Category Archives: Scientific Research

Lianhuaqingwen has not only mint but 13 ingredients

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, May 10, (Greenpost) — Swedish Radio and Aftonbladet reported on May 6 that Swedish Customs had tested the Chinese traditional herb content medicine Lianhuaqingwen which they confiscated and gave a conclusion that the medicine doesn’t function and only contains mint in it.

This report was spread to China and Chinese medical academicians and relevant organisations immediately reacted on this news saying that the Swedish conclusion was not right.

The news said Swedish official in Drugs Administration lab said he didn’t find enough evidence to show the medicine is useful because he only found mint in it, but didn’t mention anything else and claimed that there was no any relevant articles about it.

This conclusion shows that he didn’t find the article about Lianhuaqingwen, nor read it. He neither found nothing else in the medicine or he found something but he didn’t know what they were.

News from Chinese Dr. Li said in fact there were 13 ingredients or components in the medicine. But only mint has a well recognised chemical format while the other Chinese herbs didn’t have chemical format.

The 13 ingredients are Lianqiao which is Forsythoside E, Jinyinhua which is honeysukle, similar to dandelion, luding, Rutin, mahuang, dahuang, which is Epherdra, bitter apricot core, plaster, banlangen which is a well-known antivirus medicine in China. Banlangen was invented in mid 1990s. I remember once I was asked to translate the specifications of the medicine because my radio people were often asked to do this kind of translation job. But I refused to do it because I felt I knew so little about medicine knowledge. But over the years Banlangen has become a daily medicine like Alvedon in Sweden. If people have virus type of flu, people can take Banlangen. If they have bacteria type of cold, they can just take the ganmaochonji a kind of small particle type of powder and just putting it into a cup of hot water and drink it.

Mianmaguanzhong, I do not know what it is, but Yuxingcao is also a well known name in dealing with eyes, Huoxiang is also a very common but well effective Chinese medicine. Hongjingtian is produced in Tibet and famous for its function to help you to have enough oxegon. When we were in Tibet, a colleague felt he was lack of oxegon, he went to buy oxegon bottle and Hongjingtian. Gancao was also a Chinese medicine both in tablet form or in raw herb form. One can swallow tablet, but drink water which soaks the gancao herb. The last one is exactly mint.

Mint is indeed a good component for various kinds of Chinese medicine. Mint sugar in Lidl actually helps you if you have a sore throat.

Academician Zhong Nanshan who was the key person in leading the campaign against Covid-19. President Xi Jinping was leading the campaign by sending hospitals, doctors and nurses and all the supplies through various provinces, Zhong Nanshan was a symbol of technical part, a lot of information was sent out through Zhongs name. Academician Zhang Boli who has retired at home, but he was summoned to lead in the campaign with his rich Chinese medicine knowledge. They both are authoritative while Zhong was in western medicine and Zhang was in Chinese medicine. But both recommended Lianhuaqingwen. During China’s campaign against covid-19, it was a perfect example of cooperation and combination of Chinese and western medicines.

Let’s look at the corona virus again. It is a virus, but the symptom when people catch it is coughing, fever, running or drying nose and fatigue. Thus the symptom is similar to a serious cold. Only when people are either too weak or too healthy to fight against the virus with no strength or too much strength, fiercely, then it hurt your organs especially the lung. The most typical symptom in the end is respiratory problem. But at the beginning, you just got a cold.

And all these components or ingredients of Lianhuaqingwen are useful in fighting against cold. Thus it can almost be treated as a most powerful kind of medicine in treating cold.

According to a joint study by researchers in Nanjing Chinese Medicine University and Shanghai Drug Research Institute under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lianhuaqingwen is so far the most functional medicine in inhibiting corona virus from reproduction and curing the fever of the patients.

According to Professor Fang Bangjiang from Longhua Hospital of Shanghai Chinese Medicine University, there were only 20-30 percent of the patients have fever. Most of them did not have fever. He was sent to Leishenshan Hospital China built within ten days after the closedown of Wuhan on January 23. ( link http://www.greenpost.se/2020/05/02/%e9%9b%b7%e7%a5%9e%e5%b1%b1%e6%8a%97%e7%96%ab%e4%b8%93%e5%ae%b6%e6%96%b9%e9%82%a6%e6%b1%9f%e6%95%99%e6%8e%88%e7%9b%b4%e6%92%ad%e4%b8%8e%e7%91%9e%e5%85%b8%e3%80%81%e7%be%8e%e3%80%81%e5%8a%a0%e3%80%81/)

Fang was in charge of a unit which had 108 patients who had light symptoms. He found that the patients had one unified symptom, that was panic and fear, worries and weak nerves. After trying western medicine for one week, he found it not only did not give positive results but give negative effects on liver. Thus he prescribed all the time Chinese medicine after a week. The Chinese medicine mainly calmed down the patients, relieved them from panic feelings and got them sleep better.

As a result, no one became more serious and no death happened in his unit. In comparison, those who were treated with western way or medicine, a lot of them could become worse and were sent to ICU.

According to the research paper, Lianhuaqingwen was used for severe patients too and by alleviating their fever or other symptoms, lives were rescued.

But so far, experts admit that there were no cure all kind of medicine against covid-19. But as a supportive medicine or healthy product, those who are confirmed to get covid-19 positive, they can take Lianhuaqingwen. Whether it works or not, one can feel it after three days. If after three days it did not function, you feel worse, then you must call the doctor again.

Sweden has tried its best to deal with the covid-19 and avoided the problem China had at the beginning of getting the hospital too crowded and almost collapse. Sweden wanted to let the covid-19 happen slowly, which is a good idea.

However, the virus loves people and can quickly spread from one person to two persons if you have close contacts, for example in crowds, not necessarily to kiss each other. It can spread through spit and sneeze or cough. But if people keep themselves isolated, the virus couldn’t find another person to reproduce itself, it will die with the recovery of the person. Thus isolation is very very important.

The earlier, quicker to isolate, the better. For example, if Swedish cancelled the travel, canceled the Eurovision, canceled the birthday party, and isolated quicker and earlier in other areas where you just found a couple of cases, then the virus probably got wiped out by now. But no one knows. Maybe it would take two to three months any way.

Thanks to Swedish people who are good at keeping social distance and mostly follow the government instructions, Swedish people did not sacrifice too much freedom and the society continues to function, which can be seen as a positive aspect. But if people especially those who got infected, but not to the extend to go to hospitals intensive care, maybe if they take the Lianhuaqingwen, it can not only comfort them, but also prevent them from getting worse.

To say it just got mint in it and does not function, it sounds like it is just the mint candy. But it is simply not true.

In fact, Lianhuaqingwen was just one of the Chinese medicines that dealt with covid-19. I guess it became famous because of its mass production and packaging. Qingfei Paidu Tang or Lung cleaning and poison eradicating syrup was also very popular during covid 19 campaign in Wuhan, Central China. But this kind of medicine is pure herb and needs to be boiled each time for each person. It is hard to get mass production. Chinese doctors also stressed that it was one person with his or her own prescription according to his or her own symptom.

Chinese medicine does not stress killing the virus or fighting the virus, instead, it stressed that the medicine helps patients to get stronger in immune system and physical strength by getting rid of or alleviating the symptom.

Covid-19 is indeed a strong virus which is very hard to deal with because it reproduces itself so quickly once it entered humans body and attacked the lung. By fighting back with the immune system, patients other organs such as liver or heart or kidney could be damaged too. That was why a lot of people died of not only virus, but also several other combined diseases. The virus can damage your immune system. Thus, the Chinese doctors emphasized that people should eat enough protein and sleep well. Getting yourself strong is the key to deal with the covid 19.

The following is the research paper about Lianhuaqingwen.

Pharmacological Research:Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)

Elsevier

Pharmacological Research

Available online 20 March 2020, 104761In Press, Journal Pre-proofWhat are Journal Pre-proof articles?

Pharmacological Research

Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)

Author links open overlay panelLiRunfenga1HouYunlonge1HuangJichengd1PanWeiqia1MaQinhaiaShiYongxiadLiChufangaZhaoJinaJiaZhenhuaeJiangHaimingaZhengKuidHuangShuxiangdDaiJundLiXiaobodHouXiaotaocWangLincZhongNanshanaYangZifengabcShow morehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104761Get rights and content

Abstract

Purpose

Lianhuaqingwen (LH) as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been used to treat influenza and exerted broad-spectrum antiviral effects on a series of influenza viruses and immune regulatory effects [1]. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the antiviral activity of LH against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and its potential effect in regulating host immune response.

Methods

The antiviral activity of LH against SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in Vero E6 cells using CPE and plaque reduction assay. The effect of LH on virion morphology was visualized under transmission electron microscope. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays.

Results

LH significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells and markedly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Furthermore, LH treatment resulted in abnormal particle morphology of virion in cells.

Conclusions

LH significantly inhibits the SARS-COV-2 replication, affects virus morphology and exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. These findings indicate that LH protects against the virus attack, making its use a novel strategy for controlling the COVID-19 disease.

