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Pharmacological Research:Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)

Elsevier

Pharmacological Research

Available online 20 March 2020, 104761In Press, Journal Pre-proofWhat are Journal Pre-proof articles?

Pharmacological Research

Lianhuaqingwen exerts anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)

Author links open overlay panelLiRunfenga1HouYunlonge1HuangJichengd1PanWeiqia1MaQinhaiaShiYongxiadLiChufangaZhaoJinaJiaZhenhuaeJiangHaimingaZhengKuidHuangShuxiangdDaiJundLiXiaobodHouXiaotaocWangLincZhongNanshanaYangZifengabcShow morehttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104761Get rights and content

Abstract

Purpose

Lianhuaqingwen (LH) as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula has been used to treat influenza and exerted broad-spectrum antiviral effects on a series of influenza viruses and immune regulatory effects [1]. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the antiviral activity of LH against the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus and its potential effect in regulating host immune response.

Methods

The antiviral activity of LH against SARS-CoV-2 was assessed in Vero E6 cells using CPE and plaque reduction assay. The effect of LH on virion morphology was visualized under transmission electron microscope. Pro-inflammatory cytokine expression levels upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays.

Results

LH significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells and markedly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10) production at the mRNA levels. Furthermore, LH treatment resulted in abnormal particle morphology of virion in cells.

Conclusions

LH significantly inhibits the SARS-COV-2 replication, affects virus morphology and exerts anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. These findings indicate that LH protects against the virus attack, making its use a novel strategy for controlling the COVID-19 disease.

Keywords

LianhuaqingwencoronavirusSARS-CoV-2anti-inflammatory

1. Introduction

Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped viruses named for their coronary appearance with positive single-stranded RNA genomes [2]. In addition to six known strains of coronaviruses that are infectious to humans, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was detected recently in Wuhan, China [3,4]. Like the other two highly pathogenic coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also caused severe respiratory illness and even death. Moreover, the population’s susceptibility to these highly pathogenic coronaviruses has contributed to large outbreaks and evolved into the public health events, highlighting the necessity to prepare for future reemergence or the novel emerging viruses [5].

Similar to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 is initiated by zoonotic transmission likely from bats and spreads rapidly among humans [6]. The basic reproduction number (R0) of person-to-person spread is about at 2.6, which means that the SARS-CoV-2 infected cases grow at an exponential rate. As of February 07, 2020, 57,620 cases of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in China, including 26,359 suspected cases, and a sustained increase is predictable. The initial patient cluster with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported Wuhan pneumonia with unknown aetiology, which bore some resemblance to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Moreover, High concentrations of cytokines were recorded in plasma of patients requiring ICU admission, such as GCSF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα, suggesting that the cytokine storm was associated with disease severity [7]. A retrospective clinical study indicated the risk of fatality among hospitalized cases at 4.3% in single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients [8], and the infection fatality risk could be below 1% or even below 0.1% in a large number of undetected relatively mild infections [9]. However, It is challenging to judge the severity and predict the consequences with the information available so far. Since no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19 is currently available, supportive cares, including symptomatic controls and prevention of complications remain the most critical therapeutic regimens, especially in preventing acute respiratory distress syndrome [10]. Although the control of SARS-CoV-2 still presents multiple challenges in the short term, more potent antiviral drugs are urgent to be developed [4].

At present, some drugs are effective in eliminating SARS-CoV-2 and improving symptoms. The most promising antiviral drug for SARS-CoV-2 is remdesivir that is currently under clinical development for the treatment of Ebola virus infection [11]. However, the efficacy and safety of remdesivir for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients need to be assessed by further clinical trials. In addition, in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, Tranditonal Chinese medicines have received broad adoption, especially in treating cases of mild symptoms [12]. Lianhuaqingwen (LH), a Chinese patent medicine composed of 13 herbs, has played a positive role in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. A retrospective analysis of clinical records was conducted in the SARS-CoV-2 infected patients at Wuhan Ninth Hospital and CR & WISCO General Hospital. LH combination could significantly relieve cardinal symptoms and reduce the course of the COVID-19 [13], making it successively included in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Fourth/Fifth/Sixth/Seventh Edition) issued by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China and also recommended by 20 provincial health commissions including Hubei, Beijing, and Shanghai as well as National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, LH exerted broad-spectrum effects on a series of influenza viruses by inhibiting viral propagation and regulating immune function and achieved similar therapeutic effectiveness with Oseltamivir in reducing the course of H1N1 virus infection [1,14,15]. Notably, the anti-influenza activity of LH in infected mice might depend on the regulation of cytokines, particularly in cytokine storm associated cytokines, such as IP-10, MCP-1, MIP1A, and TNF-α [1]. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral and anti-inflammatory efficiency of LH against a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 from Guangzhou in vitro.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Cell lines and virus

The African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero E6) cells and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (Huh-7) cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM, Gibco, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 °C. A clinical isolated SARS-CoV-2 virus (Genebank accession no. MT123290.1) was propagated in Vero E6 cells, and viral titer was determined by 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) according to the cytopathic effect by use of Reed-Muench method [17]. All the infection experiments were performed in a biosafety level-3 (BLS-3) laboratory.

2.2. Reagent preparation

LH capsule (Lot No.A2001108) was obtained from Yiling Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Shijiazhuang, China). UPLC fingerprints of LH consist of 32 common peaks. 9 of 32 common peaks are identified. The similarities in 10 batches of LH Capsules samples were all above 0.96 (Supplementary Fig. 1). The black powder of raw material of LH was first dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to 240 mg/mL. After shaking for 30 min at room temperature, the LH solution was diluted with serum-free DMEM to 24 mg/mL as a stock solution and stored at −20 °C before using. Remdesivir was kindly provided by Prof. Jiancun Zhang from Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences and was dissolved in DMSO to 100 mM and stored at −20 °C before using. DMEM with 2% FBS was used as the dilution buffer in the follow-up experiments.

2.3. Cytotoxicity assay

The cytotoxic effects of the LH on Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells were evaluated by Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Briefly, monolayers of Vero E6 cells and Huh-7 cells in 96-well plates were rinsed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by incubation with indicated concentrations of LH. After 72 h, the cells were stained with MTT solution at 0.5 mg/mL for 4 h. The supernatants were then removed, and the formed formazan crystals were dissolved in 200 μL DMSO. The absorbance was measured at 490 nm using Multiskan Spectrum reader (Thermo Fisher, USA). The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was calculated by the GraphPad Prism 7.0 software.

2.4. Cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibition assay

The Vero E6 cell monolayers were grown in 96-well plates and inoculated with 100 TCID50 of coronavirus strains at 37 ̊C for 2 h. The inoculum was removed, and the cells were subsequently incubated with indicated concentrations of LH or the positive control remdesivir. Following the 72 h of incubation, the infected cells shown 100% CPE under the microscope. The percentage of CPE in LH-treated cells were recorded. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of the virus-induced CPE by LH was calculated by the Reed-Muench method [17].

2.5. Plaque reduction assay

The Vero E6 cell monolayers in 6-well plates were infected with 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of SARS-CoV-2 for 2 h at 37 °C. After incubation, the cell monolayers were covered with agar overlay (final concentration: 0.6% agar, 2% FBS, indicated concentrations of LH or remdesivir). The plates were then incubated for 48 h at 37 °C with 5% CO2. Subsequently, the agar overlays were removed, and the cell monolayer was fixed with 10% formalin, stained with 1% crystal violet, and then the plaques were counted and photographed.

2.6. RNA isolation and reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR analysis (RT-qPCR)

The Huh-7 cell monolayers in 12-well plate were rinsed with PBS and then exposed to coronavirus at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 for 2 h at 37 °C. The inoculum was removed and replaced with the indicated concentrations of LH or mock-treated with DMEM supplemented with 2% FBS for subsequent 48 h incubation at 37 °C with 5% CO2. The cells were then harvested for RNA isolation and qPCR as described previously [16]. The primer and probe sequences used for analysis are listed in Supplementary Table 1. The relative mRNA expression was calculated using the 2-△△Ct method with GAPDH as an internal reference gene.

2.7. Electron microscope

Monolayers of Vero E6 cells in 6-well plates were incubated with SARS-CoV-2 at a MOI of 0.001 for 2 h at 37 °C. The virus inoculum was then removed and replaced with DMEM medium supplemented with 2% FBS containing LH (600 μg/mL) or remdesivir (5 μM). At 48 h p.i., the cells were fixed, dehydrated and embedded as described previously [18]. Ultrathin sections (70 nm) of embedded cells were prepared, deposited onto Formvar-coated copper grids (200 mesh), stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then observed under JEM-1400 PLUS transmission electron microscopy (Japan Electron Optics Laboratory Co., Ltd., JEM-1400 PLUS).

2.8. Statistical Analyses

Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 7.0 software. The differences in mRNA expression levels of cytokines were compared using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Values of p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

3. Results

3.1. Antiviral activity of LH on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro

The cell viability after LH or remdesivir treatment was determined by MTT assay in both Vero E6 and Huh-7 cells. LH showed unapparent cytotoxicity for both cell lines at concentrations up to 600 μg/mL (Fig. 1A, C). The positive control remdesivir showed no cytotoxicity to cells at a concentration of 50µM (Fig. 1B, D).

