与合作中共同成长,在克服困难、解决问题中开一片天地,有一番作为。

China will make greater efforts and take faster steps to improve its business environment, expand market access for foreign investors, and protect intellectual property rights. This is a commitment China has made not just to the world but more so to serve China’s own development. We will stay committed to these goals. The process of reform and opening-up will see China further align its domestic rules with international practices and seek development synergy with the rest of the world. The Netherlands and other countries are welcome to share in China’s development opportunities. Together, through friendly competition and cooperation, we will prevail over difficulties and challenges and open up new vistas for common progress.

我带着对故友的情谊、对新知的期待再访荷兰。美好的未来不会自动向我们走来,需要我们坚持不懈地向其走去。我相信,敢为人先的荷兰将在中国新一轮改革开放进程中抢占先机,中荷乃至中欧的携手同行将为我们创造一个共同的美好未来!

I have come to the Netherlands to renew and enhance a long-running friendship. A bright future dawns only when we maintain. I trust that the Netherlands known for its pioneering spirit will be an early bird in China’s new round of reform and opening-up. With joint efforts, China, the Netherlands and Europe as a whole will all embrace a brighter future.

【附件2】

2018年10月16日,李克强总理在海牙出席中国—荷兰经贸论坛并发表主旨演讲。演讲中英文对照如下:

在中国-荷兰经贸论坛上的主旨演讲

20181016日,海牙)

中华人民共和国国务院总理 李克强

Keynote Speech by H.E. Li Keqiang

Premier of the State Council of

The People’s Republic of China

At the China-Netherlands Business Forum

The Hague, 16 October 2018

 

 

尊敬的吕特首相

女士们、先生们

Prime Minister Mark Rutte,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

很高兴来到美丽的海牙出席中荷经贸论坛。我谨代表中国政府对论坛的召开表示热烈祝贺对长期致力于中荷友好合作的各界人士表示诚挚感谢

It is my great pleasure to join you at the China-Netherlands Business Forum in this beautiful city of The Hague. On behalf of the Chinese government, I wish to offer warm congratulations on the opening of the Forum and extend sincere thanks to people of all walks of life who have long been committed to the friendship and cooperation between China and the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

今年是中荷关系亮点纷呈的一年。今年2月,习近平主席会见到华访问的威廉亚历山大国王陛下,进一步引领和推动了两国关系发展。4月吕特首相正式访华,此次我访问荷兰,实现了两国政府首脑年内互访。这样频繁的高层交往,为中荷开放务实的全面合作伙伴关系注入了新动力。

This year has seen many highlights in China-Netherlands relations. In February, President Xi Jinping met with His Majesty the King who visited China. The meeting provided further guidance to and boosted the growth of our bilateral ties. With the official visit to China by Prime Minister Mark Rutte in April and my visit to the Netherlands this time, we made an exchange of visits at the head-of-government level within a year. Such frequent high-level interactions have lent fresh impetus to our relations defined as an open and pragmatic partnership for comprehensive cooperation.

荷兰是较早实现现代化的国家,在诸多领域取得骄人成就。世界第一家股份制公司、第一家股票交易所、第一家现代银行均诞生于此。人均国内生产总值位居世界前列,是全球第五大货物出口国、第六大服务出口国、第二大农产品和食品出口国,拥有一批国际知名企业和品牌,50%的企业是创新活跃型企业。刚才,我参观了荷兰高新技术展,贵国雄厚的科技实力、先进的产业水平给我留下深刻印象。

Being one of the earliest achievers of modernization, the Netherlands can be rightly proud of its accomplishments in many areas. It is the birthplace of the world’s first share-holding company, first stock exchange and first modern bank. It boasts one of the world’s highest per capita GDPs, and ranks as the fifth, the sixth, and the second largest exporter of goods, services and agriculture produce and food respectively. It is home to a great many well-known companies and brands, with half of its companies actively engaged in innovation. Just now I was given a presentation of some of the leading hi-tech products of this country, which left me deeply impressed by the scientific and technological prowess and industrial capabilities of the Netherlands.