Keywords

LianhuaqingwencoronavirusSARS-CoV-2anti-inflammatory

1. Introduction

Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped viruses named for their coronary appearance with positive single-stranded RNA genomes [2]. In addition to six known strains of coronaviruses that are infectious to humans, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was detected recently in Wuhan, China [3,4]. Like the other two highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also caused severe respiratory illness and even death. Moreover, the population’s susceptibility to these highly pathogenic coronaviruses has contributed to large outbreaks and evolved into the public health events, highlighting the necessity to prepare for future reemergence or the novel emerging viruses [5].

Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 is initiated by zoonotic transmission likely from bats and spreads rapidly among humans [6]. The basic reproduction number (R0) of person-to-person spread is about at 2.6, which means that the SARS-CoV-2 infected cases grow at an exponential rate. As of February 07, 2020, 57,620 cases of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in China, including 26,359 suspected cases, and a sustained increase is predictable. The initial patient cluster with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported Wuhan pneumonia with unknown aetiology, which bore some resemblance to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Moreover, High concentrations of cytokines were recorded in plasma of patients requiring ICU admission, such as GCSF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα, suggesting that the cytokine storm was associated with disease severity [7]. A retrospective clinical study indicated the risk of fatality among hospitalized cases at 4.3% in single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients [8], and the infection fatality risk could be below 1% or even below 0.1% in a large number of undetected relatively mild infections [9]. However, It is challenging to judge the severity and predict the consequences with the information available so far. Since no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19 is currently available, supportive cares, including symptomatic controls and prevention of complications remain the most critical therapeutic regimens, especially in preventing acute respiratory distress syndrome [10]. Although the control of SARS-CoV-2 still presents multiple challenges in the short term, more potent antiviral drugs are urgent to be developed [4].

At present, some drugs are effective in eliminating SARS-CoV-2 and improving symptoms. The most promising antiviral drug for SARS-CoV-2 is remdesivir that is currently under clinical development for the treatment of Ebola virus infection [11]. However, the efficacy and safety of remdesivir for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients need to be assessed by further clinical trials. In addition, in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, Tranditonal Chinese medicines have received broad adoption, especially in treating cases of mild symptoms [12]. Lianhuaqingwen (LH), a Chinese patent medicine composed of 13 herbs, has played a positive role in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. A retrospective analysis of clinical records was conducted in the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at Wuhan Ninth Hospital and CR & WISCO General Hospital. LH combination could significantly relieve cardinal symptoms and reduce the course of the COVID-19 [13], making it successively included in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Fourth/Fifth/Sixth/Seventh Edition) issued by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and also recommended by 20 provincial health commissions including Hubei, Beijing, and Shanghai as well as National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, LH exerted broad-spectrum effects on a series of influenza viruses by inhibiting viral propagation and regulating immune function and achieved similar therapeutic effectiveness with Oseltamivir in reducing the course of H1N1 virus infection [1,14,15]. Notably, the anti-influenza activity of LH in infected mice might depend on the regulation of cytokines, particularly in cytokine storm associated cytokines, such as IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1A, and TNF-α [1]. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral and anti-inflammatory efficiency of LH against a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 from Guangzhou in vitro.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Cell lines and virus

The African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero E6) cells and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7) cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM, Gibco, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C. A clinical isolated SARS-CoV-2 virus (Genebank accession no. MT123290.1) was propagated in Vero E6 cells, and viral titer was determined by 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) according to the cytopathic effect by use of Reed-Muench method [17]. All the infection experiments were performed in a biosafety level-3 (BLS-3) laboratory.

2.2. Reagent preparation

LH capsule (Lot No.A2001108) was obtained from Yiling Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Shijiazhuang, China). UPLC fingerprints of LH consist of 32 common peaks. 9 of 32 common peaks are identified. The similarities in 10 batches of LH Capsules samples were all above 0.96 (Supplementary Fig. 1). The black powder of raw material of LH was first dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to 240 mg/mL. After shaking for 30 min at room temperature, the LH solution was diluted with serum-free DMEM to 24 mg/mL as a stock solution and stored at −20 °C before using. Remdesivir was kindly provided by Prof. Jiancun Zhang from Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences and was dissolved in DMSO to 100 mM and stored at −20 °C before using. DMEM with 2% FBS was used as the dilution buffer in the follow-up experiments.

2.3. Cytotoxicity assay

The cytotoxic effects of the LH on Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells were evaluated by Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Briefly, monolayers of Vero E6 cells and Huh-7 cells in 96-well plates were rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by incubation with indicated concentrations of LH. After 72 h, the cells were stained with MTT solution at 0.5 mg/mL for 4 h. The supernatants were then removed, and the formed formazan crystals were dissolved in 200 μL DMSO. The absorbance was measured at 490 nm using Multiskan Spectrum reader (Thermo Fisher, USA). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was calculated by the GraphPad Prism 7.0 software.

2.4. Cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay

The Vero E6 cell monolayers were grown in 96-well plates and inoculated with 100 TCID50 of coronavirus strains at 37 ̊C for 2 h. The inoculum was removed, and the cells were subsequently incubated with indicated concentrations of LH or the positive control remdesivir. Following the 72 h of incubation, the infected cells shown 100% CPE under the microscope. The percentage of CPE in LH-treated cells were recorded. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of the virus-induced CPE by LH was calculated by the Reed-Muench method [17].

2.5. Plaque reduction assay

The Vero E6 cell monolayers in 6-well plates were infected with 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 h at 37 °C. After incubation, the cell monolayers were covered with agar overlay (final concentration: 0.6% agar, 2% FBS, indicated concentrations of LH or remdesivir). The plates were then incubated for 48 h at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Subsequently, the agar overlays were removed, and the cell monolayer was fixed with 10% formalin, stained with 1% crystal violet, and then the plaques were counted and photographed.

2.6. RNA isolation and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR analysis (RT-qPCR)

The Huh-7 cell monolayers in 12-well plate were rinsed with PBS and then exposed to coronavirus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 for 2 h at 37 °C. The inoculum was removed and replaced with the indicated concentrations of LH or mock-treated with DMEM supplemented with 2% FBS for subsequent 48 h incubation at 37 °C with 5% CO2. The cells were then harvested for RNA isolation and qPCR as described previously [16]. The primer and probe sequences used for analysis are listed in Supplementary Table 1. The relative mRNA expression was calculated using the 2-△△Ct method with GAPDH as an internal reference gene.

2.7. Electron microscope

Monolayers of Vero E6 cells in 6-well plates were incubated with SARS-CoV-2 at a MOI of 0.001 for 2 h at 37 °C. The virus inoculum was then removed and replaced with DMEM medium supplemented with 2% FBS containing LH (600 μg/mL) or remdesivir (5 μM). At 48 h p.i., the cells were fixed, dehydrated and embedded as described previously [18]. Ultrathin sections (70 nm) of embedded cells were prepared, deposited onto Formvar-coated copper grids (200 mesh), stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then observed under JEM-1400 PLUS transmission electron microscopy (Japan Electron Optics Laboratory Co., Ltd., JEM-1400 PLUS).

2.8. Statistical Analyses

Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 7.0 software. The differences in mRNA expression levels of cytokines were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Values of p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

3. Results

3.1. Antiviral activity of LH on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

The cell viability after LH or remdesivir treatment was determined by MTT assay in both Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells. LH showed unapparent cytotoxicity for both cell lines at concentrations up to 600 μg/mL (Fig. 1A, C). The positive control remdesivir showed no cytotoxicity to cells at a concentration of 50µM (Fig. 1B, D).

Fig. 1

To investigate the antiviral effect of LH against SARS-CoV-2 virus, the Vero E6 cells were infected with 100 TCID50 of virus and incubated with LH at various concentrations for 72 h. As shown in Fig. 2A, LH inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus with an IC50 value of 411.2 µg/mL by CPE assay (Fig. 2A). Meanwhile, treatment with LH following infection also had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on plaque formation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Fig. 2C). We selected remdesivir as the positive control in our study and the results showed that remdesivir potently inhibited virus-induced CPE with an IC50 of 0.651 µM and a total plaque formation inhibition at 5 μM (Fig. 2B, C).

Fig. 2

To further confirm the efficacy of LH in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in cells, we detected the viral particles in ultrathin sections of infected cells under electron microscopy. At 48 h p.i., viral particles were found in cytoplasm, intracellular vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum, and cell membrane and presented spherical crown-like appearance, which was typical coronavirus morphology (Fig. 3B, G). LH (600 μg/mL) and positive control remdesivir (5 μM) treatment resulted in a reduction of the number of virions compared with mock-treated infected cells (Fig. 3G–J). It was interesting to note that some virions in the surface of LH-treated cells presented spindle sharp which was in contrast to the typical spherical particles in the mock-treated cells (Fig. 3I).