Fig. 1

To investigate the antiviral effect of LH against SARS-CoV-2 virus, the Vero E6 cells were infected with 100 TCID50 of virus and incubated with LH at various concentrations for 72 h. As shown in Fig. 2A, LH inhibited the replication of SARS-CoV-2 virus with an IC50 value of 411.2 µg/mL by CPE assay (Fig. 2A). Meanwhile, treatment with LH following infection also had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on plaque formation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (Fig. 2C). We selected remdesivir as the positive control in our study and the results showed that remdesivir potently inhibited virus-induced CPE with an IC50 of 0.651 µM and a total plaque formation inhibition at 5 μM (Fig. 2B, C).

Fig. 2

To further confirm the efficacy of LH in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus replication in cells, we detected the viral particles in ultrathin sections of infected cells under electron microscopy. At 48 h p.i., viral particles were found in cytoplasm, intracellular vesicles, endoplasmic reticulum, and cell membrane and presented spherical crown-like appearance, which was typical coronavirus morphology (Fig. 3B, G). LH (600 μg/mL) and positive control remdesivir (5 μM) treatment resulted in a reduction of the number of virions compared with mock-treated infected cells (Fig. 3G–J). It was interesting to note that some virions in the surface of LH-treated cells presented spindle sharp which was in contrast to the typical spherical particles in the mock-treated cells (Fig. 3I).

Fig. 3

3.2. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2-induced cytokine and chemokine expression by LH in vitro

To determine the effect of LH on the expression of cytokines and chemokines induced by SAR2-CoV-2, the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1, and CXCL-10/IP-10 were detected and compared between the LH-treated and mock-treated Huh-7 cells. The results showed that the elevated expressions of these four cytokines were significantly inhibited by LH treatment in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4

4. Discussion

Starting from December 2019, a pandemic of respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 is sweeping the mainland of China. This virus has spread to several foreign countries, threatening to trigger a global outbreak. Several antiviral agents can be envisaged to control or prevent viral infections by antiviral assay in vitro [14,17]. However, the efficacy and safety of novel candidates need validations in vivo, even for those clinically approved medicines, which means that it will take months to years for clinical practices. At present, symptomatic and supportive treatments remain key to clinical practices. Thus, Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) carried both the antiviral effect and the symptomatic relief might bring more clinical benefits [12]. As a classical TCM prescription for respiratory diseases, LH is the only approved medicine in the treatment of SARS and influenza. After the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, LH as a representative TCM prescription was recommended again in the latest Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia issued by National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether the therapeutic effects of LH on the COVID-19 targeting virus replication and immunological regulation as it did on the infection caused by influenza viruses.

Our previous study showed that LH exhibited in vitro anti-influenza activity with IC50 ranging from 200-2000 μg/mL [1]. Here we demonstrated that LH also has a comparable antiviral potency against the SARS-CoV-2 virus with an IC50 value of 411.2 μg/mL (Fig. 2). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been a potent tool to observe virus entry, virus particle assembly, viral ultrastructure, and budding from the plasma membrane [17]. To understand the antiviral details of LH, EM pictures were taken from each group. Abundant virus particles assembled at the surface of membrane, cytoplasm, and plasma vesicles in the SARS-CoV-2 infected cells, decreased in the treatment of LH at 600ug/mL. Notably, slight deformation of virus particles was seen in the LH treatment, which required us to make further studies.

Highly pathogenic coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV cause fatal pneumonia, which is mainly associated with rapid virus replication, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and elevated proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses. Although the pathophysiology of fatal pneumonia caused by highly pathogenic coronaviruses has not been completely understood, accumulating evidence suggests that the cytokine storm plays a crucial role in causing fatal pneumonia [18]. Excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines were reported (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, IP-10, and MCP-1) in the serum of SARS patients [18], similar in the serum of MERS patients [19]. Chaolin Huang et al. confirmed the occurrence of the cytokine storm in the COVID-19 patients in ICU rather than those in non-ICU patients [7]. Based on the excessive cytokines responses, Suxin Wan et al. claimed that IL-6 and IL-10 levels could be used as one of the bases for predicting the outcome and prognosis of the COVID-2019 [20]. In this study, host cells infected with HCoV-229E and SARS-COV-2 increased the cytokine release such as TNF-α, IL-6, CCL-2/MCP-1, and CXCL-10/IP-10, which was suppressed by LH in a dose-dependent manner. The change of cytokine profiles suggested that LH might have a potential effect on the inhibition of cytokine storm induced by SARS-COV-2, which also needed to be validated in vivo.

5. Conclusion

Since the launch of LH, it has been widely used as a broad spectrum of antiviral agent in the clinical practice, especially for various respiratory virus infections. Previous studies have shown that LH a broad spectrum of effects on a series of influenza viruses by interfering with both viral and host reactions. Although LH significantly relieved the clinical symptoms of the COVID-19, the underlying mechanism of antiviral effects on coronavirus, especially in the SARS-COV-2, was still elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that LH exerted its anti-coronavirus activity by inhibiting virus replication and reducing the cytokine release from host cells, which supported the clinical application of LH in combination with existing therapies to treat COVID-2019.

Acknowledgements

The study was funded by Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission NCP Emergency Project; Hebei Provincial Department of Science and Technology NCP prevention and control emergency scientific research project (Grant no. 20277708D); The Science research project of the Guangdong Province (Grant no. 2020B111110001); Daxing District Science and technology development projects (Grant no. KT202008013).

Appendix A. Supplementary data

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References

[1]Y. Ding, et al.The Chinese prescription lianhuaqingwen capsule exerts anti-influenza activity through the inhibition of viral propagation and impacts immune functionBMC Complement Altern Med, 17 (1) (2017), p. 130CrossRefGoogle Scholar[2]T.S. Fung, D.X. LiuHuman Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen InteractionAnnu Rev Microbiol, 73 (2019), pp. 529-557CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[3]A. Du ToitOutbreak of a novel coronavirusNat Rev Microbiol (2020)Google Scholar[4]W.G. Carlos, et al.Novel Wuhan (2019-nCoV) CoronavirusAm J Respir Crit Care Med (2020)Google Scholar[5]J. NkengasongChina’s response to a novel coronavirus stands in stark contrast to the 2002 SARS outbreak responseNat Med (2020)Google Scholar[6]P. Zhou, et al.A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat originNature (2020)Google Scholar[7]C. Huang, et al.Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, ChinaLancet (2020)Google Scholar[8]D. Wang, et al.Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, ChinaJAMA (2020)Google Scholar[9]P. Wu, et al.Real-time tentative assessment of the epidemiological characteristics of novel coronavirus infections in Wuhan, China, as at 22 January 2020Euro Surveill, 25 (3) (2020)Google Scholar[10]A. Zumla, et al.Coronaviruses – drug discovery and therapeutic optionsNat Rev Drug Discov, 15 (5) (2016), pp. 327-347CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[11]S. Mulangu, et al.A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Ebola Virus Disease TherapeuticsN Engl J Med, 381 (24) (2019), pp. 2293-2303CrossRefView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[12]J.-l. Ren, A.-H. Zhang, X.-J. WangTraditional Chinese Medicine for COVID-19 TreatmentPharmacological Research (2020), p. 104743ArticleDownload PDFGoogle Scholar[13]K Yao, et al.Retrospective Clinical Analysis on Treatment of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia with Traditional Chinese Medicine Lianhua QingwenChinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae (2020), pp. 1-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar[14]H. LuDrug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV)Biosci Trends (2020)Google Scholar[15]Z.P. Duan, et al.Natural herbal medicine Lianhuaqingwen capsule anti-influenza A (H1N1) trial: a randomized, double blind, positive controlled clinical trialChin Med J (Engl), 124 (18) (2011), pp. 2925-2933View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[16]Z. Li, et al.Radix isatidis Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza a Virus and Influenza A Virus-Induced Inflammation via Suppression of Host TLR3 Signaling In VitroMolecules, 22 (1) (2017)Google Scholar[17]M. Wang, et al.Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitroCell Res (2020)Google Scholar[18]H.N. Leong, et al.Clinical and laboratory findings of SARS in SingaporeAnn Acad Med Singapore, 35 (5) (2006), pp. 332-339View Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[19]A. Assiri, et al.Epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 47 cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease from Saudi Arabia: a descriptive studyLancet Infect Dis, 13 (9) (2013), pp. 752-761ArticleDownload PDFView Record in ScopusGoogle Scholar[20]S. Wan, et al.Characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in peripheral blood of 123 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP)medRxiv (2020)p. 2020.02.10.20021832Google Scholar

Ambassador Gui Introduces the Positive Results of China’s Epidemic Containment and Mitigation Measures to the Diplomatic Missions in Sweden

Stockholm, Feb. 24(Greenpost)– On 20 February, Dr. Andrea Ammon, Director of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), held a briefing for the diplomatic missions in Sweden at the Center to introduce the new developments of COVID-19 and the close exchange and cooperation between the ECDC and the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention. She also recommended that the missions keep in contact with the ECDC and obtain objective information from the Center’s website. Ambassador Gui Congyou attended the briefing together with diplomatic envoys of more than 30 Embassies in Sweden, including Italian, Croatian, Austrian, Lebanese, and Bulgarian Embassies.