中荷虽然相隔遥远,但两国人民友好往来源远流长。早在17世纪,荷兰商人就将中国瓷器、茶叶、丝绸销往欧洲。中荷建交后特别是近年来,两国合作取得长足进展。从2000年至今,荷兰一直是中国在欧盟前三大贸易伙伴之一,预计今年双边贸易额接近900亿美元。两国相互投资存量均达到200亿美元左右,荷兰15家世界五百强企业中有11家在华投资,荷兰是中国在欧盟第二大投资目的地。两国经贸合作硕果累累,得益于双方秉持相互尊重、平等相待的原则,得益于双方坚持开放包容、互惠互利的理念,得益于双方承继务实进取、开拓创新的精神。今天在座的大多是双方企业代表,中荷经贸合作说到底靠的是两国工商界的辛勤和智慧。

Although our countries are far apart geographically, friendly interactions between our peoples go back centuries. As early as in the 17th century, Dutch merchants brought Chinese porcelain, tea and silk to Europe. Our cooperation has come a long way since the establishment of diplomatic ties, especially in recent years. The Netherlands has been among China’s top three trading partners in the EU since the year 2000, with two-way trade projected to approach US$90 billion this year. We each have about US$20 billion of investment stock in the other’s market. Eleven out of the 15 Dutch Fortune 500 companies have invested in China, and the Netherlands is now China’s second largest investment destination in the EU.

We owe such fruitful economic ties to our shared adherence to the principles of mutual respect and equality, to our commitment to openness, inclusiveness and mutual benefit, and to our tireless pursuit of pragmatism, enterprise and innovation. With so many business leaders present, let me say the growth of trade and economic cooperation between our two countries is, to a large measure, down to the hard work and wisdom of our business communities.

昨天,我与吕特首相进行了富有成效的会谈,达成了许多重要共识。中荷合作基础好、潜力大、前景好,我们应再接再厉,推动双方合作向更大规模、更深层次、更高水平迈进。

Yesterday, I had productive talks with Prime Minister Rutte. We reached important common understanding in wide-ranging areas. Given the strong foundation, enormous potential and great prospect of our cooperation, there is every reason that we should redouble our efforts to further broaden, deepen and elevate China-Netherlands cooperation.

我们要做大双方贸易合作的“蛋糕”。中荷贸易额只占两国外贸总额的1.5%,还有很大上升空间。中方愿进口荷方更多工业制成品、先进设备、优质农产品,满足中国消费和产业升级需求。首届中国国际进口博览会即将举办,欢迎荷方企业踊跃参与、展示实力,预祝你们赢得大单。中国商品性价比高,七成以上对荷出口是转口贸易,希望荷方企业进一步发挥转口贸易等优势,把更多中国商品引入荷兰及欧洲市场。双方跨境电商增长很快,应打造更好的软硬件条件,使两国民众消费有更丰富的选择、更便捷的途径。

We need to make the pie of our trade bigger. As China-Netherlands trade only accounts for 1.5 percent of the combined trade volume of our two countries, there is considerable space for further expansion. China is keen to import more manufactured industrial products, advanced equipment and quality agricultural produce from the Netherlands. This will better meet the needs of Chinese consumers and be conducive to industrial upgrading in China. The first-ever China International Import Expo will open soon. We look forward to the active participation of Dutch companies to showcase your capabilities and I wish you hefty orders in advance. Chinese products offer good value for money; over 70 percent of Chinese exports to this country are through entrepôt trade. I hope Dutch companies will fully capitalize on your strength as a transshipment hub to bring more Chinese products to the Dutch and the wider European markets. In view of the rapid growth in our trans-border e-commerce, it is high time we create better conditions, both in hardware facilities and the softer aspects, to give Chinese and Dutch consumers more choices and greater convenience.

我们要拓展双向投资合作更大空间。中方愿与荷方一道,为各自企业到对方投资创造公平、非歧视和透明的营商环境。欢迎荷兰企业将自身竞争优势与中国大市场更好结合起来,扩大对华投资,特别是到发展潜力大的中国中西部地区、东北等老工业基地投资,到产业生态好的各类开发区、自由贸易试验区、自由贸易港投资。荷方一直秉持自由开放的投资政策,中国企业对荷投资基于市场原则和商业规则,希望荷方给予中方投资者公平公正待遇。

We need to open up more space for two-way investment cooperation. China is ready to work with the Netherlands in creating a fair, non-discriminatory and transparent business environment for each other’s investors. Dutch companies are welcome to expand their investment in China by leveraging the synergy between their leading-edge capabilities and China’s huge market potential. In particular, I would encourage you to explore opportunities in China’s central and western provinces as well as traditional industrial bases in the northeast, which hold enormous development potential. You are also welcome to invest in development zones, pilot free trade zones or free trade ports in China which offer enabling conditions. On our part, we hope the Netherlands, a nation long committed to a free and open investment policy, will give fair and equitable treatment to Chinese companies who make investments in this country according to market principles and commercial rules.