Fig. 3

3.2. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine and chemokine expression by LH in vitro

To determine the effect of LH on the expression of cytokines and chemokines induced by SAR2-CoV-2, the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1, and CXCL-10/IP-10 were detected and compared between the LH-treated and mock-treated Huh-7 cells. The results showed that the elevated expressions of these four cytokines were significantly inhibited by LH treatment in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4

4. Discussion

Starting from December 2019, a pandemic of respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 is sweeping the mainland of China. This virus has spread to several foreign countries, threatening to trigger a global outbreak. Several antiviral agents can be envisaged to control or prevent viral infections by antiviral assay in vitro [14,17]. However, the efficacy and safety of novel candidates need validations in vivo, even for those clinically approved medicines, which means that it will take months to years for clinical practices. At present, symptomatic and supportive treatments remain key to clinical practices. Thus, Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) carried both the antiviral effect and the symptomatic relief might bring more clinical benefits [12]. As a classical TCM prescription for respiratory diseases, LH is the only approved medicine in the treatment of SARS and influenza. After the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, LH as a representative TCM prescription was recommended again in the latest Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia issued by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the therapeutic effects of LH on the COVID-19 targeting virus replication and immunological regulation as it did on the infection caused by influenza viruses.

Our previous study showed that LH exhibited in vitro anti-influenza activity with IC50 ranging from 200-2000 μg/mL [1]. Here we demonstrated that LH also has a comparable antiviral potency against the SARS-CoV-2 virus with an IC50 value of 411.2 μg/mL (Fig. 2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been a potent tool to observe virus entry, virus particle assembly, viral ultrastructure, and budding from the plasma membrane [17]. To understand the antiviral details of LH, EM pictures were taken from each group. Abundant virus particles assembled at the surface of membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma vesicles in the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, decreased in the treatment of LH at 600ug/mL. Notably, slight deformation of virus particles was seen in the LH treatment, which required us to make further studies.

Highly pathogenic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV cause fatal pneumonia, which is mainly associated with rapid virus replication, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and elevated proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses. Although the pathophysiology of fatal pneumonia caused by highly pathogenic coronaviruses has not been completely understood, accumulating evidence suggests that the cytokine storm plays a crucial role in causing fatal pneumonia [18]. Excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines were reported (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1) in the serum of SARS patients [18], similar in the serum of MERS patients [19]. Chaolin Huang et al. confirmed the occurrence of the cytokine storm in the COVID-19 patients in ICU rather than those in non-ICU patients [7]. Based on the excessive cytokines responses, Suxin Wan et al. claimed that IL-6 and IL-10 levels could be used as one of the bases for predicting the outcome and prognosis of the COVID-2019 [20]. In this study, host cells infected with HCoV-229E and SARS-COV-2 increased the cytokine release such as TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1, and CXCL-10/IP-10, which was suppressed by LH in a dose-dependent manner. The change of cytokine profiles suggested that LH might have a potential effect on the inhibition of cytokine storm induced by SARS-COV-2, which also needed to be validated in vivo.

5. Conclusion

Since the launch of LH, it has been widely used as a broad spectrum of antiviral agent in the clinical practice, especially for various respiratory virus infections. Previous studies have shown that LH a broad spectrum of effects on a series of influenza viruses by interfering with both viral and host reactions. Although LH significantly relieved the clinical symptoms of the COVID-19, the underlying mechanism of antiviral effects on coronavirus, especially in the SARS-COV-2, was still elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that LH exerted its anti-coronavirus activity by inhibiting virus replication and reducing the cytokine release from host cells, which supported the clinical application of LH in combination with existing therapies to treat COVID-2019.

Acknowledgements

The study was funded by Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission NCP Emergency Project; Hebei Provincial Department of Science and Technology NCP prevention and control emergency scientific research project (Grant no. 20277708D); The Science research project of the Guangdong Province (Grant no. 2020B111110001); Daxing District Science and technology development projects (Grant no. KT202008013).

Appendix A. Supplementary data

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Turning point against COVID-19 has not come yet, says China

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Stockholm, Feb. 22(Greenpost) — Today a news was spreading around the wechat circle. That was Academician Zhong Nanshan smiled. Dr. Zhong was considered as a hero in anti-SARS campaign in 2003 because he was one of the first who declared this was a serious epidemic and caused attention from the government.

Dr. Zhong Nanshan Smiles

Donations from Swedish Chinese and Chinese business to send out

This time Dr. Zhong was also the most authoritative voice saying that the corona virus could spread from person to person and at a faster speed.

When he was interviewed before, he was very serious and looked a bit tired and stressed. He almost cried when he was interviewed for the first time when he mentioned that Wuhan people sang the national song through the windows in the evening after the order was issued that Wuhan city was closed and all the people should stay at home.

Donations from Sweden received.

It was indeed very moving and respectful for Wuhan people because in front of the sudden attack of the virus and the determined order of closing a city which has a population of 14 million. It was not an easy decision because even after the decision, Wuhan Mayor Zhou Xingwang was still saying that this was historic and if anything wrong with it, he would like to shoulder the responsibility.

Some people thought he should have closed Wuhan even earlier, but it is indeed understandable that the decision needed scientific evaluation which took time and efforts.

Dr. Li Wenliang was infected.

Dr. Zhong was 84 years old and he was very respectful. Both leaders and people really listen to him and thus a lot of notices were issued or advised with his name. But when mentioned Dr. Li Wenliang who first issued the news in his Wechat circle among friends and colleagues but got infected and died at age of 34, Dr. Zhong said Li was a hero and he should be respected too. At that moment, tears also sheded from his eyes.

But yesterday at a press conference in Guangzhou, he took off his mask and smiled. This smile implied a relief that the COVID-19 had been under control. The newly infected cases have decreased for a consecutive 16 days outside Hubei province. He did not say the turning point has come. He said Wuhan is still the heavily infected area. But the trend is in positive direction.

According to news from CDC China the newly diagnosed cases reached to 397 while the new death cases reached to 109 with accumulated cases reaching to 76288 and death toll 2345 and recovered cases 20659. Recovered number goes beyond 20 thousand.

Yesterday they also lifted observation for 26441 people. Accumulated close contacts were 618915 people and 113564 of them are still on observation.

Hubei has 366 newly diagnosed infected cases while 1767 cases were recovered yesterday. 106 people including 90 from Wuhan died. Total death accumulated to 2345 people.

47647 people in Hubei have been identified as infected and Hubei’s beds in hospital also almost reached 40 thousand. Thus those who are in need can possibly get a bed. 10892 people are severely infected. 13557 people have recovered and left hospital so far in Hubei province.

During the campaign against the COVID-19, Chinese medicine exerted a great role. Dr. Zhong Nanshan said Chinese medicine can exert a role in alleviating the symptom.

Many Chinese medicine doctors used many kinds of herbal medicine to clear the lung and improve the immune system so that the patients can have more strength to fight against the virus.

The theory is that Chinese medicine is used to improve patients’ immune systems while the western medicine theory is to combat the virus and reduce infections but the side effect is very serious.

Chinese medicine doctors even teach the patients to play Baduanjin, a kind of Taiji exercise. They treat each patient with personal treatment and the result was quite good. The Chinese medicine is used to treat the light infected patients and prevented them from getting worse.

China’s control of the COVID-19 is seen as effective because it avoided large scale infection around the world. By closing down the big city and controlling spread of virus, many people believe this could only be done in China under the leadership of the CPC. Chinese government under the leadership of President Xi and CPC have taken stronger measures to control the spreading with the leading role played by respected doctors and nurses and party members.

China has exerted its advantage and tradition of helping each other among all provinces, for example 16 provinces provided help with their capacity to Hubei province and overseas Chinese also gave donations of masks from the beginning to Hubei provinces hospitals. Two years ago when I was in Xinjiang, they said they were grateful for 19 brotherly provinces to support them. Now when Hubei suffers from COVID-19, sister areas in Xinjiang donated a lot of apples to Hubei showing the Chinese culture of helping each other when in need.

It is worthwhile to mention that there was one city in Hubei province closed its city a week earlier and the infection was substantially reduced. Sichuan province and Henan Province were also very strict in preventing the virus from spreading and very effective.

Zhejiang province got second most infections since it has close relations with Hubei province. But Zhejiang province took even more strict measures in controlling the spreading of the virus and put it under control sooner.

Zhang Jixian who found 7 cases and reported to CDC first.

So far, many provinces have resumed production and workers in western China were sent back to eastern regions with chartered airplanes or chartered fast trains since the traffic became rare during the Chinese Spring Festival.

Many Chinese said this spring festival was very special, but it was also normal because this year all the families must stay at home and children don’t need to go back to school so soon.

Many feel panic and worried while many others use the chance to study or do something more interesting in addition to dance and exercise at home.

With Wechat, people can share information and encourage each other or help each other.

Chinese humor also appeared during the anti virus campaign. For example love was sent through the message and the answer can be “lets not meet now.”

One of humor was very interesting and here I translated it as the following:

Wuhan has made eight contributions to the world:

  1. Hong Kong demonstrators stopped demonstration.
  2. Macaos casino was closed for the first time in history.
  3. 60 weeks demonstration in France stopped due to a woman from Wuhan arriving there.
  4. Middle East war fairs are somewhat decreasing.
  5. All the outside school courses have stopped. Education ministry could not stop it, but Wuhan did it.
  6. The large scale eating and drinking life style stopped overnight. Even Chinese disciplinary committee could not stop it before.
  7. Most of the Chinese families became united and harmonious because the husband and wife have to be at home day and night.
  8. During these days, even the thieves stopped stealing because if they go to the street, there are no people and if they visit homes, all family members are there.