Ambassador Gui expressed his appreciation for the ECDC and Dr. Andrea Ammon for their professionalism in presenting the developments of COVID-19 in an objective way, which helps prevent spread of rumor and panic.

Ambassador Gui said that after the outbreak of COVID-19, our Embassy was instructed by the Chinese Government to maintain close communication with relevant departments of the Swedish Government and experts and provide updates in a timely manner. Some Swedish experts told me that there is no need to panic since an epidemic can occur in any country or region, and what is crucial is to make all-out efforts to prevent and control it. The Communist Party of China and Chinese Government have taken stringent measures above what is required by WHO standards and the International Health Regulations, and implemented the national joint prevention and control mechanism, which have generated positive results. The number of newly confirmed cases in areas other than Hubei Province dropped from more than 800 cases on 3 February to 45 yesterday, decreasing for 16 consecutive days. The daily number of new cases in Hubei Province decreased from more than 2000 to less than 1000. Since 1 February, the number of cured cases has exceeded the number of deaths. These positive changes indicate that China’s prevention and control measures are effective, and that the epidemic is preventable, controllable and curable.

Ambassador Gui said that as experts from various countries are yet to fully figure out the pathogens and modes of transmission of this new type of corona virus, it will still take some time to develop effective medicine and vaccines. The Chinese Government will continue to take stringent containment and mitigation measures. By doing so, we shoulder the responsibility not only for the Chinese people, but also for people around the world.

Ambassador Gui said that China has been maintaining close communication and cooperation with relevant countries and the major disease prevention and control centers all over the world, including the ECDC, in the principle of openness and transparency. The epidemic is a challenge not only to China’s public health security, but also to the international public health security. We hope that all countries will strengthen solidarity, follow WHO recommendations, avoid overreactions and maintain normal people-to-people and trade exchanges, to jointly overcome the epidemic.

The diplomatic envoys gave their thanks to Ambassador Gui for his introduction, applauded China’s great efforts and sacrifices to contain and mitigate the epidemic, and expressed the confidence that China can overcome the epidemic at an early time.

Russia is alarmed by a US Air Force visit to Norway’s Jan Mayen

Norway’s defense minister insists the Arctic island won’t be used for military activities. By Reuters -February 13, 2020398Share on FacebookTweet on Twitter

Two U.S. Air Force F-22 stealth fighter jets are about to receive fuel mid-air from a KC-135 refueling plane over Norway en route to a joint training exercise with Norway’s growing fleet of F-35 jets August 15, 2018. (Andrea Shalal / Reuters File Photo)

MOSCOW/OSLO — Russia said on Thursday it was alarmed by a trip that a U.S. Air Force unit took to a Norwegian Arctic outpost and urged Oslo to refrain from what it said were de-stabilizing moves in the strategic region.

A squadron of U.S. Air Force staff visited Norway’s air base on the island of Jan Mayen in the North Atlantic in November to test the airfield and to see whether U.S. C-130J Super Hercules military transport planes can land there.

[A US helping hand to Norway in Jan Mayen also extends the Pentagon’s Arctic reach]

The potential for conflict in the Arctic has grown as climate change has made the region more accessible, and Russia has built up its own military presence there while touting the potential of the Northern Sea Route across its northern flank.

Moscow has repeatedly raised concerns over NATO-member Norway’s military spending, its moves to develop its military infrastructure and the deployment of foreign military personnel in the country.

Commenting on the U.S. visit to the island, the Russian Foreign Ministry told Reuters Moscow believed Norway’s recent military activity was ultimately aimed at Russia and that such actions destabilize the region.

“…the sheer fact of the possible presence of the U.S. Air Force on the island, albeit occasional, is alarming,” it said.

“We hope Oslo will be responsible and far-sighted in building its policy in the north and will refrain from actions that undermine regional stability and damage bilateral relations,” the ministry said.

Earlier this month, Moscow accused Norway of restricting its activities on the archipelago of Svalbard, a remote chain of islands in the Arctic, and said it wanted talks with Oslo to have the issue resolved.

The U.S. Air Force visit has also raised questions in Oslo.

Norwegian Defense Minister Frank Bakke-Jensen has played down the implications of the visit on the security situation in the north and Norway’s relationship with Russia.

“Individual transport flights to Jan Mayen with planes from allied countries will not impact the security policy picture in the north,” he told parliament.

He said a request to help with transport flights to Jan Mayen was sent to allied countries in 2019 as Norway’s air force was stretched.

He said planes from military forces from Austria, Sweden, Denmark and France had flown to Jan Mayen between 2017 and 2019.

“Jan Mayen will not be used for military activities,” he said.

Reporting by Maria Kiselyova in Moscow and Gwladys Fouche in Oslo.

Gunnar Jakobsson appointed Deputy Governor for Financial Stability

Gunnar Jakobsson

Prime Minister Katrín Jakobsdóttir has appointed Gunnar Jakobsson to the position of Deputy Governor for Financial Stability. Gunnar Jakobsson has a degree in Law and an MBA from Yale University. In recent years he has held executive positions with Goldman Sachs, first in New York, and more recently as Managing Director of Liquidity and Personal Data Protection with Goldman Sachs International in London.

The new Act on the Central Bank of Iceland, passed in June 2019, stipulates that three Deputy Governors be appointed for the Central Bank, each for a term of five years. One Deputy Governor oversees matters relating to monetary policy; the second, matters relating to financial stability; and the third, matters relating to financial supervision.

At the turn of the year, Deputy Governor Rannveig Sigurdardóttir will take the position of Deputy Governor for Monetary Policy, and Unnur Gunnarsdóttir, Director-General of the Financial Supervisory Authority, will take the position of Deputy Governor for Financial Supervision.

Gunnar Jakobsson will not begin work at the Central Bank until 1 March 2020 because of prior commitments. Therefore, the Prime Minister, in consultation with the Minister of Finance and Economic Affairs, has tasked Central Bank Governor Ásgeir Jónsson to carry out the duties of Deputy Governor for Financial Stability concurrent with his position as Governor until 1 March 2020.
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Foto(3) Hong Kongs Folk Demonstrerar mot Våld

Stockholm, 30 december (Greenpost) – Demonstrationerna som ägde rum den 9 juni och 16 juni 2019 var fredliga.

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Demonstrationen stoppade dock inte bara utan eskalerade. I augusti började olika våld äga rum inklusive förstörelse av kontor och bankomater. För att motverka våldet inledde folket i Hong Kong en demonstration mot våld.

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Många människor stod hand i hand och ropade parolen om att rädda Hong Kong.

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Detta var en fågelperspektiv av demonstrationen för att motverka våld.

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Hong Kong borde inte vara i störning längre.

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På grund av det heta vädret och det regniga vädret blev paraply verkligen en scen.

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Detta var en fredlig demonstration mot våld.

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Above photos came from web source.

Denna affisch skriver skyddande Hong Kong.

Många människor i världen berörde Hong Kongs situation och höll demonstrationer med insisterande på ett land två-system och motsätter sig Hong Kongs våld och uppror.

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Photo by Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Den 9 september samlade de kineserna i Sverige i Sergeltorg för att visa sin inställning att stoppa våld och återuppta social ordning samtidigt som man uppmanar studenter och medborgare i Hong Kong att älska och skydda fred och stoppa våld.

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Photo by Xuefei Chen Axelsson

De demonstrerade också sin inställning bredvid parlamentet att uppmana studenter och medborgare i Hong Kong att stoppa våldet. Vad du än gör är ok, men inte gör det på våldsamt sätt, sa en deltagare.

Text Xuefei Chen Axelsson.

Foto (2) Hong Kongs Demonstration vände sig till vålt

Stockholm, 30 december (Greenpost) – Från den 9 juni demonstrerade en miljon människor till slutet av november 2019 i Hong Kong. Under den här perioden såg Hong Kong allvarliga våldshändelser. Demonstrationen inleddes med diskussionen om utlämning av kriminella misstänkta från Hong Kong till Taiwan Provinsen eller det kinesiska fastlandet. Det utvecklades senare till våldsam konflikt mellan demonstranter och polisen när vissa ungdomar kastade bensinbomber till polisen och vanliga människor. När situationen var mest allvarlig antog USA en lagförslag om Hongkongs “demokrati” och hotade att ge sanktioner mot affärsfolk eller tjänstemän i Hong Kong.

Konflikten eskalerade på grund av stöd och anstiftning från USA och många intressegrupper i Hong Kong. Vissa ungdomar tyckte att de var modiga att göra och kasta bensinbomber till polisen och vanliga människor, även om de visste eller inte var medvetna om att det var ett brott mot lagen. Elden fick många människor att ha skadats och drabbats av brinnande smärta. Oavsett vilken typ av ursäkt, är överträdelsen av lag dömt att dömas och straffas av lagen. Följande är några bilder för att visa dig situationen.