我们要加强“一带一路”建设合作。荷兰海上贸易历史悠久,有“欧洲门户”之称。中方愿与荷方加强港口、物流、海关等领域合作,为打造高效畅通的亚欧大通道作出积极努力。两国企业已开展设备供货、设计咨询等三方合作,应进一步拓展三方合作的领域和环节,造福当地人民。共建“一带一路”是经济合作倡议,不是地缘政治工具。我们主张在“一带一路”和三方合作中,遵循市场规律和国际通行规则,发挥国际和地区机构作用,符合有关国家国情,在阳光下运作,确保债务风险可控。

We need to strengthen cooperation on the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Having a long history of maritime trade has made the Netherlands a gateway to Europe. China is ready to work closely with the Netherlands in ports, logistics, customs and other fields to help build an efficient and smooth passageway between Asia and Europe. Companies of our two countries have been engaged in third-party cooperation on equipment supply, design and consulting. We need to further expand the areas and scope of such cooperation to deliver greater benefits to the local communities.

The BRI is an initiative for economic cooperation, not a tool of geopolitics. In carrying out BRI and third-party cooperation, we should follow market principles and prevailing international rules, and leverage the role of regional and international institutions. We should proceed from the national conditions of countries concerned and ensure transparency in project operation in order to keep the debt risks under control.

我们要培育创新合作的增长点。勇于创新创造,是两国人民的重要特质。荷兰位于全球创新“第一梯队”,近年来中国大力实施创新驱动发展战略,大众创业、万众创新蔚然成风。当前新一轮产业革命蓬勃兴起,全球产业链、创新链环环相扣,各国都不同程度融入其中,各出其力、各得其利。中荷政府已联合实施三大科技创新合作计划,我们愿在此基础上进一步提升创新合作水平。重点在智能航运、农业水利、航空航天、生命科学、电子信息、新材料、化学、环保等领域,加强人才培养、联合研究、成果转化等合作,通过优势互补达到“1+12”的效果。

We need to cultivate new growth drivers in our cooperation on innovation. The people of our two countries are both known for being bold innovators. While the Netherlands has been a top-tier innovative country in the world, China has also implemented an innovation strategy in recent years to drive growth and fostered a culture of entrepreneurship and innovation across society. As the new round of industrial revolution gathers momentum, global industrial and innovation chains are becoming closely entwined. All countries are involved, to varying degrees, in this process, each contributing its share and drawing benefits in return.

The Chinese and Dutch governments have implemented three major cooperation programs on science, technology and innovation. We are ready to build on the existing foundation to upgrade cooperation in this field. We should enhance cooperation in human resource development, joint research and commercialization of research results, particularly in areas such as smart shipping, agriculture, water management, aviation and space, life sciences, electronic information, new materials, chemistry and environmental protection. Such cooperation, which draws on our complementarity, will generate more benefits than if we act alone.

女士们、先生们!

Ladies and Gentlemen,

中荷合作是中欧合作的典范和缩影。当今世界正在发生深刻变革,无论形势怎么变,中国始终视欧洲为世界重要一极,始终视欧盟为全面战略伙伴,乐见一个团结、稳定、开放、繁荣的欧盟。面对世界经济不稳定不确定性因素增多的局面,中欧作为全球两大重要经济体,应当加强战略沟通和协调合作,携手应对挑战。希望欧方放宽相关限制,扩大对华高端装备、高新技术产品出口。中欧投资协定谈判已取得积极进展,双方应继续努力,推动谈判达成实质性成果。中欧自贸区建设是双方经贸关系高水平发展的“推进器”,我们愿与欧方一道,为此筑牢基础,尽早启动联合可行性研究。

China-Netherlands cooperation is a fine example of China-Europe cooperation. The world today is undergoing profound changes. Yet no matter how the situation may evolve, China will always see Europe as an important pole in the world and the EU as a comprehensive strategic partner. China hopes to see the EU staying united, stable, open and prosperous. Given the growing uncertainties and destabilizing factors in the world economy, there is every reason for China and the EU, as two major economies, to enhance strategic communication and coordination, and respond to the challenges together.

We hope the EU will ease restrictions and increase the export of high-end equipment and high-tech products to China. We need to build on the progress in the negotiations of a bilateral investment agreement to push for substantive outcomes. A possible China-EU FTA would give a big boost to the growth of our economic and trade relations. We are ready to work with the EU to lay a solid foundation for the FTA by launching a joint feasibility study as early as possible.