In addition, writers, artists and educators are also working at home. Many teachers began online teaching or live broadcast. Many home business started and many innovative ideas came out and actions taken at home with internet.

During the campaign, postmen were very busy and they job quardruppled. Many restaurants were severely affected, but the fast food somewhat better survived.

During the first week people relied on their stored food for the week long spring festival. But after two weeks, people have to go out to buy food and in some area, the practice was that every three days one family can send out one person to buy all the groceries.

The market supply is still there and many provinces donated things they have such as vegetables, apples, cabbage and rice. At beginning, Wuhan gave the vegetables to the market, but after the donor questioned about it, people stopped that action, but it also appeared that the vegetables got rotten because short of personnel to deliver it. Thus, I think it is not a bad idea to send these vegetables to the market sellers either donate or with low cost. Because it is hard for the Red Cross to redistribute these vegetables to every family or hospital or other units. Let market function is not a bad idea.

During the first week, it was somewhat panic because all over the world, the overseas Chinese said they donated goods, but due to the closedown of traffic and many countries stopped airlines, it took longer time for the good to arrive in Wuhan or Hubei, some took two or three weeks.

Due to the panic mentality, there have been some episodes of the news or communication driven by social media to lead to people’s sadness such as Dr. Li Wenliang’s death, the poetic and friendship words on donation packages from Japan aroused a big discussion. Some people said the Japanese are more educated than Chinese who only know to say Cheer up Hubei, Wuhan, or God Bless China. But as more patients were cured and more hospitals were built, the desperate mentality has been cured.

Huoshenshan Hospital was built with 10 days showing Chinese speed.

At the very beginning, China also stunned the world by building a Huoshenshan hospital and a Leishenshan hospital by about ten days. Huoshenshan means God of fire mountain and Leishenshan means God of thunder mountain. The hope is that the fire and thunder will definitely kill the virus with their power or magic working like holy spirits.

In addition to two new hospitals, many Noah Ark like hospitals were also built to host more than 40 thousand patients infected by COVID-19.

It seemed to me that in China, with the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and its 89 million party members, the government gives orders, the enterprises cooperate in keeping supply lines and the society echoed all the calls. So the government, enterprises and society united much better than normal times in front of the disasters.

In this sense, I would like to give the credit to the party members because while in dangerous situation, it was always the party members should step forward and face the danger first.

For example, during this anti virus campaign, over 30 thousand doctors and nurses voluntarily answered the call and went to Wuhan to work in those new hospitals. Most of them are party members and many of them who are not would like to join the party on site. This spirit was really moving.

According to reports, due to the uncertainty before the closedown of Wuhan and later with overload of work and stress, by February 11, 3019 doctors and nurses were infected by COVID-19 virus and 1716 cases were confirmed. Among them, 1502 cases were from Hubei province.

During this campaign, nine doctors including two professor doctors, one hospital president died at work. They have become a martyr for us all.

Yesterday I watched the Oct. 18 201 event simulation meeting organized by Johns Hopkins Health Security Center, World Economic Forum and Bill and Melanda Gates Foundation which discussed a lot about how to deal with such kind of serious virus epidemic or pandemic. This show actually caused a lot of conspiracy views which thought America has known this. But I think the discussion mainly focuses on a scenario that the government and business are difficult to form a partnership and the individualism ideas make people difficult to follow the information or guidance.

Indeed there were many rumours and fake news coming out mainly from anti China chinese in America. For example they smear the Wuhan P4 lab for leaking the virus. But as I interviewed Professor Duan from Karolinska Hospital, it is impossible to a P4 lab to leak anything out. It is a very scientifically built lab which has negative pressure which guarantee for the security. As for the scientists, it is also impossible for scientists to have such a low level ethics or break their ethical bottom line.

Some Chinese in America who suffered a setback during Chinas anti corruption campaign or Falungong related people, they only spread their hatrad, presumptions or fabrications plus their imaginations.

It is not difficult to imagine that Chinese hospitals would be extremely busy even during the normal time, let alone under the current situation.

In my opinion, Chinese system is actually functioning well because it is more centralized and the government answered the call of the people quickly and whole heartedly. Under the principle of putting the people’s lives in the center, Chinese economy is definitely affected.

But I think just because it is Spring Festival time, many production stopped anyway, the most damaged industry is tourism and restaurants and hotels. Thus, this effect is felt not only in China, but also many other countries including nordic countries such as Sweden and Finland.

Now since the virus is somewhat under control, it was reported that about 95 percent of production business began to resume.

For example, workers from Xinjiang were sent to Hunan by chartered airplanes with preventive measures. Slowly workers are on the working places now. So far only the students are still at home to enjoy their holidays.

Nowadays schools open earlier than 30 years ago when I was at university. Then the opening of schools was on March first. Nowadays it was usually after the Spring Festival holiday. Due to COVID-19, students can relax a little bit.

Finally about the COVID-19, it is a new kind of virus which was similar to SARS or MERs but not as deadly as those, but it spread faster. It can also spread to other people before you really have symptoms such as coughing, fever and fatigue. Those who are over 80 years old, the infection rate is 14.8%. The younger people are less likely infected. Those who died are mostly having other diseases such as cardiological problems, diabetes and high blood pressure.

The main prevention method is to isolate yourself, often wash your hand, don’t touch your face. It can spread by sneeze or spit. So Dr. Zhong adviced people to even pay attention to your shoes. Try to avoid stepping on any spit.

Where in the world comes the virus from?

So far it is still not clear where the virus comes from. According to early first seven cases, four persons came from a seafood and wildlife trading market, but three others didn’t come from there. The latest research from Yunnan branch of the Chinese Academy of Sciences shows that the virus does not come from that market because their samples show that it is the same as the other three.

Some people suspect that this virus might be the same as the American flu, or another version of the American flu.

But to be honest, no one knows where and when exactly it came from. It can be estimated that the very first spreading of the virus can be on November 27th. Someone said it might start on mid October, but due to the favorable climate, it didn’t break then. Due to the shrewdness of the virus, it can have longer incubation period of 24 days.

Maybe the cold and wet weather in Wuhan just provides the bed for the virus, it is hard to say. We have to wait and see how the scientists and researchers find out through autopsy and sample studies.

Text by Xuefei Chen Axelsson. Photos from web.

今日头条:瑞典华人科学家段茂利教授应邀出席第九届 世界听神经病大会并作主旨演讲

北欧绿色邮报网、北欧中华网联合报道(记者陈雪霏 查正富)—11月20日,应世界听神经病鼻祖-美国加州大学Arnold Starr教授的邀请,瑞典皇家卡罗林斯卡Karolinska医科大学医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科专家段茂利出席了第九届 “Annual  Arnold Starr Lecture & Art Exhibition”大会,并做了题为《听神经病的发现历史、发病机制、治疗现状及基因/干细胞治疗听神经病的探索》的精彩报告。这是目前世界上首位华人科学家站在此领域最高讲台作学术报告,刷新了听神经病领域未有华人科学家在此登台“献艺”的空白。

世界听神经病大会每年举办一次,由听神经病之父Arnold Starr教授命名,其突出特点与其他学术会议不同的是,此会议只安排一位科学家作主旨报告,因此入选的条件和门槛要求很高。大会筹委会对照规定的标准和条件,综合各方面因素,每年在全球范围内精选出一位杰出的听神经病、神经科学及耳鼻咽喉科学家作主旨报告。今年段茂利教授有幸作为第九届会议报告嘉宾登台作主旨演讲。

演讲伊始,段教授简单地介绍了其所工作的瑞典皇家卡罗林斯卡大学医院的基本情况。新建成的卡罗林斯卡大学医院工程造价超过600多亿瑞典克朗,是目前世界上最节能、最环保的建筑楼群,拥有最现代化的基础设施和智能工程,很多岗位已由机器人代替了人工操作。每年举世闻名的诺贝尔生理或医学奖的评审和颁奖,均由瑞典卡罗林斯卡医科大学负责组织实施。

演讲期间,段茂利教授从Arnold Starr教授绘制的不同奇妙耳科彩色图画入题,以“弹钢琴”作为比喻,通过科学研究与艺术表现相结合形式,形象生动地描述了如何通过各种颜色来观察耳部结构和接受声音时的变化规律,详细阐述了常规听神经病变、特殊听神经病变和其他情况的修复和临床治疗方法。整场报告条理分明、论点鲜明、论据充分、观念新颖,得到了与会嘉宾一致肯定,赢得了热烈的掌声 。

段茂利教授回到斯德哥尔摩当天,北欧绿色邮报网、北欧中华网报记者在第一时间对他进行了专访。以下是专访内容:

记者:段教授您好!欣悉您这次参加第九届“Annual Arnold Starr Lecture & Art Exhibition” 大会并作主旨演讲,我们已仔细观看了您当天演讲同步直播的全过程,非常精彩及惟妙惟肖,我们代表北欧绿色邮报网、北欧中华网对您表示祝贺! 请问这次国际会议在世界医学领域具有怎样的重要地位呢?