(Tänk på att dessa foton inte är lämpliga för barn.)


Rioters sätt upp eld vid en tunnelbanestation, en offentlig plats.

Rioters sätt upp eld vid en bankautomat, vilket skadar allmän egendom.
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Sätt upp eld på en offentlig plats.

I början var demonstrationen fredlig. Men gradvis blev antalet ungdomar utbredd med att sabotera offentliga fastigheter eller en lagstiftande myndighet och bankens ATM-byggnad.

Uppror som kastade bensinbomber till polisen orsakade eld.
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Hong Kong Polytechnique University såg mycket eld den 17 november 2019. FOTO FRA REUTERS WEB.

Enligt rapporter använde många studenter kemikalier för att göra skadliga vapen och de utövade hur man kastade bensinbomber i simbassängen. De kastade bomberna till den plats där polisen befann sig och orsakade många bränder.

Polisen anklagade upprorna för att använda skadliga vapen inklusive bensinbomber, pilbågar och stålboller samt tegelstenar för att attackera polisens försvarslinje. En polismedias kontaktperson sköts i det lilla benet med pilen. En upprorpolis drabbades av stålkulan.

Den 17 november kvällen gav polisen en mycket allvarlig varning om att den våldsamma åtgärden har nått upploppsnivån. Varje person som stannade och stödde upprorna skulle utsättas för brott. Polisen varnade för att de medborgare som stödde upprorna kunde behandlas som att begå upprorbrott.

Vid midnatt den 17 november offentliggjorde polisen i Hong Kong ett ultimatum via facebook om att demonstranterna inte skulle använda bensinbomber, pilar, bilar och något skadligt vapen för att attackera polisen. Om de fortsätter att vidta dessa farliga åtgärder kommer polisen, under förutsättning att de inte har något annat val, att använda vapen på låg nivå inklusive solida kulor för att skjuta tillbaka.

Bensinbomb orsakade eld.

Olika bilder visar att bensinbomben skadade människor och skadade de offentliga fastigheterna.

En kinesisk journalist från fastlandet slogs av uppror. Trots att det bara var ett fall där journalister attackerades i så allvarlig grad, är det fortfarande för allvarligt och borde inte ha hänt.

各种受伤图片。长期进行游行示威,与警察对峙,情绪很难控制,不但使交通瘫痪,而且容易造成伤亡。

Olika bilder visar att många människor skadades. Lång tidskamp med polisen, demonstranter kunde inte kontrollera deras humör. Deras agerande blockerade inte bara trafiken utan också lätt att orsaka skador.


Den tapper kämpade med polisen.

En bensinbomb kastades på en kamrats kropp.
Den tapper kastade bensinbomber till polisen, helt mot lagen

En person skadades i knäna。
En sanitetsarbetare skadades allvarligt och dog efter att han skickades till sjukhuset.


Händelsen som ägde rum i Hong Kong var en fruktansvärd tragedi. Unga människor lyssnade på de dåliga människors anstiftning. De var inte medvetna om att de hade fel, även om de gjorde det, skulle de inte korrigera. Tvärtom, de gick på fel väg ännu längre. Tiden kommer att visa att de hade fel och de kan först inse det senare efter en tid.

Den kinesiska regeringen har alltid insisterat på systemen One Country Two Systems. Vad de än gör, gillar de att se det kontinuerliga välståndet och stabiliteten i Hong Kong. Alla de som kunde tänka kommer att förstå att den verkliga demokratin eller friheten inte är så här. Den verkliga demokratin och friheten är baserad på fredlig miljö, rationellt tänkande, självdisciplin, kompromiss och ansvar. Våldshandling kan endast orsaka skador och att skada eller skada kommer att stimulera hat. Detta är inte vad folk vill ha.

För dem som vidtagit extrema åtgärder kommer de att dömas av lagen och troligtvis straffas enligt lag. De som älskar fred hoppas se Hong Kong fortsätta att vara välmående och stabilt.


Foton från webbkälla, text av Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Foto(1) Orientaliska Pälla Hong Kong Återvände till Kina

Av Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Dec. 30(Greenpost) — En stor ceremoni för återkomst av Hong Kong till Kina hölls kl. 00:00, 1 juli 1997, som markerar ett slut på det brittiska kolonialstyret i Hong Kong i över 150 år. Det markerade också början på ett land, två system i Hong Kongs särskilda administrativa region.

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Precis klockan 00:00, 1 juli 1997, steg Kinas Red Star Flag och Hongkong SAR flagga.

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En stor mottagning hölls för att fira Hong Kongs återkomst till moderlandet, Kina.

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En formell ceremoni om inrättandet av Hong Kong SAR-regeringen hölls och guvernören svarades in.

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Tung Chee-hwa svarades in som den första Hong Kong SAR-guvernören.

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Under mer än ett decennium förhandlingar, Kina och Storbritannien nådde en överenskommelse om att återlämna Hong Kong till Kina senast den 30 juni 1997. Hong Kong kommer att implementera One Country Two Systems som designades av Kina. Det betyder att Hong Kong kommer att styras av Hong Kong People och har principiellt hög autonomi. När Hong Kong återvände till Kina var kineserna mycket glada och stolta.

Återvändandet av Hong Kong till Kina har spelat en viktig roll för Kinas reform och öppnande. Många affärsfolk från Hong Kong kom till fastlandet för att investera. Vissa utländska affärsmän kom också till Kina för att investera genom Hong Kong, som fungerade som en viktig bro mellan Kina och västländerna.

Hong Kong blev ett frontland för Kinas reform och öppnande för att öppningen av Guangzhou och Shenzhen faktiskt var direkt till Hong Kong. De två platserna ligger så nära Hong Kong och kommunikationen mellan de två sidorna hade inga hinder. Hong Kong har behållit sin välstånd och stabilitet.

Många vet att en stor grupp unga kultur- och konsttalanger åkte till Hong Kong och gav ett stort bidrag till Hongkongs kulturella välstånd.

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Hong Kong är full av skyskraper, ett gott tecken på välstånd.
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Vackra Hong Kong vid solnedgången.
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Carrie Lam Linzheng Yuee svarades in som Hong Kong SAR-guvernör den 1 juli 2017.

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President Xi Jinping besökte Hong Kong och välkomnades av studenter.

Culmination of Finland’s Presidency: EU environment ministers to discuss European Green Deal and biodiversity

Stockholm, Dec. 18(Greenpost)–Minister of the Environment and Climate Change Krista Mikkonen will chair the meeting of the EU Environment Council in Brussels on 19 December. The environment ministers are due to discuss the EU’s environmental and climate policy priorities for the coming years. The aim is to adopt conclusions that will offer guidance for the EU on halting the global loss of biodiversity. In 2020, the countries of the world are set to agree on new common targets for biodiversity.

Minister Mikkonen said: “Finland’s Presidency of the Council of the EU will culminate with the Environment Council, where we will adopt conclusions on stopping biodiversity loss after 2020. Last week, we achieved one of the main objectives of the Finnish Presidency when the European Council agreed on a commitment to make the EU carbon neutral by 2050. Climate change and biodiversity loss are two sides of the same sustainability crisis, and they should be solved together.”

The Environment Council is the first Council configuration to which the European Commission will present its European Green Deal, which it announced on 11 December. The Green Deal is the Commission’s proposal on actions to rebuild the EU economy and solve the sustainability crisis.

Minister Mikkonen added: “The sustainability crisis requires urgent solutions. The fact that the Commission published the Green Deal right at the start of its term shows that a sustainable future really is a top priority for the EU.”

Council aiming to halt loss of biodiversity

The second topic of the meeting is protecting biodiversity. Finland has prepared conclusions on tackling biodiversity loss from 2020 onwards. The draft conclusions emphasise the need for urgent measures to protect and restore biodiversity and to promote nature-based solutions. They also underline the importance of ensuring adequate funding to achieve the objectives.

Minister Mikkonen said: “What we’re doing now to protect and preserve biodiversity is not enough. We need to do more, and we need to do it faster. The Council conclusions are an important step towards 2020, the ‘super year’ for the environment, when the countries of the world will agree on biodiversity targets. The EU is pursuing ambitious objectives to halt the loss of biodiversity and improve the state of the environment. If we commit to the objectives together, we might still have a chance to save the environment.”

On the one hand, the Council conclusions are a message from EU Member States to the European Commission, which is preparing a new biodiversity strategy as part of the European Green Deal. On the other hand, the conclusions are also a message to the international community, which is due to agree on new post-2020 targets to halt biodiversity loss next year.

In Brussels, Minister Mikkonen will chair the Environment Council but also attend a meeting of Green 10, a coalition of the ten most important European environmental organisations. The ministers and organisations are set to discuss the Council’s topics and make their own commitments for the environment.