中荷合作、中欧合作要走向深化,离不开自由开放的环境。当前,单边主义和保护主义明显抬头,多边贸易体制受到冲击。以规则为基础、以世贸组织为代表的多边贸易体制,是各方总结历史教训、经过长期艰辛努力建设起来的,在全球经贸体系中发挥着不可替代的作用。目前,世贸组织成员贸易额已占全球贸易额的98%以上。中欧同为多边贸易体制的受益者,也是世贸组织权威性有效性的维护者。当然,世贸组织的一些规则需要改革完善,我们已为此建立了联合工作组,近期还举行了首次对话。中方认为,世贸组织的开放、透明、包容、非歧视等基本原则不能改,贸易自由化方向不能变,改革应照顾大多数成员的关切,维护发展中成员的发展权益、特殊与差别待遇,致力于缩小南北差距。中国支持自由贸易,也主张公平贸易,因为没有自由贸易就没有公平贸易,不公平的贸易不可持续。但自由贸易、公平贸易都应基于公认的世贸规则。

To deepen China-Netherlands and China-EU cooperation, a free and open environment is indispensable. Yet, the rise of unilateralism and protectionism has dealt a blow to the multilateral trading regime. The rules-based multilateral trading regime, represented by the WTO, was built with long and hard efforts by all parties on the basis of learning the lessons of history. It has played an irreplaceable role in the global trading system. Trade among WTO members now accounts for more than 98 percent of global trade. China and the EU are both beneficiaries of the multilateral trading regime and advocates for upholding the authority and effectiveness of the WTO.

That being said, some of the WTO rules do need to be reformed and improved. China and the EU have established a joint working group for this purpose, which held its first dialogue not long ago. China maintains that the fundamental principles of the WTO, such as openness, transparency, inclusiveness and non-discrimination, should not be compromised. The direction of trade liberalization should continue to be followed. Reforms should accommodate the concerns of the majority of the membership, uphold the development rights and interests as well as the special and differential treatment of the developing members, and serve to narrow the gap between the North and the South. China supports fair trade as well as free trade. Without free trade, there will be no fair trade; trade that is unfair is simply unsustainable; be it free trade or fair trade, all trade should be based on universally recognized WTO rules.

 

女士们、先生们!

 

Ladies and Gentlemen,

中国经过40年改革开放,经济发展取得显著成就。有外国朋友问,中国已是世界第二大经济体,还是不是发展中国家?认识一个国家的发展阶段,要全面、立体、多角度地观察。中国经济总量大,但人均国内生产总值只有8800多美元,仅为欧盟的四分之一;有40%以上的人口生活在农村,其中有3000多万贫困人口、人均年收入不到3000元人民币,相当于一个中等国家的人口规模;广大农村和一些偏远地区的基础设施比较落后,有的刚刚通路通电通网。联合国公布的人类发展指数中,中国排名第86,比荷兰落后76位。由此可见,中国仍然是一个发展中国家,要想成为高收入国家、全面实现现代化,还有很长的路要走。

Through four decades of reform and opening-up, China has made significant economic progress. With China becoming the second largest economy in the world, some foreign friends started to wonder: is China still a developing country? To identify the development stage of a country, one needs to take a comprehensive and multi-dimensional view. China does have a huge economic aggregate, but its per capita GDP stands just above US$8,800, only a quarter of that of the EU. More than 40 percent of Chinese live in the rural areas. Among them, over 30 million, equivalent to the population of a medium-sized country, are living in poverty with a per capita annual income of less than 3,000 RMB yuan. A large number of villages and some remote areas are still struggling with primitive infrastructure. Some of them have only just had access to roads, electricity and the internet. China ranks 86th on the UN list of Human Development Index, 76 places behind the Netherlands. All these speak to the fact that China remains a developing country, and there is still a long way to go before China becomes a high-income country and achieves all-round modernization.