Dr Duan:谢谢!在听神经病研究领域,每年的Starr会议对于业内人士来说非常重要,世界各国的听神经病科学家也极为重视。Starr教授于1996年首次提出了听神经病这一医学概念。人的听力不好或下降,是因为耳朵里的某段神经出了问题,不能将听到的信息输送到大脑,从而大脑不能总结获得的信息,造成病人能听到声音但不能理解你到底在说什么。Starr教授通过对一名患者多年反复观察与追踪,并经过多年的潜心研究,发现并总结了这一问题。同时他还发现内毛细胞丢失也是病理机制之一,最终把这种病命名为听神经病。Starr理论提出后,在世界耳鼻咽喉头颈外科、神经科学领域引起了极大轰动,并得了国际医学界的一致认可。为了纪念Starr教授对人类作出的突出贡献,美国加州大学在Starr教授退休的时候,以其名字设立了基金会并决定在全球范围内,每年遴选一位在该领域成就突出的科学家做一次专题报告。今年我十分荣幸地被选中,这既是基金会对我个人的信任,也是对我多年来研究成果的认可,更是对我今后研究和临床工作的鼓励。

记者:Starr基金会为什么选择请您来做主旨报告呢?

Dr Duan:从客观上讲,可能是因为我长期在瑞典卡罗林斯卡大学医院工作,该院的国际地位和国际实力是众所周知的,加上我在基因干细胞研究领域的贡献及自身又是耳鼻咽喉头颈外科专家,同时我又是多个国际性医学杂志的编委及审稿人, 在欧美许多国家著名的大学演讲及交流的经历,  以及这么多年在行业积累的良好口碑,可能也是加分因素之一。从主观上讲,我在听神经病基因干细胞治疗耳聋方面的研究成果得到了国际同行的认可,尤其是创新研究了基因干细胞治疗耳聋,这一疗法既符合Starr教授的研究方向,也是对现有理论成果的进一步探索与挖掘。Starr教授发现了听神经病的一个基因后,医学界发现大量的同类疾病不同的基因。在该病发现之前,人们并不太清楚这种疾病发病的机制,而且在发现的早期,为解除病人痛苦,只是采用助听器进行辅助治疗,没有更科学的医疗手段。因此,我主攻的基因干细胞修复疗法既是学术研究的连续,更是为将来临床实践带来希望。当然,以上纯粹是我个人不成熟的推测,重要的是Starr基金会按照他们的标准和要求来进行挑选的。

记者:两年前Starr教授在斯德哥尔摩(Karolinska Nobel Forum)诺贝尔演讲厅的研讨会上用艺术彩色图形来展示耳部神经系统,您今年这次演讲似乎也很倾向艺术化啊!

Dr Duan:是的。参加这次大会的嘉宾中,他们大都是行业内有名望的科学家,在自身研究领域内取得了突出的成就,我在前面也已经介绍过了。但你们可能没有想到的是,这些嘉宾中很大一部分人也是艺术界的佼佼者,是名副其实的艺术家。因此,本次会议的名称除了第九届Starr学术会议主题外,另还冠名了艺术展览和艺术表演。因此,这次大会两个突出的与众不同之处就是:一是一个人做主旨演讲,另一个是学术报告与艺术同台展现。

记者:当初您为什么会选择耳鼻咽喉头颈外科呢?

Dr Duan:说起这个话题就很长了,在八十年代,大学生毕业的岗位是由组织统一安排的。我大学毕业后被分配到安徽省立医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科工作,其实当时我对耳鼻咽喉头颈外科并不是十分感兴趣,觉得它是小科,我当时心仪的岗位是心脑血管科,但最终没能如愿。在耳鼻咽喉头颈外科岗位工作时间长了,我感觉到耳科研究很有趣味,人的耳朵其实是很美丽且复杂的,不是当初我想象的那么简单枯燥,后来我慢慢地热爱上了这个学科。其实人体的很多病症也都能从耳廓中体现出来,千万不要小看自己的耳朵、鼻子、咽喉甚至是牙齿。如果它们有不健康的症状,也是身体某个对应器官疾病的先兆,因此要引起足够的重视。中华医学博大精深,古代中医学家绘制的全身疾病在耳廓上的穴位图是中华医学发展的一块灿烂明珠。

记者:听您讲了这些,您在所在领域作出了突出贡献,您也培养出了30多名医学硕士、博士或博士后,您对现在年轻学生有什么经验之谈吗?

Dr Duan:谢谢!无论做什么事情,在哪个岗位工作,我认为最重要的一点就是兴趣,从事科学研究的也是一样。要时常怀有好奇心,一旦对某项东西感兴趣了,你就会拥有一种动力而深入研究下去。其二,从事科学研究要富有挑战精神,不能拘泥于现有,也不能完全迷信权威,要时刻有 “鸡蛋里挑骨头” 的韧性和 “打破沙锅问到底” 的执拗,敢于打破常规,勇于接受挑战,在挑战中创新,在逆境中突破,这样就会有新的发现。再者,要博览群书,只有积累了一定厚度的知识,研究中才能有力量支撑,才能容易打通瓶颈,做任何事情都要做到干一行爱一行,干一行精一行。

记者:谢谢段教授! 非常感谢您在百忙之中抽出时间接受我们的采访。

Ma Jianzhong, Chairman of WFCMS leading a delegation Visits Sweden

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 20(Greenpost)– Ma Jianzhong, Chairman of World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies (WFCMS) led a large delegation of over 30 members to visit Sweden in order to make academic exchanges and field study on November 13th.

This was right after they attended the 16th World Congress of Chinese Medicine which was successfully held in Budapest, Capital of Hungary. The delegation includes leading experts and specialists in the field of Chinese medicine.

       At 10:30 in the morning, Chairman Ma Jianzhong, former Vice Minister of Health, Professor She Jing, who was also founding Chairman of the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, and Professor Li Zhenji, Vice founding Chairman and Secretary-General of WFCMS and other six people came to the Chinese Embassy in Stockholm at the invitation of Chinese Ambassador Gui Cuiyou.

They were warmly welcomed and Ambassador Gui made extensive talks on the development of traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture and moxibustion in Sweden, and further explored how to further promote Chinese medicine culture and relieve the suffering of the Swedish people and overseas Chinese.

Counselor Dai Gang of Science and Technology at the Embassy and President Yang Chungui of the Swedish Society of Chinese Medicine gave a detailed introduction about the operation of Swedish traditional Chinese medicine and acupuncture clinics and the exchanges and cooperation with Western doctors such as those from Karolinska Hospital.

Jiemei, a lawyer at Guohao Law Firm, introduced the work of promoting acupuncture legislation in Sweden. After the talks, the Embassy arranged a lunch for all the guests.

After thorough inspection by the leaders of the World Federation of China and the friendly consultation between the two sides, they jointly decided that the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Professional Level Recognition Department and the Swedish Society of Chinese Medicine will sign a cooperation framework agreement on the “Cooperation on the clinical superiority technology transfer of traditional Chinese medicine and the evaluation of professional titles of international Chinese medicine”.

At 3 o’clock in the afternoon, under the witnesses of the WFCMS’ leaders and Guo Hao law Firm’s lawyer Jiemei, Professor Zheng Yuexian, the chief expert of the WFCMS and President of the Swedish Association of Chinese Medicine, Yang Chungui signed this important agreement.

 On the morning of the 14th, the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies experts visited Karolinska Institutet. The former Nobel Prize jury chair Professor Silas introduced the Karolinska Institute and Nobel Prize evaluation process to the delegation.

In the afternoon, the delegation concluded the intense academic study tour and flew back to China with Air China.

The World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies is an international academic organization approved by the Chinese State Council and a member of the World Health Organization. It’s a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). 

(Translated and edited by Xuefei Chen Axelsson )

第五届中国互联网法治大会举行:探讨数据保护、区块链等热点

第五届中国互联网法治大会举行:探讨数据保护、区块链等热点

    中国互联网协会理事长尚冰在2019(第五届)中国互联网法治大会上致辞。 钟欣 摄

  北欧绿色邮报网报道:中国互联网协会主办的2019(第五届)中国互联网法治大会11月6日在北京召开。大会以“强化网络法治建设,护航数字经济繁荣”为主题,对互联网法治建设、数据保护、区块链等热点问题进行了探讨。

  北京航空航天大学党委书记曹淑敏表示,《中共中央关于坚持和完善中国特色社会主义制度推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化若干重大问题的决定》第一次将数据作为生产要素之一,与劳动、资本、土地等并列为生产资本,这些重大变化都是由于互联网以及信息技术的发展给国家法治、国家治理、国家经济发展以及相关立法工作带来的巨大机遇。

  她认为,互联网法治涉及两大方面内容,一方面是互联网及其相关领域立法,另一方面是充分利用互联网等信息技术提高法治水平和治理能力。

  中国互联网协会理事长尚冰对中国互联网法治建设提出四点建议:一是强化法治意识,夯实网络法治建设的基础;二是把握立法导向,为新技术、新业态留出发展空间;三是突出立法重点,做好网络强国建设基础性立法;四是强化法治建设,提升网络执法水平。

  十二届全国人大常委会委员、副秘书长、法律委员会副主任委员李连宁表示,在互联网法治及其研究的过程中,一个重要的理念是要在坚持底线的前提下,尽可能为互联网经济的发展营造宽松的氛围,这在互联网法治研究和立法过程中需给予高度重视。