越闹越大,这届诺贝尔文学奖“闯大祸”了……

北欧绿色邮报网报道:前天(12月10日),瑞典的斯德哥尔摩音乐厅举行了万众瞩目的诺贝尔文学奖颁奖典礼。

然而,在颁奖典礼之外的街头和网络上,多名西方主流媒体的媒体人,以及阿尔巴尼亚、科索沃、波黑、克罗地亚等巴尔干国家的政府官员与外交官,甚至土耳其驻瑞典大使乃至土耳其总统埃尔多安本人,都在谴责和抵制这次颁奖典礼。

因为在他们看来,获得2019年诺贝尔文学奖的奥地利著名作家和剧作家皮特⋅汉德克,根本“德不配位”。

其实,在今年10月10日瑞典文学院将汉德克定为2019年诺贝尔文学奖的获得者之后,除了塞尔维亚之外的巴尔干半岛各国,以及不少西方媒体人,就已经对这个决定表达过“强烈不满”了。

截图来自诺贝尔奖官网

几乎所有西方主流媒体,当时也都报道了汉德克获奖所引发的强烈争议乃至“愤怒”。

汉德克的争议,源于发生在上世纪90年代的波黑战争。彼时,西方的政治圈和舆论圈,都将战争的发生以及其中的战争罪行,怪罪给了塞尔维亚人以及当时南斯拉夫的总统米洛舍维奇。然而,已经因为《骂观众》《左撇子女人》等一系列经典文学作品而成名的汉德克,却公开与这些认知“唱反调”,认为塞尔维亚人“也是战争的受害者”,认为米洛舍维奇这个西方口中的“独裁者”和“屠夫”,不过是在保卫自己的国家和人民。

这位奥利地作家还反过来批判了西方媒体对于那场战争以及战争罪行“单向”报道,认为媒体不该偏听偏信,把一些“未经核实”的指控说成是塞尔维亚人的罪过。他认为媒体也应该听听塞尔维亚人的声音,更应该意识到战争不是一个巴掌就拍得响的,不应该非黑即白地撰写报道。

在1996-1997年间,汉德克又将这些观点和思考写成书出版,书名为《多瑙河、萨瓦河、摩拉瓦河和德里纳河冬日之行或给予塞尔维亚的正义》。这本书,也直接令文学才华出众的汉德克,从此成为了西方主流舆论和政坛的叛徒与“批斗对象”,更成为了科索沃、阿尔巴尼亚、克罗地亚和波黑这些国家和民众的敌人。

截图为汉德克的引发争议的那本书,以及抗议者抨击他是“大屠杀否认者”

可汉德克仍然“我行我素”,不仅在1999年北约轰炸南联盟时力挺米洛舍维奇,更在米洛舍维奇于2006年死在海牙国际法庭的监狱后,出现在他的葬礼上,为这位自己的“朋友”致悼词。一些痛恨汉德克的人干脆给他打上了“大屠杀否认者”“法西斯分子”等标签,走到哪儿都会跟着一群愤怒的抗议者。他本该获得的一些国际文学大奖也受到了影响,比如德国的海涅奖。

图为米洛舍维奇葬礼上的汉德克,图片来自网络

所以,这次瑞典文学院竟然把诺贝尔文学奖这么一个重量级的奖项,颁给这么一号人物,可想而知这争议会有多么巨大了。尽管瑞典文学院一度解释说,这个奖是奖给他的文学造诣的,可汉德克的批评者也立刻反驳说,汉德克上世纪90年代后的很多作品,与他的政治观点根本就密不可分。

截图为汉德克的批评者撰文质疑瑞典学院是不是没有看过他90年代后的那些作品

如今,随着诺贝尔文学奖颁奖典礼的举行,汉德克的反对者和批评者更是铆足了劲要让他难堪。根据英国《卫报》的报道,除了科索沃、阿尔巴尼亚、波黑和克罗地亚的政府官员和外交官先后加入了对这次颁奖典礼的批判和抵制,瑞典文学院内部也有人在上周宣布会抵制这次颁奖典礼。

同时,继土耳其驻瑞典大使2天前宣布拒绝出席颁奖典礼后,土耳其总统埃尔多安也于昨天(12月11日)公开批判了将诺贝尔文学奖颁给汉德克的决定。根据土耳其媒体的报道,埃尔多安还感谢了那些抗议这一颁奖决定的各国官员和示威者。

公开资料显示,土耳其与塞尔维亚一直彼此敌视,这既有奥托曼帝国时期的“旧恨”也有冷战时期的“新仇”。所以早在当年的波黑战争中,土耳其就是积极支持前南斯拉夫的其他民族找塞尔维亚“算账”的一员。如今围攻汉德克,自然也少不了他们一份。

截图为土耳其媒体对此事的报道

然而,不论上述这些国家怎么抵制,也不论西方媒体及其意识形态共同体上的学者和抗议者,如何威胁要把2019年的诺贝尔文学奖“钉在历史的耻辱柱上”,如何痛斥诺贝尔文学奖被颁给了一个“希特勒的支持者”和“大屠杀的否认者”和“假新闻的制造者”,早已习惯了这些争议和批斗的汉德克,还是从容地从瑞典国王卡尔十六世⋅古斯塔夫手中接过了这份大奖,以及94.8万美元的奖金。

截图为瑞典媒体对颁奖典礼的报道

他也并不介意在当晚的诺贝尔晚宴上,被安排在距离国王和王后最远的主桌座位上。

毕竟,《纽约时报》在一篇名为“天才、大屠杀否认者,还是两者皆是”的报道中,就引用欧洲其他文坛名人的观点称:汉德克在文学上的才华,确实比其他人更配得上诺贝尔奖。

截图来自《纽约时报》的报道

当然,也不是所有人都在骂他。塞尔维亚总统亚历山大⋅武契奇就对汉德克获奖表示祝贺,还称他是塞尔维亚“真正的朋友”,是一位“勇敢和有尊严”的“杰出知识分子”,并邀请汉德克访问塞尔维亚。

截图来自土耳其媒体对此事的报道

最后,从今年10月澎湃新闻一篇关于汉德克的报道来看,他之所以不惜背负西方的骂名,也要坚持自己对波黑战争和塞尔维亚的看法,或许与他对于南斯拉夫深切的情感有关。

这篇报道介绍说,汉德克曾在2016年访华时这样阐述过他对南斯拉夫的感情:

“对我来说,南斯拉夫意味着一个没有民族主义的国度。在那个时候,南斯拉夫代表了第三条道路。但铁托去世后,南斯拉夫经济面临崩溃。经济崩溃后,民族主义又出现了。但当时有更好的方式解决问题,其实是能坐下来和谈的,而不是战争。在这个过程中,西方也起到了推波助澜作用。没有好的战争。可以说南斯拉夫一直深藏在我的心中,最后人们把南斯拉夫给毁掉了,我觉得这是一个很可耻的行为。所以我在这段时间写了这方面的东西。每个作家不应该对自己写过的作品感到骄傲,但我对自己之前写的关于南斯拉夫的作品其实是很骄傲的。”

(来源:环球网)

Högt deltagande på BRIX seminarie: Afrika och Belt & Road “Det Nya Afrika växer med Belt & Road”

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, December 8( Greenpost )–Toppdiplomater som representerar den Afrikanska Unions medlemsländer i Sverige deltog tillsammans med Kinas ambassadör i ett välbesökt seminarium organiserad av Belt and Road Institutet i Sverige (BRIX) den 5 december i Stockholm med temat Det nya Afrika Växer” (The New Africa Emerging).

Seminariets deltagare presenterade och diskuterade den enorma förändringen och utvecklingen som pågår i flera delar av Afrika för att förvekliga Afrikas visioner och utvecklingsmål i sammanhanget av Belt and Road Initiativet / Nya Sidenvägen Initiativet (BRI).

Ännu viktigare var diskussionen om den obegränsade utvecklingspotentialen som kan växa ur ett aktivt samarbete mellan Sverige, Kina och Afrika för att accelerera och få nytta av detta lovande perspektiv.

Seminariet inleddes av Stephen Brawer, viceordförande för BRIX och moderator för seminariet. Han välkomnade alla och gav en kort historien om hur BRIX blev till, och om dess två andra väldigt lyckade seminarier i 2019. Han betonade att BRIX jobbar för att sprida kunskap av BRI som en global utvecklingsprocess, och presentera fakta och kunskap baserade på djupare reflektioner och inte på ytlig opinion byggd på fördomar och politiska syften. På så sätt anser BRIX att i fortsättning ska desinformation och propaganda som sprids i Sverige mot BRI bemötas tydligare och med mer kraft.

Egyptens Ambassadör Alaa Hegazi höll välkomsttalet som företrädare för Afrikanska Unionens (AU) ordförandeland. Han betonade hur viktigt Belt & Road Initiativet är för genomförande av Afrikas utvecklingsplaner som funnits länge och endast saknat byggstarterna. Han presenterade AU:s plan Agenda 2063 för ett kontinentalt järnvägs- och vägnät, elektrifiering och industrialisering. Ambassadör Hegazy förklarade att AU har flera samarbetsmekanismer med EU, FN, Japan osv, men samarbetet med BRI är den mest dynamiska och resultatgivande i Afrika idag.

