阿尔特、霍顿和赖斯因发现丙肝病毒获2020年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)2020年10月5日斯德哥尔摩阳光明媚。但受新冠疫情影响,出席诺贝尔生理学或医学奖宣布发布会的记者依然寥寥无几。大家都守候在直播网站上等待消息。

佩尔曼秘书长宣布诺奖 陈雪霏拍摄

11点30分过一点,卡罗林斯卡医学院诺奖大会秘书托马斯.佩尔曼宣布,2020年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖将授予哈维.阿尔特(Harvey Alter), 迈克尔.霍顿(Michael Houghton)和查尔斯.赖斯(Charles Rice),因为他们发现了丙肝病毒。

古尼拉.卡尔松教授介绍了为什么三位科学家获奖。

卡尔松说,今年的诺贝尔奖授予了三位做出了决定性贡献的科学家,因为他们发现了对抗血源性肝炎,导致肝硬化的主要全球性健康问题和折磨世界各地肝癌患者的元凶丙肝病毒。

阿尔特(Harvey J. Alter),霍顿(Michael Houghton)和赖斯(Charles M. Rice)在这方面做出了开创性的发现,即新型病毒,丙型肝炎病毒的鉴定。

在他们发现之前,人们已经发现了甲型和乙型肝炎病毒,但大多数血源性肝炎病例仍无法解释。丙型肝炎病毒的发现揭示了慢性肝炎的病因,并可能进行血液检查和新药治疗。该发现得以挽救了数百万人的生命。

肝炎主要由病毒感染引起,尽管滥用酒精,环境毒素和自身免疫也是重要原因。

1940年代,传染性肝炎主要有两种:一种称为甲型肝炎,是通过污染的水或食物传播的,通常对患者几乎没有长期影响。第二种是通过血液和体液传播,更为严重,会导致慢性疾病,并发展为肝硬化和肝癌。 这种类型的肝炎是隐性的,健康的人可能会被默默感染,许多年后才出现严重的并发症。

血源性肝炎却有很高的发病率和死亡率,并且每年在全世界范围内造成超过一百万的死亡, 因此,它已成为全球的健康问题,其规模可与HIV感染和肺结核相比。

1960年代,Baruch Blumberg确定了一种形式的血源性肝炎是由一种被称为乙型肝炎病毒的病毒引起的,这一发现导致了开发诊断测试和有效的疫苗。布隆伯格因此在1976年被授予诺贝尔生理学或医学奖。因为他发现了乙肝病毒。

此时,正在美国国家卫生学院学习的阿尔特发现乙肝病毒的发现减少了与输血有关的病例数,但是,他和同事们发现很多肝炎病例依然存在。而且他们也进行了甲肝病毒感染的检测,发现这些病人与甲肝无关。令人担忧的是,大量接受血液治疗的人由于未知的感染因素,由于输血而发展成为慢性肝炎。这些肝炎患者的血液也已将疾病传播给黑猩猩。黑猩猩是人类以外唯一易感的宿主。随后的研究证明未知的传染源具有病毒特征。这种慢性病毒性肝炎既不是甲肝也不是乙肝。

尽管他们做了大量研究,但是,中间还是有大约十年的时间一直处于探索状态。

后来在Chiron制药工资工作的霍顿进行了艰苦的病毒遗传序列的分离工作。他和同事们从感染的黑猩猩血液中发现的核酸中收集DNA碎片,这些片段大部分来自黑猩猩的基因组。但是研究人员预测,其中一些可能来自未知病毒。根据假设,从肝炎患者身上采集的血液中会存在针对该病毒的抗体。研究人员使用患者血清坚定了编码病毒蛋白的克隆病毒DNA片段。进一步研究表明,这个克隆来自黄病毒家族的新型RNA病毒,名为丙型肝炎病毒。慢性肝炎患者中抗体的存在强烈暗示此病毒正是缺失的媒介。

丙型肝炎病毒的发现具有决定性意义。但难题是:是否仅仅病毒就会引起肝炎吗?为了回答这个问题,科学家们不得不调查克隆的病毒是否能够复制并引起疾病。查尔斯·赖斯(Charles M. Rice) 是校址在圣路易斯的华盛顿大学的研究员。他和其他研究RNA的小组注意到在丙型肝炎病毒基因组末端的一个先前未知的区域,他们怀疑可能对病毒复制很重要。赖斯也观察到遗传 4 分离的病毒样本中的变异,并假设其中一些会阻碍病毒复制。通过基因工程,赖斯产生了丙型肝炎病毒的RNA变体 包括病毒基因组的新定义区域,并发现没有失活基因变异。当该RNA注入黑猩猩的肝脏时,病毒在血液中检测到的病理变化类似于在人类中所观察到的慢性疾病。这是仅丙型肝炎病毒就可以导致原因不明的输血介导的肝炎病例的很好例证。

诺奖发现的意义

诺贝尔奖获得者发现丙型肝炎病毒是正在进行的与病毒性疾病进行斗争的一项具有里程碑意义的成就。由于他们的发现,通过高度敏感的血液检查就可以发现是否有这种病毒,因此在世界许多地方已经基本消除了输血后得肝炎的情况,大大改善了全球人类健康状况。他们的发现还促进了丙肝抗病毒药物的快速发展。历史上第一次可以治愈这种疾病,这使人们有希望根除全世界人口中的丙型肝炎病毒。为了实现这一目标,国际上需要为血液检测提供便利,也需要为制造可用的抗病毒药物提供便利。