  中央网信办政策法规局副局长李长喜表示,推动数据技术及应用发展,防范数据发展带来的风险,需要构建科学的数据治理体系,要在五个方面做出努力。包括建立与数据发展相适应的安全保障制度、进一步完善网络综合执法体系、进一步完善数据治理规则等。

  最高人民检察院技术信息中心主任赵志刚表示,区块链技术在检察工作中可被用于司法办案、法律监督以及检察公共服务等多个场景,从而起到加强证据效力、规范诉讼程序、推动司法观念革新、促进检察监督实时化,助力提升检察公共服务的群众满意度。

  工业和信息化部政策法规司司长梁志峰表示,数字经济已成为中国国民经济的重要组成部分,成为推动经济发展的新动能。让互联网在法治轨道上健康运行,一是要加强基础问题研究,为网络领域法治建设提供理论支撑;二是要完善互联网监管体系,优化数字经济发展环境;三是要加快推进电信法等进重点立法,完善互联网基础管理制度。(来源:中新网/ 记者 刘育英 )

第二届世界顶尖科学家论坛在沪开幕

第二届世界顶尖科学家论坛在沪开幕

    2006年诺贝尔化学奖得主、世界顶尖科学家协会主席罗杰·科恩伯格当日在开幕式致辞。作者 张亨伟

  北欧绿色邮报网援引中新社( 记者 李姝徵 )报道:第二届世界顶尖科学家论坛29日在中国(上海)自由贸易试验区临港新片区(以下简称临港新片区)开幕。

  “我们想要看到更多科学上的交流和互动。”2006年诺贝尔化学奖得主、世界顶尖科学家协会主席罗杰·科恩伯格当日在开幕式致辞中表示,科学是无国界的,它是国际性的、非政治性的。

第二届世界顶尖科学家论坛29日在中国(上海)自由贸易试验区临港新片区开幕。作者 张亨伟

第二届世界顶尖科学家论坛29日在中国(上海)自由贸易试验区临港新片区开幕。作者 张亨伟

  罗杰·科恩伯格指出,世界顶尖科学家论坛有两个目的:一是支持全球的年轻科学家;第二是支持基础科研的发展。他认为,当今科学发展呈现出“多点突破”和“交叉互融”的基本格局。开放、协同和共享的合作趋势,不但是人类应对共同挑战的基础,更是推动科学发展的前提。

  据上海官方表示,举办世界顶尖科学家论坛,充分展示了上海以更加开放的态度,进一步融入全球科技创新体系,加强全方位国际合作的决心。

图为当日现场。作者 张亨伟

图为当日现场。作者 张亨伟

  目前,上海正全力建设具有全球影响力的科技创新中心,搭建集聚全球顶尖科技人才、打造全球高层次合作的交流平台,是上海建设“创新之城”的核心内容之一。而随着临港新片区正式揭牌,这片曾经的滩涂地正向着成为中国对外开放的新高地迈进。

  相较首届世界顶尖科学家论坛,本届论坛参与科学家人数较上一年更多。包括44位诺贝尔奖获得者、21位图灵奖、沃尔夫奖、拉斯克奖、菲尔兹奖得主在内的65位世界顶尖科学家,与100多位中国科学院院士、中国工程院院士和青年科学家齐聚临港新片区,共赴“智慧盛宴”。( 责任编辑查正富 主编陈雪霏)

雪龙号整装启航前往南极 “双龙探极”将成新常态

雪龙号整装启航前往南极“双龙探极”将成新常态

    “雪龙号”即将离开极地科考码头,开启第三十六次科学考察任务。 陈超 摄

北欧绿色邮报网报道:“雪龙”号极地科考船22日从其母港——位于上海浦东外高桥港区的中国极地科考码头启航,开始其第36次南极之行。

  据悉,此前,“雪龙2”号中国科考船已于本月9日离开上海外高桥港前往深圳,拉开了中国第36次南极考察的序幕。22日,完成船舶大修后的“雪龙”号启航后,将在11月下旬与“雪龙2”号在南极中山站会师。

外高桥边检站民警登上“雪龙号” 办理出境检查手续。 陈超 摄

外高桥边检站民警登上“雪龙号” 办理出境检查手续。 陈超 摄

  目前,南极中山站、内陆队、泰山站、恩克斯堡岛新站物资已经装船完毕,将搭乘“雪龙”号奔赴南极现场。据了解,本次考察将开展天文、高空、冰雪、海冰气象、地磁、环境、海洋等方面的科学考察工作。在恩克斯堡岛新站,将继续开展新站临建建设、工程地勘工作及部分科学考察工作。

  第36次南极考察是一次承前启后、继往开来的重要考察活动。“雪龙2”号正式加入南极考察序列,与“雪龙”号形成南极考察编队,这是中国时隔35年再次以“双船作业”模式远征南极。此次“双船作业”,两艘极地考察破冰船首次组成编队赴南极考察,“双龙探极”工作模式将成为未来中国极地科考的一种新常态,将在考察范围、人员规模、考察深度和成果影响力等方面产生广泛而深刻的影响。

外高桥边检站开辟“绿色通道”,快速为该轮和科考人员办理了边防检查手续,助其顺利出境。 陈超 摄

外高桥边检站开辟“绿色通道”,快速为该轮和科考人员办理了边防检查手续,助其顺利出境。 陈超 摄

  当日,外高桥边检站开辟“绿色通道”,快速为该轮和科考人员办理了边防检查手续,助其顺利出境。外高桥边检站方面向记者介绍,本次考察队由446名队员组成。“雪龙”号极地科考船从上海母港出发后,将经停澳大利亚、新西兰、智利等国家前往南极考察,预计2020年4月中旬返回上海港。(来源:中新网/记者陈静 陈超 )

2019年度人类社会发展十大科学问题发布

北欧绿色邮报网援引中新社(记者 孙自法)报道:“2019年度人类社会发展十大科学问题”16日在北京举行的首届世界科技与发展论坛上正式发布,这十大科学问题涵盖健康、环境、能源三大领域,其中就包括如何解决人类未来能源的问题。
  2019年度人类社会发展十大科学问题包括健康领域4个问题和环境领域、能源领域各3个问题。4个健康问题分别是:如何预防并阻断新发传染病的大规模流行?社会变迁对人的身心健康有哪些影响?能否对未来人类疾病做出准确而全面的预测?哪些新技术可用于癌症的早期诊断和预后监测?
  3个环境问题分别是:人类如何在安全的地球界限内继续发展?如何有效解决跨界空气、水和土壤的污染?如何实现对废水和污水的完全净化处理?
  3个能源问题分别是:可控核聚变能否解决人类未来能源问题?怎样高效转化和存储新能源?大城市如何实现能源-水-食物供给的平衡和平等?
  中国科学院院士、2019年度人类社会发展十大科学问题发布人蔡荣根指出,发展是人类社会的永恒追求,正是依赖于科学技术的创新发展,人类的生产生活获得了令人叹为观止的改善,同时也带来了令人忧虑的严峻挑战。
  据了解,最新发布的这十大科学问题是围绕联合国2030年可持续发展议程提出的17项目标,聚焦人类可持续发展中最迫切、最基本、最具挑战性的需求,根据Scopus数据库相关科学研究热门关键词的检索结果,由中外知名科技期刊的编委、高端战略科学家反复讨论提出候选问题,并通过广泛的网络评选,经中国科协九届常委会学术交流专门委员会终审确定。(责任编辑查正富 主编陈雪霏)     

国际货币基金组织:对抗气候变迁 碳税是最强效方法

北欧绿色邮报网援引中新社据“中央社”报道:当地时间10日,国际货币基金(IMF)表示,全球的碳排污染大户国家应该一起同意课征碳税,未来十年每吨碳排征收75美元税金,让气候变迁维持在安全水平。对抗气候变迁,碳税是最强效方法。

  据报道,IMF呼吁即刻采取行动应对气候变迁,但近年来,主要经济体在对抗灾难性全球暖化的预防上意见不一致,导致政策扞格。

  IMF研究人员表示:“碳税是最强而有力且有效的工具,但前提是以公平、增进友好的方式实施。”

  2018年爆发“黄背心”示威并多次暴力流血后,法国政府因而暂缓把碳税提高至每吨50美元以上的计划。同时,美国总统特朗普宣布,将退出2015年签署的《巴黎气候协议》。

  据报道,这份报告赶在IMF和世界银行下周举行年度会议前公布,IMF新任总裁格奥尔基耶娃料将于会上,敦促会员国对气候变迁采取行动。

  根据IMF10日公布的这份研究报告内容,要防止全球气温较工业革命前升温超过2摄氏度,以达成《巴黎气候协议》目标,碳税是最有效的方法。加征碳税会提高电力、旅游、制造、运输和食品等碳排密集产业的成本。

  报道称,目前,全球平均的排放碳价为每吨2美元,想要达成《巴黎气候协议》目标,需由20国集团(G20)里的碳排大户集体在2030年之前把碳税提高至每吨75美元,才有可能实现。

  这份报告表示,对所有国家课征碳税可避免让没有缴税的国家“搭便车”,并让真正实施改革国家的产业能与其他国家竞争。

  但IMF研究人员承认,此举将造成令人却步、不均等的代价。调高碳税至每吨75美元,将使煤炭价格超过现有的3倍。加拿大电力价格将迅速上升超过30%,澳大利亚电价飙涨70%至90%。根据这份报告内容,大部分国家汽油价格将上涨5%至15%。(责任编辑查正富 主编陈雪霏)

2019诺贝尔生理学或医学奖揭晓!3人因这一发现获奖

 北欧绿色邮报网援引中新社(记者 李弘宇)报道:北京时间10月7日下午,诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获奖人名单率先被揭晓:威廉·凯林(William G. Kaelin Jr),彼得·拉特克利夫(Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe)以及格雷格·塞门扎(Gregg L. Semenza)获得这一奖项。获奖理由为“发现细胞如何感知和适应氧气供应”。

  由此,2019年“诺奖周”正式开跑。作为在生理学或医学领域最具影响力的奖项之一,该奖项旨在表彰那些为世界现代医学史做出贡献的“巨人们”。

  118年生理学或医学奖史

  人类探索生命和疾病的曲折史

  自1901年首个奖项被颁发至今,诺贝尔生理学或医学奖已走过118个年头。但多年来,很多人有一个疑惑,为何该奖项是生理学或医学奖,而不像物理学奖或者化学奖那样,单独设立?