Kinas ambassadör Gui Congyou höll huvudtalet på seminariet och berättade om det omfattande samarbetet som utvecklats mellan Kina och Afrika inom ramen för BRI. Han hänvisade till toppmötet i september 2018 för Kina-Afrika Samarbetsforum (FOCAC) i Peking och resultatet av toppmötet. ”Kina-Afrikas gemensamma byggande av BRI har påskyndats, och 40 afrikanska länder och AU-kommissionen har undertecknat samarbetsdokument med Kina om initiativet. Vi har formulerat planer för enskilda afrikanska länder baserad på Afrikas faktiska behov. Vi kommer att genomföra totalt mer än 880 Kina-Afrika samarbetsprojekt under de kommande tre åren.” Vad gäller det kinesisk-svenska perspektivet sade ambassadören Gui: ”Den svenska regeringen har många bistånd- och samarbetsprojekt för Afrika, och många stora svenska företag som Volvo, Scania och ABB har omfattande verksamhet i Afrika. Kina är villigt att arbeta med andra länder i världen, inklusive Sverige, för att komplettera varandras styrkor och ge positiva bidrag till fred, stabilitet och utveckling i Afrika. ”

Etiopien Ambassadör Deriba Kuma visade hur Afrikas planer för modernisering och industrialisering håller på att förverkligas. Etiopien är på god väg att förverkliga sina planer att till 2025 bli ett medelinkomstland som övergår från ett jordbruksbaserat samhälle till ett industribaserat, berättade ambassadör Kuma. Det var en föraning av vad som vi kommer att höra mer om när Etiopiens premiärminister nästa vecka skall ta emot Nobels Fredspris för sitt fredsarbete med alla länder på Afrikas Horn.

Sydafrikas beskickningschef Duncan Sebefelo talade om de betydande summor som Kina investerat i projekt i hans land. Efter årsskiftet blir Sydafrika ordförandeland för AU och han redogjorde för de filosofiska principer som AU har för de ekonomiska samarbetsprojekten.

Styrelsemedlemmen i BRIX Hussein Askary visade med bilder och kartor hur BRI bidragit till att börja förverkliga Afrikas projektplaner och berättade om den optimism som de skapat. Han betonade att BRIX finns inte för att heja på Kina eller Afrika. De kan sköta sitt. BRIX målsättning är Sverige ska vara med detta samarbete och inte missa tåget mot ekonomiskt välstånd och stabilitet i världen.

Askary berättade om den otroliga skillnaden mellan den europeiska och svenska attityden mot Afrika som är en återstod av den gamla koloniala mentaliteten och hur Kina betraktade Afrika som en mycket viktig partner. Problemet stort sett ligger i den misslyckade bistånds mentaliteten som dominerar EU:s agerande. Askary argumenterade att det kinesiska sättet att tillförse Afrika med ”verktygen” för utvecklingen som infrastruktur, industrialisering och teknologiöverföring är den mest lämpliga för Sverige och Europa att följa. Under rubriken ”SDG2030 akrobatik” (FN målen för hållbar utveckling) berättade han om hur Sverige och EU gör om FN:s utvecklingsagenda 2030, så att de viktigaste målen att ta itu med (fattigdom, hälsa, utbildning, vatten, energi, industrialisering osv.) placeras längst ned, medan klimatfrågan, som är nr 13, sätts högst upp. Avslutningsvis, förklarade han att med hjälp av Kina och BRI Afrika är på god väg att förverkliga sitt Agenda 2063, men frågade om hur snabbare denna agenda kan förverkligas om Sverige och EU bidrar till den?

Den norske tidigare stortingsledamoten Thore Vestby, och styrelsemedlem i Ichi Foundation, talade om det norska samarbetet med Afrika, som i hög grad varit inskränkt till bistånd genom NORAD. Men en ny inriktning på samarbetet har upprättats 2012 genom NABA-Norwegian African Business Association av ledande norska företag (norwegianafrican.no). Även Norge behöver upprätta samarbete med BRI, sa Vestby, kommer att startas. Han kongratulerade den Svenska BRIX för sitt framgångsrika arbete och tillkännagav att ett ”BRIX Norge” ska startas i det nya året.

BRIX-medlemmen och konsulten Lars Aspling berättade i sin presentation att det är nu 16 av 28 EU-länder som har ingått avtal (MOU) med Kina för att samarbeta med BRI. Det visar att ett sådant avtal, eller ett positivt yttrande om BRI, som Frankrike och Finland uttalat, inte nödvändigt behöver splittra EU. Även om svenska regeringen med sitt förslag till ny Kinastrategi håller sig till EU:s politik, så är det således inga legala frågor som hindrar Sverige utan enbart en brist på politisk vilja, fastslog han.

Zimbabwen Ambassador to Sweden Alice attended the seminar.

Aspling annonserade att den nya rapporten som BRIX just publicerat om vad BRI handlar om och vikten att Sverige samarbetar med BRI finns nu att ladda ner från BRIX hemsida.

Seminariets moderator Stephen Brawer ledde den avslutande paneldebatten där talarna fick svara på publikens många frågor och kommentarer.

BRIX ordförande Ulf Sandmark kommenterade diskussionen om korruption i Afrika med att påpeka att BRI har en inriktning på reala investeringar som inte överlämnas som penningsummor likt Västvärldens investeringar. BRI-investeringarna levereras som cement, stål, maskiner och insatsprodukter till projekten. ”Cement är svårt att sätta in på ett bankkonto, vilket gör att BRI har en inneboende mekanism för att hindra korruption”, sa han och uttryckte samtidigt sin glädje över att så många gamla och nya vänner deltagit i seminariet.

Moderator Stephen Brawer betonade igen behovet av att presentera faktabaserad information och kunskap om BRI, och gjorde en poäng av att tacka insatsen som TV100 och Fredrik Vargas gör genom deras viktiga arbete att förmedla i sitt reportage vad har presenterats i seminariet.

19 diplomater från 15 länder (flest från Afrika) deltog i en publik på sammanlagt 60 personer. Svenska media representerades av den fristående TV-kanalen TV100 som dokumenterade hela seminariet, inklusive paneldebatten där den kinesiska ambassadören gjorde sin kommentar till de svensk-kinesiska relationerna.

Foto Xuechao, Text Brix

今日头条:瑞典华人科学家段茂利教授应邀出席第九届 世界听神经病大会并作主旨演讲

北欧绿色邮报网、北欧中华网联合报道(记者陈雪霏 查正富)—11月20日,应世界听神经病鼻祖-美国加州大学Arnold Starr教授的邀请,瑞典皇家卡罗林斯卡Karolinska医科大学医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科专家段茂利出席了第九届 “Annual  Arnold Starr Lecture & Art Exhibition”大会,并做了题为《听神经病的发现历史、发病机制、治疗现状及基因/干细胞治疗听神经病的探索》的精彩报告。这是目前世界上首位华人科学家站在此领域最高讲台作学术报告,刷新了听神经病领域未有华人科学家在此登台“献艺”的空白。

世界听神经病大会每年举办一次,由听神经病之父Arnold Starr教授命名,其突出特点与其他学术会议不同的是,此会议只安排一位科学家作主旨报告,因此入选的条件和门槛要求很高。大会筹委会对照规定的标准和条件,综合各方面因素,每年在全球范围内精选出一位杰出的听神经病、神经科学及耳鼻咽喉科学家作主旨报告。今年段茂利教授有幸作为第九届会议报告嘉宾登台作主旨演讲。

演讲伊始,段教授简单地介绍了其所工作的瑞典皇家卡罗林斯卡大学医院的基本情况。新建成的卡罗林斯卡大学医院工程造价超过600多亿瑞典克朗,是目前世界上最节能、最环保的建筑楼群,拥有最现代化的基础设施和智能工程,很多岗位已由机器人代替了人工操作。每年举世闻名的诺贝尔生理或医学奖的评审和颁奖,均由瑞典卡罗林斯卡医科大学负责组织实施。

演讲期间,段茂利教授从Arnold Starr教授绘制的不同奇妙耳科彩色图画入题,以“弹钢琴”作为比喻,通过科学研究与艺术表现相结合形式,形象生动地描述了如何通过各种颜色来观察耳部结构和接受声音时的变化规律,详细阐述了常规听神经病变、特殊听神经病变和其他情况的修复和临床治疗方法。整场报告条理分明、论点鲜明、论据充分、观念新颖,得到了与会嘉宾一致肯定,赢得了热烈的掌声 。

段茂利教授回到斯德哥尔摩当天,北欧绿色邮报网、北欧中华网报记者在第一时间对他进行了专访。以下是专访内容:

记者:段教授您好!欣悉您这次参加第九届“Annual Arnold Starr Lecture & Art Exhibition” 大会并作主旨演讲,我们已仔细观看了您当天演讲同步直播的全过程,非常精彩及惟妙惟肖,我们代表北欧绿色邮报网、北欧中华网对您表示祝贺! 请问这次国际会议在世界医学领域具有怎样的重要地位呢?