中国发展水平与发达国家存在的明显差距,也意味着巨大的发展潜力。今年上半年中国经济增长6.8%,受外部环境变化等因素的影响,三季度经济增速预计可能会稳中有缓,但从总体上看,经济运行仍保持在合理区间。特别是就业保持稳定,前三季度城镇新增就业超过1100万人,城镇调查失业率稳定在5%左右,为历史较低水平。经济结构持续优化,消费增速保持在9%以上,服务业在国民经济中的占比继续提高,作为经济增长主动力的作用进一步增强;高技术产业、战略性新兴产业和装备制造业增长明显快于一般工业;农业生产形势较好,主要农产品供给充裕。发展新动能蓬勃兴起,新业态、新模式层出不穷,前三季度新注册企业达到500万户,日均1.8万户以上,各类市场主体已超过1亿户,新动能对经济增长的贡献率超过1/3、对城镇新增就业的贡献率超过2/3。经济增长质量效益稳步提升,规模以上工业和服务业企业利润实现两位数增长,居民收入增长与经济增长基本同步。当然,我们也清醒地看到,当前复杂多变的国际形势给中国经济发展带来了许多不确定性和不稳定性,经济下行压力加大,我们面临的困难和挑战增多,但中国经济回旋余地大并且具有较强韧性,经过近几年发展与创新,宏观调控工具箱里的工具较多,我们完全有条件实现今年发展的主要目标任务,并经过持续努力,促进经济长期保持中高速增长、迈向中高端水平。

On the other hand, the significant gap between China and developed countries can be turned into huge potential for development. The Chinese economy grew by 6.8 percent in the first half of this year. Growth in the third quarter is projected to moderate somewhat due to factors such as changes in the external environment. Yet we expect the steady momentum of growth to continue and overall economic performance to be maintained within the proper range. Employment, in particular, has remained solid, with over 11 million new urban jobs created in the first three quarters of this year. This has helped to keep surveyed urban unemployment rate at a relatively low level of around 5 percent. Structural adjustments have continued to make headway: consumption has kept growing by over 9 percent; the services sector accounts for a growing share of the economy, consolidating its role as the main engine for growth. High-tech sectors, strategic emerging industries and equipment manufacturing expanded notably faster than general industries. Agricultural production remains strong, with main agricultural products in abundant supply.

What’s more, new growth drivers such as new forms and models of business have been thriving. The number of newly registered enterprises reached five million in the first three quarters of this year, or 18,000 for an average day, bringing the total number of market entities in China to over 100 million. These new growth drivers now contribute over one third to economic growth and more than two thirds to urban job creation. The quality and performance of the Chinese economy has been improving: profits of large industrial companies and service providers maintained double-digit growth, and household income rose largely in tandem with GDP growth.

This being said, we are deeply conscious of the many uncertainties and destabilizing factors confronting the Chinese economy in the context of a complex and fast-changing international environment. Downward pressure on the economy has notably increased, so have the difficulties and challenges facing us. Nevertheless, the Chinese economy enjoys strong resilience and broad space for maneuver, and thanks to years of development and innovation, we have at our disposal a fairly substantial toolkit for macro-control. All these will fully equip us to meet the main targets of development for this year and, through continued unrelenting efforts, to sustain medium-high growth for a long time to come and move to a medium-high level of development.

中国将坚定不移推进改革。改革是推动中国发展的根本动力。中国的市场取向改革只会加快不会放缓,更不可能走回头路。我们将持续简化各类行政审批、提高政府服务效能,大幅压缩企业开办时间、许可证办理时间、进出口通关时间。我们将更大规模减税、更加明显降费,包括明显降低社保费率。中国的国有企业基本完成了公司制、股份制改革,不少已是上市公司,自主决策、自负盈亏,经营公开透明,没有享受特殊补贴政策。我们将深化国资国企改革,分层分类推进混合所有制改革,欢迎外资参与中国的国有企业改制重组。我们将提高各级政府相关法规、条例和标准的透明度,提升政策执行的一致性和可预见性,坚决维护公平竞争的市场环境。凡在华注册的各类企业,都一视同仁、平等对待。

China will stay committed to advancing reform. Reform is the fundamental driver of China’s development. China will only speed up its market-oriented reforms. We will not slow down the pace of reform, let alone turn back. The Chinese government will continue to streamline administrative approval procedures, provide more efficient services, and slash the time required to start a business, get a permit or go through customs clearance. We will introduce tax cuts on a bigger scale and meaningfully lower fees, including the social security contribution rate. The reform to transform state-owned enterprises (SOEs) into standard companies and joint-stock companies has been basically completed. China’s SOEs, many of which are publicly listed, run their operations in an open and transparent manner. It is entirely up to them to make their own business decisions, and they are responsible for any profits or losses. They do not enjoy any special subsidies.

Continued efforts will be made to deepen the reform of SOEs and state-owned assets, including mixed-ownership reform in a tiered and category-based manner. Foreign investors are welcome to participate in the reforming and restructuring of Chinese SOEs. We will work for greater transparency in government regulations, ordinances and standards at all levels and higher consistency and predictability in policy execution. A level-playing field will be resolutely enforced. All companies registered in China will receive fair and equal treatment.