  据称,这是因为在阿尔弗雷德•诺贝尔的时代,生理学指的是现在的许多生物学领域。按照诺贝尔1895年遗嘱中表达的意图来解释“生理学或医学”一词,可以使颁奖机构在颁发生物医学、临床医学等领域奖项时,有更大的自由。

  从1901年贝林因发明白喉血清疗法获奖起,至2018年詹姆斯•艾利森与本庶佑因发现抑制免疫负调节的癌症疗法,该奖项获奖人的研究领域涵盖生理学、遗传学、生物化学、代谢学及免疫学等,其中的一些更是彻底改变或推动了医学的发展。

  你知道从放血发展到输血的医学史吗?你知道胰岛素和青霉素是怎么被发现的?你知道人类为什么会衰老吗?回顾百年生理学或医学奖的获奖名单,你将能找到这些问题的答案。

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资料图:当地时间2016年12月10日,2016年诺贝尔物理学奖、化学奖、生理学或医学奖、文学奖和经济学奖颁奖仪式在瑞典首都斯德哥尔摩举行。

  生理学或医学奖得主如何产生?

  “删除测试” 成评选标准

  每年诺贝尔奖公布前夕,许多机构及个人都会参与到对获奖者的竞猜当中。其中,被视为“诺奖风向标”的“引文桂冠奖”尤其受人关注。

  该奖项按生理或医学、物理、化学、经济四个领域分类,根据研究人员所发表成果的被引用频次,来分析和预测最有影响力的科学家。自2002年以来,“引文桂冠奖”已经成功预测了50位诺贝尔奖得主,其中29位科学家荣获该奖的两年内获得了诺贝尔奖。

  但也有人就此提出了质疑:截至目前为止,该奖项的获得者已超过300人,假如以精确率计算的话,预测的准确率还有待商榷。那么问题来了,诺贝尔奖预测,是否真的有章可循?

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资料图:2015年,瑞典诺贝尔博物馆展出的大发明家阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔的遗嘱手稿。

  诺贝尔生理学或医学奖评委会成员、瑞典卡罗林斯卡学院临床综合生理学教授朱琳•吉拉斯称,一个科学家获提名的次数和知名度,并不是获得诺奖的必要条件。员会每年会获得数百项提名,约25%的提名人可能之前从未听说过,约75%的人可能是被人所熟知的。

  她说,在评选过程中,委员会通常会做一个“删除测试”:如果移除被提名人(的研究成果),是否依然能有发现或发明,其成果是否是推动相关研究继续发展的必要因素,提名人是否做出了一些意想不到的发现等。

  “正如诺贝尔在遗嘱中明确称,这一荣誉应授予当年最重大的发现”,吉拉斯说,这一标准常常会在生理学或医学奖的评选中得以应用,其他学科则较少发生。

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资料图:当地时间2015年12月10日,瑞典斯德哥尔摩,诺贝尔晚宴举行,诺奖获得者和王室成员出席了晚宴。

  “遗憾”与“惊喜”并存

  有诺奖遗珠,也有夫妻拿奖

  在诺贝尔奖的百年历史上,有很多科学类奖项实至名归,得到了科学界的一致认可,但是也有一些奖项的获奖者却引发争议。

  ——错过诺奖,令人扼腕

  DNA双螺旋结构的解析,是20世纪最伟大的科学发现之一。沃森、克里克和威尔金斯因研究DNA双螺旋结构模型,获得1962年的诺贝尔生理或医学奖。

  但对DNA结构的研究有重大贡献的罗莎琳•富兰克林于1958年因卵巢癌死亡,享年只有37岁。就连克里克也坦言道,如果没有弗兰克林的关键性研究,就不会有他们的成就。

  奥斯瓦尔德•埃弗里是一位非常了不起的科学家,他发现“基因转化现象”是由DNA引起而不是当时通常认为的蛋白质。他用了15年时间寻找相关证据,终于在1944年发表了决定性论文。因为在分子生物学和免疫学方面的杰出工作,他从上世纪30年代起几乎每年都被诺奖提名。

  然而,再多的工作也没能说服那时的核酸专家哈默斯顿。当时是卡罗林斯研究所化学教授的哈默斯顿,始终认为是蛋白质引起了遗传转化。甚至有传言认为,哈默斯顿阻碍了埃弗里获奖。

  不过,或许埃弗里没获奖的真正原因是时间。1962年的生理或医学奖颁发时,哈默斯顿已在铁证下屈服,可埃弗里再没机会获得诺奖——他在1955年就去世了。

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资料图:卡尔-科里和格蒂-科里夫妇。他们均为1947年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖得主;他们和阿根廷医生奥赛一起,发现糖代谢中的酶促反应。

  ——夫妻拿奖,令人称赞

  在生理学或医学奖的历史上,曾有两对“夫妻档”同时获奖。

  美国科学家卡尔•科里与格蒂•科里夫妇因发现糖代谢中的酶促反应,而共同获得1947年生理学或医学奖。

  挪威科学家梅-布里特•莫泽和爱德华•莫泽夫妇因发现大脑的定位系统,而共同获得2014年生理学或医学奖。

  据报道,莫泽夫妇虽共同获颁诺贝尔奖,但两人并非同时得知喜讯。

  公布得主时,妻子梅-布里特正与同事在实验室讨论实验数据,她称因为讨论过程太有趣,差点没接到电话。同一时间,丈夫爱德华正在飞往德国慕尼黑的飞机上,因此未能实时得知获奖。

  大奖背后的趣事

  有人差点被问倒,有人跳舞庆祝

  2018年,日本免疫学家本庶佑在生理或医学奖颁奖前的新闻发布会上,曾差点被一个问题难倒。

  有人问“人类是否可以征服癌症?如果可以,是在何时?”,他回答,不能确定“究竟何时”,但认为到2050年左右,人类或许可以抑制癌症增长。

  2013年,诺贝尔生理学或医学奖被授予美国科学家詹姆斯•罗斯曼、兰迪•谢克曼以及德国科学家托马斯•聚德霍夫,以表彰他们发现囊泡转运的调控机制。

  据诺贝尔奖官方消息,在得悉自己获奖时,托马斯•聚德霍夫的第一反应是,“真的假的?!”而兰迪•谢克曼则不断惊呼“我的天啊”,甚至还跳了一段“胜利之舞”。(责任编辑查正富 主编陈雪霏)

嫦娥四号着陆器和“玉兔二号”巡视器完成第十月昼工作

北欧绿色邮报网援引中新网报道: 据中国探月工程官方微信消息,嫦娥四号着陆器完成第十月昼的科学探测工作,于10月5日19时30分进入第十月夜。第十月昼工作期间,着陆器工况正常,能量平衡,有效载荷月球中子及辐射剂量探测仪、低频射电谱仪按计划开展有效探测工作,地面接收科学探测数据正常。

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  “玉兔二号”巡视器于10月5日15时43分完成月夜设置,进入休眠。第十月昼期间,巡视器根据整体规划进行移动,目前累计行走289.769米。巡视器移动过程中,按计划组织实施了巡视器红外光谱仪、全景相机、中性原子探测仪、测月雷达等有效载荷的开机探测工作,进一步获取月球背面科研数据,地面接收载荷数传数据正常。

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  在国庆节前后,嫦娥四号着陆器和“玉兔二号”巡视器突破十个月球日工作期,远远超出设计寿命,以出色完成科学探测任务向祖国70华诞献礼。目前,地面科研团队正在对各科学载荷获取的第一手探测数据进行处理分析,在已取得的科研成果基础上深入开展研究。(责任编辑查正富 主编陈雪霏)

瑞典皇家科学院秘书长:更多的女性被提名诺奖是趋势

  

北欧绿色邮报网援引 澎湃新闻 (记者 贺梨萍 )报道:2019年诺贝尔奖揭晓之前,长期关注的一个问题重新引发外界期待:女性和非白种人在今年的这项大奖角逐中能否有所斩获?