Dr Duan:谢谢!在听神经病研究领域,每年的Starr会议对于业内人士来说非常重要,世界各国的听神经病科学家也极为重视。Starr教授于1996年首次提出了听神经病这一医学概念。人的听力不好或下降,是因为耳朵里的某段神经出了问题,不能将听到的信息输送到大脑,从而大脑不能总结获得的信息,造成病人能听到声音但不能理解你到底在说什么。Starr教授通过对一名患者多年反复观察与追踪,并经过多年的潜心研究,发现并总结了这一问题。同时他还发现内毛细胞丢失也是病理机制之一,最终把这种病命名为听神经病。Starr理论提出后,在世界耳鼻咽喉头颈外科、神经科学领域引起了极大轰动,并得了国际医学界的一致认可。为了纪念Starr教授对人类作出的突出贡献,美国加州大学在Starr教授退休的时候,以其名字设立了基金会并决定在全球范围内,每年遴选一位在该领域成就突出的科学家做一次专题报告。今年我十分荣幸地被选中,这既是基金会对我个人的信任,也是对我多年来研究成果的认可,更是对我今后研究和临床工作的鼓励。

记者:Starr基金会为什么选择请您来做主旨报告呢?

Dr Duan:从客观上讲,可能是因为我长期在瑞典卡罗林斯卡大学医院工作,该院的国际地位和国际实力是众所周知的,加上我在基因干细胞研究领域的贡献及自身又是耳鼻咽喉头颈外科专家,同时我又是多个国际性医学杂志的编委及审稿人, 在欧美许多国家著名的大学演讲及交流的经历,  以及这么多年在行业积累的良好口碑,可能也是加分因素之一。从主观上讲,我在听神经病基因干细胞治疗耳聋方面的研究成果得到了国际同行的认可,尤其是创新研究了基因干细胞治疗耳聋,这一疗法既符合Starr教授的研究方向,也是对现有理论成果的进一步探索与挖掘。Starr教授发现了听神经病的一个基因后,医学界发现大量的同类疾病不同的基因。在该病发现之前,人们并不太清楚这种疾病发病的机制,而且在发现的早期,为解除病人痛苦,只是采用助听器进行辅助治疗,没有更科学的医疗手段。因此,我主攻的基因干细胞修复疗法既是学术研究的连续,更是为将来临床实践带来希望。当然,以上纯粹是我个人不成熟的推测,重要的是Starr基金会按照他们的标准和要求来进行挑选的。

记者:两年前Starr教授在斯德哥尔摩(Karolinska Nobel Forum)诺贝尔演讲厅的研讨会上用艺术彩色图形来展示耳部神经系统,您今年这次演讲似乎也很倾向艺术化啊!

Dr Duan:是的。参加这次大会的嘉宾中,他们大都是行业内有名望的科学家,在自身研究领域内取得了突出的成就,我在前面也已经介绍过了。但你们可能没有想到的是,这些嘉宾中很大一部分人也是艺术界的佼佼者,是名副其实的艺术家。因此,本次会议的名称除了第九届Starr学术会议主题外,另还冠名了艺术展览和艺术表演。因此,这次大会两个突出的与众不同之处就是:一是一个人做主旨演讲,另一个是学术报告与艺术同台展现。

记者:当初您为什么会选择耳鼻咽喉头颈外科呢?

Dr Duan:说起这个话题就很长了,在八十年代,大学生毕业的岗位是由组织统一安排的。我大学毕业后被分配到安徽省立医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科工作,其实当时我对耳鼻咽喉头颈外科并不是十分感兴趣,觉得它是小科,我当时心仪的岗位是心脑血管科,但最终没能如愿。在耳鼻咽喉头颈外科岗位工作时间长了,我感觉到耳科研究很有趣味,人的耳朵其实是很美丽且复杂的,不是当初我想象的那么简单枯燥,后来我慢慢地热爱上了这个学科。其实人体的很多病症也都能从耳廓中体现出来,千万不要小看自己的耳朵、鼻子、咽喉甚至是牙齿。如果它们有不健康的症状,也是身体某个对应器官疾病的先兆,因此要引起足够的重视。中华医学博大精深,古代中医学家绘制的全身疾病在耳廓上的穴位图是中华医学发展的一块灿烂明珠。

记者:听您讲了这些,您在所在领域作出了突出贡献,您也培养出了30多名医学硕士、博士或博士后,您对现在年轻学生有什么经验之谈吗?

Dr Duan:谢谢!无论做什么事情,在哪个岗位工作,我认为最重要的一点就是兴趣,从事科学研究的也是一样。要时常怀有好奇心,一旦对某项东西感兴趣了,你就会拥有一种动力而深入研究下去。其二,从事科学研究要富有挑战精神,不能拘泥于现有,也不能完全迷信权威,要时刻有 “鸡蛋里挑骨头” 的韧性和 “打破沙锅问到底” 的执拗,敢于打破常规,勇于接受挑战,在挑战中创新,在逆境中突破,这样就会有新的发现。再者,要博览群书,只有积累了一定厚度的知识,研究中才能有力量支撑,才能容易打通瓶颈,做任何事情都要做到干一行爱一行,干一行精一行。

记者:谢谢段教授! 非常感谢您在百忙之中抽出时间接受我们的采访。

Top story: Council and Parliament reach agreement on 2020 EU budget

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 19(Greenpost)–The Council and the European Parliament today reached agreement on an EU budget for 2020 which strongly focuses on growth and competitiveness, climate action and other EU priorities such as security and management of migration.

Total commitments are set at €168.7 billion. This is an increase of 1.5% compared to the 2019 budget as amended. €1.5 billion have been kept available under the expenditure ceilings of the multiannual financial framework for 2014-2020, allowing the EU to react to unforeseeable needs.

Total payments amount to €153.6 billion, rising 3.4% from 2019. This increase reflects the continuing implementation of the 2014-2020 programmes at full speed. The aim is to ensure timely payments to beneficiaries and avoid a substantial accumulation of payment claims over the next few years, in particular in relation to cohesion policy.

The agreed figures are based on the premise that the UK will continue to participate fully in the financing and implementation of the EU budget for 2020.

Kimmo Tiilikainen, State Secretary, Ministry of Finance of Finland, chief Council negotiator for the 2020 EU budget

Next year’s budget strengthens support for the EU’s priority areas and best-performing programmes. It also ensures a realistic approach, taking into account the interests of taxpayers and the need to cater for new challenges that may arise in 2020. I would like to highlight in particular the move to further “green” the EU budget and ensure that it works in support of the EU’s climate agenda.Kimmo Tiilikainen, State Secretary, Ministry of Finance of Finland, chief Council negotiator for the 2020 EU budget

The EU has set itself the goal of dedicating at least 20% of EU expenditure to climate protection in the period 2014-2020. To help meet this goal, the Parliament and the Council have agreed to increase the focus on climate-related actions in several areas such as research and development (Horizon 2020), transport and energy infrastructure (Connecting Europe Facility) and the EU’s external action. Additional funds have also been allocated to the EU’s LIFE programme, which will receive €590 million, and the European Environment Agency for recruiting new staff (+6) to support the fight against climate change.

Other important elements of the agreement on the EU budget for 2020 include the following:

  • In order to support growth and competitiveness, €25.3 billion (+7.9% compared to 2019) have been allocated to programmes under subheading 1a (competitiveness for growth and jobs). This includes more funds for Horizon 2020 (€13.5 billion in total, +8.8%), European satellite navigation systems (EGNOS and Galileo) (€1.2 billion, +74.8%) and the energy strand of the Connecting Europe Facility (€1.3 billion, +35.0%). Erasmus+ will receive €2.9 billion (+3.6%) to support youth exchanges.
  • To fight youth unemployment in the most affected regions, the envelope for the Youth Employment Initiative has been set at €145 million. 
  • In the fields of security and migration, the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund has been allocated €949 million for management of migration, including to support the frontline member states. The Internal Security Fund will receive €501 million. Additional funding compared to 2019 will be provided for several agencies, including for new staff to be recruited by FRONTEX (+191), the European Asylum Support Office (+82), Europol (+24) and the European Public Prosecutor’s Office (+10). Eurojust will receive an additional €3.7 million.
  • The EU’s external action instruments have been reinforced to cover the EU’s contribution to the Syria pledge as agreed during the Brussels III conference on Syria and to combat the root causes of migration via the North Africa window of the EU Trust Fund for Africa.
  • As in 2018 and 2019, the pre-accession funds for Turkey have been significantly reduced compared to the draft budget proposed by the Commission (-€85 million) given the distancing of Turkey from EU values. More funds, on the other hand, have been provided for the Western Balkans.

The Council and the Parliament also agreed to further discuss the use of unspent funds from previous years related to research projects under Article 15(3) of the Financial Regulation.

Next steps

The Parliament and the Council now have 14 days to formally approve the agreement reached. The Council is expected to endorse it on 25 November. The vote in the European Parliament is scheduled for 27 November.