中国将坚定不移扩大开放。中方已全面履行“入世”承诺,一些方面甚至超过承诺,外资已实行准入前国民待遇加负面清单的管理模式。目前中国货物贸易额相当于国内生产总值的1/3以上,外资企业贡献了约40%的出口、20%的税收。中国经济已深度融入世界,扩大开放是基于自身发展需要的必然选择。今年我们实施了一系列开放新举措,包括降低部分商品关税,扩大制造业、服务业市场准入。下个月将再降低1500多个税目工业品等商品进口关税税率,关税总水平将进一步降低到7.5%,在全球处于中等偏低水平。中国将进一步放开金融服务业,在已经放开银行业股比限制的基础上,三年后放开保险、证券等行业,届时会有符合条件的外资企业获得全牌照全股比经营资格。中国不断拓展开放的广度、深度,将给各国工商界提供更大的合作空间。今年前8个月,实际外商直接投资增长6%以上。目前,一批跨国公司正在酝酿新一轮对华投资,欢迎包括荷兰在内的欧方企业把握机遇、抢占商机。

China will stay committed to greater opening-up. China has comprehensively fulfilled, in some cases outperformed, the commitments it made upon accession to the WTO. A foreign investment management model of pre-establishment national treatment and a negative list has been rolled out. China’s trade in goods now accounts for more than one third of its GDP. And foreign-invested enterprises have contributed about 40 percent to China’s export and 20 percent to tax revenue. China’s economy has deeply integrated into the world economy. Pursuing greater opening-up is a sure choice based on its own development needs. Since early this year, we have introduced an array of new measures in pursuit of greater opening-up, including lowering tariffs for some goods and widening market access in the manufacturing and services industries.

Starting from next month, we will cut import tariffs for more than 1,500 industrial goods, which will bring our overall tariff rate down to 7.5 percent, a lower-middle level by international standards. China will further open its financial services sector. Just as we have lifted foreign ownership caps in the banking sector, we will take similar steps in the insurance and securities sectors in the next three years. By then there will be foreign ventures qualified for full-license, full-ownership operation in the financial sector. China’s pursuit of opening-up in greater breadth and depth will provide more cooperation opportunities to the business communities around the world. In the first eight months of this year, total paid-in foreign direct investment in China grew by over 6 percent. A new round of investment by some multinationals is in the pipelines. Companies from the Netherlands and other European countries are welcome to get a head start in seizing business opportunities in China.

中国将坚定不移激励创新。中国市场规模大、产业配套能力强、人力人才资源丰富,在华创业创新大有可为。我们将打造更好的创新生态,加大基础研究、应用基础研究支持力度,鼓励企业增加研发投入,完善科技人员激励和创新成果转化政策,支持产学研用、大中小企业、线上线下融通创新、融通发展。严格保护知识产权,既是中国实现高质量发展的需要,也是拓展对外合作的需要。近年来,中国完善了近20部相关法律法规,查办了140多万件侵权假冒案件,成立了专门的知识产权法院。中国对外支付的知识产权费大幅增长,去年达286亿美元,其中支付给欧盟的占三分之一。中国决不允许强制转让技术,审批外商投资不以技术转让为前提。对于合资合作双方在互利共赢基础上开展的技术转让、技术合作,政府予以尊重。我们将实施更具威慑力、惩罚力的侵权赔偿制度,改善司法服务,健全与国际经贸规则接轨的创新保护体系。

China will stay committed to boosting innovation. Much can be accomplished in China given its huge market, strong supporting industries and abundant human resources. We will foster a more enabling eco-system to spur innovation, intensify support for basic research and applied basic research, encourage corporate R&D spending, and improve incentives for researchers and policies for the commercialization of innovation outcomes. We will facilitate integrated innovation and synergized development of companies of different sizes, industries, universities, research institutes and end users in both online and offline activities.

Stringent IPR protection meets China’s needs for high-quality development and closer cooperation with the rest of the world. In recent years, China has revised nearly 20 IPR-related laws and regulations, handled over 1.4 million cases of IPR infringement, and set up special IPR tribunals. Intellectual property royalty payments by Chinese companies to overseas proprietors have increased by a big margin to reach US$28.6 billion last year, of which one third was made to the EU. China will never allow forced technology transfer or make technology transfer a precondition for foreign investment approval. Mutually beneficial technology transfer and cooperation between business partners in joint ventures and other forms of cooperation will be respected by the government. We will introduce a more rigorous mechanism of punitive compensation for IPR infringements to deter violations, improve judicial services and align China’s innovation protection system with international business rules.