  毕竟,在过去的2018年,加拿大科学家唐娜·斯特里克兰(Donna Stricklan)是继玛丽·居里(居里夫人)和玛丽亚·格佩特-梅耶(梅耶夫人)之后的历史上第三名女性物理诺奖得主。美国科学家弗朗西斯·阿诺德(Frances H. Arnold)也是继居里夫人、伊雷娜·约里奥-居里(玛丽居里的女儿)、多萝西·玛丽·霍奇金和阿达·约纳特之后第五位获得诺贝尔化学奖的女性。

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  如何平衡这些所谓的诺贝尔奖“歧视”,瑞典皇家科学院采取了一些措施,其中包括希望能通过鼓励科学家提出更多样化的提名来解决这个问题。比如,邀请更多的女性参与提出候选人,以及修改邀请提名信的措辞,明确希望提名者考虑性别、地理和主题的多样性,同时也希望可以同时提名多个发现。

  据国际顶级学术期刊《自然》(Nature)官网报道,日前,《自然》采访了瑞典皇家科学院秘书长、生物医学科学家戈兰·汉森(Göran Hansson),谈及这些措施产生的影响。

  汉森透露,虽然不能给出任何确切的数字,但目前的提名似乎有一个积极的趋势,即更多的女性被提名。虽然这一变化很小,但这是一个趋势。瑞典皇家科学院将持续几年、非常仔细地研究这一问题,最后可能会得出确定的结论。

  然而,增加提名者中女性的比例似乎帮助并不大。汉森透露,“不幸的是,这似乎没有任何影响。结论是,女性提名女性的可能性并不比男性高。我们将继续跟进,但目前情况的确是这样”。

  除了性别以外,瑞典皇家科学院也在试图促进种族多样性。汉森提到,目前还不能说它是否有任何影响,因为我们评估性别方面的影响。“但即使在我们修改提名信之前,诺贝尔奖得主数量增加最多的国家之一就是日本”。汉森认为,这种现象本身挑战了所谓的美国白种人偏见。

  “我们在东亚看到了对科学的巨大投资,我们看到来自东亚的被提名的人比以往任何时候都多。从长远来看,我相信这是值得的。”汉森表示。

  不过,瑞典皇家科学院仍致力于在种族方面进一步平衡。诺贝尔奖创始人阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔(Alfred Bernhard Nobel)曾明确表示,颁奖时不应考虑国籍。永远不会对国家、种族或性别实行配额制度。“重要的是,获得诺贝尔奖的人是因为她或他是最有价值的获奖者,这是毫无疑问的”。

  汉森同时提到,我们意识到,诺贝尔奖得主会成为榜样,尤其是来自不同种族的女性榜样非常重要。但是,与此同时,诺贝尔奖必须奖励做出最重要发现的人。“如果我们不这样做,那么我们就低估了诺贝尔奖的价值,我认为这最终会伤害到所有人”。

  汉森还特别强调,瑞典皇家科学院和诺贝尔委员会之外的外部环境的变化非常重要:必须鼓励妇女学习科学,并在其整个学术生涯中给予公平的机会。

  “我们希望更多的国家能发展科学。而科学是一项昂贵的活动,也需要稳定的环境,所以在世界不同的地方,机会差别很大。我们希望这种情况会逐渐改变,这样更多国家的人就会有更多的机会从事科学事业,从而有更多的科学发现”。(责任编辑查正富 主编陈雪霏)

Shenzhen Promotion and Communication Presentation held in Stockholm

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Sept. 24 (Greenpost) — Shenzhen Promotion and Communication Presentation was held in Stockholm on Tuesday.

Zhang Qiaozhen, President of the General Chamber of Commerce, Cao Diefeng, Counsular of Education at the Chinese Embassy, Fan Kun, Vice President of Shenzhen Overseas Communication Association and dozens of masters or Phd students from universities in Stockholm attended the presentation.

President Zhang congratulated the presentation. She explained that the goal of her Nordic-Shenzhen General Chamber of Commerce is to promote the communication between Shenzhen and Nordic countries. We have helped nordic enterprises to go to Shenzhen and Guangzhou to attend trade and high tech fairs as well as cultural exhibitions。Today we have Shenzhen delegation coming to Sweden to present Shenzhen to you. Let’s welcome Fan Kun, Vice President of Shenzhen Overseas Communication Association.

Fan Kun said Shenzhen used to be a small fishing village with a population of only 30 thousand. Now it is one of the most innovative cities all over China.

Shenzhen aims to become a roll model for Chinese cities by 2030 and 2049 and it can even be the world’s model city. Shenzhen has wonderful environment with the lowest in PM 2.5. The city is very young and vital. It is very good for young talented people to work in Shenzhen. The treatment is very good if you can have good project or achievement, said Fan.

Cao Diefeng in the middle

Counsular Cao encouraged the students to go to Shenzhen to work saying that they can have a good communication to take this opportunity.

Liu Huadian from Shenzhen Overseas Communication Association said the average age in Shenzhen is just 33 years old. So the city is the youngest one in China. The net increase of population reached by half a million to over 13 million . There are many volunteers in Shenzhen and people from Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan reached 150 thousand by the end of last year. Shenzhen is very open and all the information about talented people from overseas are published on website.

They also answered questions from the students.

Shenzhen has become an admirable city for talented people. The exchange and promotion seminar was organized by Shenzhen Overseas Communication Association.

Nordic-Shenzhen General Chamber of Commerce Established in Stockholm

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Sept. 24(Greenpost) — Upon the forthcoming 70th anniversary of Chinese National Day, Nordic-Shenzhen General Chamber of Commerce was established in Stockholm on Tuesday and a grand ceremony has been held in the Chinese Cultural Center in Stockholm.

Chinese Ambassador Gui Congyou and Fan Kun Vice President of Shenzhen Overseas Communication Association granted the plaque of the Chamber of Commerce to Zhang Qiaozhen, President of the Nordic-Shenzhen General Chamber of Commerce.

Ambassador Gui expressed his sincere congratulations to the establishment of the General Chamber of Commerce and hopes that it will make further contributions to cooperation between China’s Shenzhen and Nordic countries.

Fan Kun, Vice President of Shenzhen Overseas Communication Association, made a speech about Shenzhen.

“Shenzhen’s Per capita GDP is very high in China and science and innovation level is also very high while the average age in Shenzhen is very low or the lowest in China with an average of 30 years old and the PM 2.5 is the lowest in China,” said Fan.

“That means Shenzhen is a city that is very good for young talented people to realize their dreams.” said Fan.

Han Xiaodong, Counsular of Commerce at the Chinese Embassy talked about bilateral trade and investment.

“In fact, in recent two years, Sweden enjoys surplus in export to China and China’s investment to Sweden increased substantially. This is a good trend because it indicates that the consumption level in China is increasing and investment level also increased.” said Han.

He congratulated the establishment of the General Chamber of Commerce and hopes that it will contribute more to bilateral exchange in trade and investment as well as other areas.

President Zhang Qiaozhen has said that she will do her best to promote bilateral trade and investment as well as science and technology exchange and innovation. She has helped Nordic companies to go to Shenzhen and Guangzhou and other places to participate in trade fair or exhibitions. They also received delegations from those areas to nordic countries.

Zhang said that they also announced the branches in Danmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway and issued plates to them.

Meanwhile, two strategic agreements have been signed between Zhang Qiaozhen and Tian Yubiao and another Swedish company for future cooperation.

出席庆典仪式的还有瑞典老一代华侨侨领,中国饭店创始人朱佩媛女士,瑞典最早的华人学校杨校长,以及在瑞典的北欧华人商会会长周画女士,瑞中友好协会执行会长夏雨女士,北欧中医药中心董事长田雨飙先生,碧云学院创始人范秀兰女士,畅通国际有限责任公司王凯虹女士,瑞典卡罗琳斯卡医学院曹义海教授以及高校专家学者,留学生等各界华人华侨100多人。来自海内外各界商会、各行各业机构发来贺信、贺电上百封。为成立庆典增加了喜庆气氛。

Zhu Peiyuan, senior founder of Chinese restaurant in Sweden, Yang Liran, Founder of Ruijing Chinese School, Zhou Hua, President of Nordic Chinese Association, Xia Yu, Executive President of Swedish Chinese Friendship Association, Tian yubiao, President of Nordic Chinese Medicine Center, Fan Xiulan, Founder of Biyun Academy and Professor Cao Yihai from Karolinska Institutet were among the over 100 guests at the ceremony.

Zhang Qiaozhen said Nordic Shenzhen General Chamber of Commerce is another important platform for Shenzhen to go abroad. They focus a lot on high tech, high tech industries, IT, Internet and R &D and help introduce enterprises with high potential and innovative enterprises. They will provide good services and commercial model design, legal matters consultation and one to one or P to P service. They also established an incubator to realise the scientific achievements and provide a bridge between nordic innovative enterprises with Chinese market.

We shall become an effective bridge between China’s Shenzhen and nordic countries and help Shenzhen enterprises to go abroad and Swedish or Nordic enterprises to Shenzhen, said Zhang.

Right after the ceremony, a meeting on promoting Shenzhen was also held with participation of Chinese students from different universities in Stockholm.

Photo and Text by Xuefei Chen Axelsson