    Headings          2020 EU budget (in € million)
   Commitments   Payments
 1. Smart and inclusive growth   83 931   72 351
 – 1a. Competitiveness for growth and jobs   25 285   22 308
 – 1b. Economic, social and territorial cohesion   58 646   50 043
 2. Sustainable growth: natural resources   59 907   57 905
 3. Security and citizenship   3 729   3 685
 4. Global Europe   10 262   8 929
 5. Administration   10 272   10 275
 Special instruments   588   419
  TOTAL   168,688   153,563
As % of GNI of EU28   0.99%   0.90%

The new reaching here from the EU presidency Finland and the EU website.

15国完成全部谈判 全球最大自贸区有望明年诞生

 北欧绿色邮报网报道:据路透社报道,11月2日至4日,第35届东盟峰会及东亚合作领导人系列会议在泰国首都曼谷举行。本次会议关于《区域全面经济伙伴协定》(以下简称“RCEP”)的谈判备受关注。据印度电报网报道,RCEP发表联合声明称,除印度以外的15个成员国已结束全部20个章节的文本谈判以及实质上所有市场准入的谈判。

  强力牵制保护主义

  RCEP由东盟10国于2012年发起,中国、日本、韩国、澳大利亚、新西兰、印度6个对话伙伴国共同参加,旨在通过削减关税及非关税壁垒,建立一个16国统一市场的自由贸易协定。

  RCEP成员国积极谋求伙伴关系。据泰国《曼谷邮报》报道,东盟轮值主席国泰国总理巴育在第35届东盟峰会开幕式致辞中承诺,“与所有人为友,不与人为敌”,东盟将继续秉承这一做法。据彭博社报道,11月4日,巴育再次表示对协定完成所取得的“重大进展”感到“非常满意”。

  根据韩国广播公司电视台报道,菲律宾总统杜特尔特发表声明,强调东盟应该尽快签署RCEP。据彭博社报道,新西兰总理阿德恩在东盟峰会上的讲话也谈到了达成RCEP的必要性。

  法新社称,东盟峰会上回荡着反对贸易保护主义的话音。日本共同社分析认为,正是出于对贸易保护主义的警惕,16国促成RCEP的热情自去年以来迅速高涨。如果RCEP成功签订,将催生出世界最大的自由贸易区,这将成为对贸易保护主义强有力的牵制力量。

  印度表示暂不加入

  据印度新德里电视台报道,印度总理莫迪表示,印度暂不会加入RCEP。据《经济时报》分析,印度在RCEP谈判中持保守态度是因为其希望保护国内工业。

  中国社会科学院亚太经合组织与东亚合作研究中心秘书长沈铭辉教授在接受本报采访时指出,印度国内对于贸易投资自由化偏向保守态度。另外,双边谈判涉及印度敏感产品目录较多,导致印度的态度更为谨慎。

  沈铭辉认为,协定的达成需要各国协调国内利益,降低国内反对声音,同时在谈判中把握尺度,找到利益平衡点。最重要的则是各国领导人的政治决断力和推动力。

  对于印度暂不加入RCEP的决定,其他与会国家给予关注,并普遍表示将共同努力解决印度的关切。据路透社报道,澳大利亚贸易部长西蒙·伯明翰表示:“我的理解是印度将继续进行讨论和谈判。”另据新加坡《联合早报》报道,新加坡总理李显龙表示,期盼印度这个有巨大潜力的经济体,最终能“全面参与协定”。

  协定将破贸易障碍

  据英国《卫报》报道,RCEP发表的联合声明称,RCEP将极大促进该地区未来的经济增长前景,并为全球经济做出积极贡献,同时将成为多边贸易体系的强大支撑,促进地区经济发展。

  据新西兰媒体沃克斯报道,新西兰总理阿德恩认为,“在动荡加剧以及全球贸易和经济增长放缓之际,RCEP将为区域经济提供重要的推动力。”

  “虽然暂时未达成协议,但参与国已经在核心议题上完成了实质性的谈判,依然高度期待2020年签署协定。”沈铭辉表示:“在世界经济前景不明、贸易保护主义盛行的背景下,RCEP协议的签订将成为一个维护自由贸易的积极信号,也将成为推动世界经济发展的强心剂。在区域经济层面上,RCEP将消除各国间的贸易障碍,简化通关规则,实施更便利的措施,使东亚区域内各国之间的贸易更畅通。”(来源:人民日报海外版权/)

马克龙访华 中法关系在互信中与时俱进

北欧绿色邮报网报道:应中国国家主席习近平邀请,法国总统马克龙出席了第二届进博会,并对中国进行国事访问。中法元首实现年度互访,吸引着外界的关注。

  11月5日至6日,从上海到北京,习近平同马克龙多次会面,既有共同出席进博会开幕式,双方各自携夫人在豫园观赏江南园林景致、观看昆曲表演,亦有在人民大会堂举行正式会谈。

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11月5日晚,中国国家主席习近平和夫人彭丽媛在上海豫园会见法国总统马克龙和夫人布丽吉特。中新社记者 毛建军 摄

  不到48小时内频频见面,从双方谈话中向外界传递的信息来看,深化友谊,增进互信,务实合作,契合中法之间的共同利益与合作愿景。如马克龙所言,在当前国际形势下,法中作为两个大国,负有特别重要的责任,法国加强同中国的对话和合作,具有重要示范作用。

  在中法建交55周年的历史坐标下,各领域交往“与时俱进”,特别是习近平提出的“六大目标”与“三个面向”,指向清晰,显现深意。

  在人民大会堂,习近平说,“当前,中法关系呈现出强劲发展势头”,“中方愿同法方聚焦六大目标,推动交流合作全面深入发展,取得更多实实在在的成果”。

  习近平提及的六大目标,包括要维护和增进政治互信;要继续推进大项目合作;要扩大双向市场开放;要推动共建“一带一路”倡议同欧盟欧亚互联互通战略对接;要深化创新合作,共同实现可持续发展;要促进文明交流互鉴等多个维度。

  “要维护和增进政治互信”,所强调的是“继续相互尊重,把尊重彼此主权、领土完整、核心利益、重大关切的表态落实到行动上”;“要扩大双向市场开放”,明确了“中方愿同法方扩大双向贸易和投资,提升贸易和投资自由化便利化,共同维护市场规则和公平竞争原则,希望法方把不针对中国搞歧视性政策的表态落到实处”。

  中国人信奉言而有信、言出必行。在外界看来,中方希望马克龙政府对中方的重大关切体现为“表态+行动”上,中法关系在建交55年之后如何提质升级,需要双方精心呵护,说到做到。

  两个月前,习近平在北京会见德国总理默克尔时表示,“你这次访华双方达成不少经贸合作成果,证明中方扩大开放说到做到”。

  习近平在同马克龙共同出席中法经济峰会闭幕式时再次强调,中国坚持对外开放,奉行互利共赢的开放战略,不断提升发展的内外联动性,在实现自身发展的同时更多惠及其他国家和人民。中国的大门始终对世界打开,希望法国、欧洲的大门也对中国投资者公平敞开。

  “法方高度赞赏中国对外开放,相信这将为包括法国在内的各国提供重要机遇。”马克龙还表示,法国企业要以“奋勇争先”的精神继续开拓中国市场。

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11月6日,中国国家主席习近平在北京人民大会堂同法国总统马克龙会谈。会谈前,习近平在人民大会堂东门外广场为马克龙举行欢迎仪式。中新社记者 盛佳鹏 摄

  值得注意的是,“双方承诺为对方企业提供公平竞争和非歧视待遇。双方鼓励两国金融市场双向开放,支持各自符合条件的金融机构到对方国家展业”等表述,已写入两国共同发布的中法关系行动计划。

  面对当今世界百年未有之大变局,在“中法关系呈现出强劲发展势头”的意境下,习近平提出的“三个面向”,更具内涵与思考。

  习近平对马克龙说,“我愿同你一道,面向世界,面向未来,面向人民,推动中法全面战略伙伴关系更上层楼,继续走在大国关系前列。”

  面向世界,意味着中法高层现在所做的每一步战略规划,关乎中法关系的再加固,却又并不拘泥于中法两国之间。对于当前错综复杂的国际形势,共同应对贸易保护主义、全球气候变化、打击恐怖主义等多项难题,构造人类命运共同体,契合大国的担当与逻辑。

  面向未来,以中法关系行动计划为支撑,确立两国元首将延续年度会晤机制,留给双方就深化互信、务实合作、共同关心的问题更多交流空间,为促进互联互通、推进双边贸易和双向投资、促进传统和新兴领域合作等提供操作指南,彼此相互成就,符合双方的共同愿景。

  面向人民,作为东西方两个大国,在经济全球化的今天,继续深化中法全面战略伙伴关系,为人民生产生活创造机遇,为人文交流搭设历史舞台,关照的是两国人民切身福祉。在中法关系行动计划中专门将“保护地球”列为一个章节,与“面向人民”互为注脚,正切题中应有之意。( 来源:中新社/ 记者 张子扬 )