女士们、先生们!

Ladies and Gentlemen,

荷兰有句谚语,“船员有多强,船的推进力就有多大”。在座企业家都是工商界的翘楚,是中荷合作大船的重量级“水手”,相信大家一定会携手奋力、破浪向前,在双方合作中不断创造新纪录、赢得更多喝彩!

There is a proverb in the Netherlands that says, “A ship is as strong as its crew.” If we compare China-Netherlands cooperation to a giant ship, business leaders present today would be sailors whose work is vital to the voyage ahead. I trust that all of you “sailors” will brave the waves hand-in-hand and forge ahead to set new records and score greater success in our cooperation.

谢谢大家。

Thank you.

 

文章转自中国驻荷兰大使馆

 

【附件3】

 

在李克强总理对荷兰进行正式访问前夕,吴恳大使在新华网发表题为《让中荷友好合作之船风劲满帆,行稳致远》的署名文章。全文如下:

金秋十月,硕果飘香。中荷关系也将迎来一件“大喜事”。应荷兰王国首相吕特邀请,国务院总理李克强即将对荷兰进行正式访问,这是我国总理时隔14年再次访荷,对推动中荷关系发展具有特殊重要意义。

荷兰位于欧洲西北部,傍海而生、向海而行,早在17世纪就以“海上马车夫”闻名于世。荷兰人民以勤勉务实的精神和探索创新的勇气,筑坝圩田,围海造陆,在低地、沼泽上建设起美丽家园,创建了“小国大业”,使如今的荷兰在农业、电子、水利、造船、化工、医疗等众多领域具有全球领先水平。

中荷两国虽位于亚欧大陆两端,但早在400多年前就已通过海上丝绸之路开始了贸易往来和文化交流。中华人民共和国成立后,荷兰是最早承认新中国的西方国家之一。两国建立大使级外交关系以来,双边关系取得了长足发展,特别是近年来发展势头强劲。

密切的高层交往是中荷关系发展的“指航灯”。2014年和2015年,习近平主席和威廉-亚历山大国王成功实现两国元首历史性互访,明确中荷“开放务实的全面合作伙伴关系”新定位,为中荷关系发展作出新的战略指引。今年上半年,威廉-亚历山大国王和王后及吕特首相在两个月内相继成功访华,这在中荷关系中史无前例。两国总理和首相也即将在同一年内实现互访。这些充分说明双方政治互信不断加深,两国关系处于历史最好时期。

开放务实的经贸合作是中荷关系的“压舱石”。近年来特别是在“一带一路”倡议提出后,中荷合作的广度和深度不断拓展。吕特首相在访华时表示,荷方期待深化两国合作,共同打造共建“一带一路”伙伴关系,实现互利共赢。目前中国是荷兰在欧盟外的第二大贸易伙伴,荷兰是中国在欧盟内的第三大贸易伙伴。2017年中荷双边贸易额达786亿美元,创历史新高。截至2017年底,中国对荷直接投资存量在欧盟国家中名列前茅。荷兰已成功加入亚投行。中荷之间相继开通多趟中欧班列,每周90多班客货运航班往返于阿姆斯特丹和中国7个城市,中国近半数赴欧深水货运航线首站在鹿特丹港停靠。开放合作、互利共赢已成为中荷关系的强劲音符。

异彩纷呈的人文交流是两国人民的“连心锁”。和我一道为中荷关系服务的另外两位“大使”——大熊猫“武雯”和“星雅”,带着中国人民的深情厚谊来到荷兰,赢得众多“粉丝”。每年有超过35万中国游客在绚丽的郁金香花海中、古朴的风车和运河旁、经典艺术作品前流连忘返,留下美好记忆。目前,近1万名中国留学生在荷求学,海牙中国文化中心、3所孔子学院和13所孔子课堂先后开设。一位热爱中国文化的荷兰青年,中学毕业后只身到中国学习中文并拍摄两部关于中国的纪录片,在1700万人口的荷兰收视率超过千万人次,一时成为全国热议的话题。我衷心为这种促进中荷人民相互了解、架起友谊桥梁的举动“点赞”。

荷兰不仅被誉为“欧洲花园”,也被称为“欧洲门户”,是欧盟创始成员国之一,长期致力于促进中欧关系发展,在维护多边主义和自由贸易上与中国具有强烈共鸣。在当前国际形势深刻演变、不确定性不稳定性突出的背景下,两国有责任继续携手,从战略高度和长远角度把握双边关系发展方向,共同推动中欧关系健康稳定发展,共同维护多边主义和开放型世界经济,为构建人类命运共同体作出积极贡献。

荷兰有一句谚语,叫做“顺风航行更容易”。中国古诗云,“潮平两岸阔,风正一帆悬”。李克强总理访问荷兰必将为中荷关系发展注入新的动力,“一带一路”倡议和亚欧互联互通建设深入推进也将带来新的合作机遇,巩固拓展中荷开放务实的全面合作伙伴关系大有可为。

我希冀并坚信,在双方共同努力下,中荷友好合作之船将风劲帆满,行稳致远。

 

Utländska journalister besöker Xinjiang-serien (1) -Kina-Europe Express Länkar Dig och Mig

Av Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, 19. Okt(Greenpost) — Tro det eller inte, det är mycket troligt att en flaska tomatketchep på bordet av en Neapel-familj transporteras av Kina-Europe Express via Urumqi-anpassningscentret, huvudstaden i Xinjiang Uyghors autonoma region.

Som journalist från Greenpost from Sweden, tillsammans med 14 journalister från 14 länder i Asien och Europa, har jag varit i Urumqi-inriktningscentralen och bevittnat att Harmony Freight Train sätter sig härifrån till Horgos Port och går vidare till Europa med full frakt i 41 europeiska standardhytter. Det var den 25, augusti, 2018.

Nan Jun, vice generaldirektör för Xinjiang Järnvägs internationella transport Co Ltd sa att “tåget som ska börja nu är 1486-tåget sedan 26 maj 2016 och 654: e sedan 1 januari 2018”.

-Sedan Kinas Järnväg Express började har vi blivit välkomna av våra kunder eftersom vi har ökat vår transportkapacitet väsentligt från en gång i veckan till en gång om dagen och nu tre gånger om dagen. Så våra järnvägslinjer ökar också från 4 linjer till 19 linjer som täcker 23 platser. Hastigheten ökar ytterligare genom att optimera den inhemska transporttiden och genom aktivt samarbete med våra partners utomlands. Vi har förkortat tiden från 66 timmar till 44 timmar och nu tar det bara 40 timmar att anlända till Almaty. Tiden till Tyskland har också förkortats från 16 dagar till 13,5 dagar. Kostnaden minskar också. -sade Nan.

Nan Jun sade att tåget kan nå så långt som Neapel i Italien via Ryssland, Belorus, Polen, Tyskland och Italien. När tåget kom tillbaka kom det med massa från Finland och transporterades till Korla i Xinjiang för att producera gröna produkter. Samtidigt transporterades även andra europeiska produkter tillbaka.

Han sa att årets mål är att nå 1400 gånger och 80 procent av dem kommer att vara från punkt till punkt. De produkter som de skickade ut är inte bara att vara Xinjiang Products, utan även containrar från Yiwu, östra Kinas Zhejiang-provins. Det tar bara en dag att komma hit. Och då kommer det att transporteras till London. Tåget är i internationell standard eftersom tåget som går till Storbritannien, kommer att ändra spåret eftersom det använder olika spår. Urumqi-omgruppering centret gör att de brådskande produkterna går först och andra produkter går efter. Det är här att de kommer att byta spår och byta container först. Kostnaden minskade och effektiviteten ökade.

Kina Railway Express i Urumqi gör Xinjiang till ett kommunikationscentrum för bält- och väg initiativ som förbinder Kina och Centralasien och Europa och blir kärnzonen när det gäller att främja ekonomi och handel med relevanta länder. Detta har varit Xinjiangs bidrag, vilket till och med väsentligt bidrar till världshandeln. Hittills har det funnits 19 järnvägslinjer som förbinder Kina och omvärlden och ungefär hälften av dem via Xinjiang Uygor Autonom Region Nordvästra Kina och hälften av dem via Heilongjiang-provinsen, Nordöstra Kina.

Vissa människor i västvärlden tvivlar på Kinas syfte att bältet och väginitiativet, men för att göra lasttransporter lättare, göra världsaffären lättare att göra och gynna alla involverade, viktigare att tillhandahålla goda varor till alla kunder är det verkliga syftet och detta är bara ett bra exempel på bältet och väginitiativet.

Detta var det första stoppet som kinesiska och utländska journalister har stoppat. Det andra stoppet kommer att vara Xinjiang Software Park. Vänligen håll dig stillad. Följa oss!

Bild och Text  av Xuefei Chen Axelsson