阿尔特于1935年出生于纽约。他在罗切斯特大学医学院获得医学学位。后来他加入了国家卫生学院临床医学研究。

霍顿出生在英国。1977年从伦敦国王学院获得博士学位。然后在1982年到美国加州Chiron公司实验室。2010年他到加拿大阿尔伯塔大学。现在依然负责李嘉诚投资的一个研究项目。

赖斯是最年轻的一个,于1952年出生在加州的Sacramento. 1981年在加州技术学院获得博士学位。1995年成为全职教授。2001年他成为洛克菲勒大学教授。在2001年到2018年的18年里他一直是洛克菲勒大学丙肝研究中心执行主任。一直很活跃。

有趣的是,昨天瑞典每日新闻报预测今年丙肝病毒的发现可能获今年的诺贝尔医学奖,结果真的言中了!

Patrik Ernfors 也出席了发布会,并对诺奖得主的巨大成就给予了高度肯定。
今年由于新冠肺炎疫情,诺贝尔奖晚宴已经宣布取消。

Greenpost Exclusive Interview with Chinese Ambassador Gui Congyou

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Stockholm, Sept. 6(Greenpost) — August 18th marked the three year anniversary of Chinese Ambassador to Sweden Gui Congyou’s mission in Sweden. Over the past three years, he has visited many places in Sweden and has been engaged with many ordinary people, prominent figures, business people and politicians in addition to foreign ministry colleagues in Sweden. He has impressed many and he said he also learnt a lot from Sweden. What will he do to improve Sino-Swedish relations in his next three years mission? Greenpost founder and chief editor Xuefei Chen Axelsson had a written interview with Ambassador Gui recently.

Q: Hello Ambassador Gui, by August, you have been in Sweden for three years as an Ambassador. During the past three years, you have visited many places in Sweden, what is your impression about Sweden?

A: Over the past three years, I have visited two thirds of the Swedish provinces and have contacted and widely exchanged views with people from all walks of life. I visited many enterprises, factories and farms, got to know Swedish social, cultural and economic characteristics and understood the wish and thoughts of Swedish people on Sino-Swedish relations. I made a lot of friends in Sweden and I got a lot of unforgettable memories on Swedish people. I felt Swedish people are very kind and enthusiastic about China. With very friendly emotion, they all support further cooperation and exchange in various fields. I think most of Swedish people are willing to deepen cooperation and exchange with China.

I was so impressed by Swedish beautiful ecological environment and people’s high awareness in environmental protection. In such an environment with blue sky and clean water, I often discuss with my Swedish friends on how to combine Swedish advanced sustainable development theory and practices with China’s new development concept of being innovative, coordinated, green, open and sharing. We have reached a consensus that China and Sweden shared similar development idea and mutual compatibility in various industries and there will be great potential in environmental and ecological protection. We believe that China and Sweden are able to join hands to play a bigger role in dealing with climate change and pushing forward sustainable development.

Q: How do you comment on current Sino-Swedish relations and what is your prospect on the future of Sino-Swedish relations?

A: This year marks 70th anniversary of Sino-Swedish relations. 70 years ago, Sweden took the lead among western countries to surpass the political system and ideological differences to become the first country to establish diplomatic relations with China. Over the past 70 years, friendly communication and exchange have been the main melody of bilateral relations and China has always treated Sweden as a friend and important cooperation partner.

Now we are the largest trade partners for each other both in nordic region and Asia. Sweden has kept its surplus for many years in trading with China. China and Sweden enjoyed close communication and exchange in science and technology, education and culture. China and Sweden also kept good communication in multilateral relations, jointly advocated multilaterism, free trade, against trade protectionism, in favor of maintaining economic globalization and multilateral trade, devoted in peaceful solutions for regional conflict and hot issues and jointly made positive contributions to world peace and development.

The political foundation for the past 70 years of friendly cooperation was mutual respect, equality and non-interferience in each other’s internal affairs. The experiences over the past 70 years has always proved that as long as the two sides abided by such a principle, the bilateral relations will develop smoothly, bilateral cooperation and exchange will be carried out smoothly. On the contrary, there would be difficulties and the cooperation between the two sides would be affected. Upon the 70th anniversary, we should keep the initial goal to surpass the political system and ideological differences between the two sides, root out the intervention and make joint efforts to push forward Sino-Swedish relations to healthy and stable development.

Q: In your opinion, in which areas can China and Sweden have more cooperation?

A: Currently, the Covid 19 is rampagnt in the whole world. Global economy slows down, there is a lack of driving force in economic increase, there are many unstable and uncertain factors in international environment. This has imposed a new challenge to all countries including China and Sweden. Opening up to the outside word is one of the fundamental policies in China. China has been insisting on opening up and achieving a win-win situation and committed itself to contributing to mankind’s common destiny. As the first cargo trading country and the second foreign investment destination in the world, China’s contribution to the global economic growth has exceeded 30 percent for many years. Facing the current global crisis, China has steadily resumed manufacturing and production, economic revival trend is stable and China has shouldered its responsibility in helping revive world economy. During the second quarter of this year, China’s GDP growth rate reached 3.2 percent. Import and export volume in July increased 6.5 percent compared with that of last year. It is predicted that during the later half of the year Chinese economy will continue to grow. This will provide more opportunities for Sino-Swedish cooperation. China and Sweden can have deep cooperation in high level manufacturing, biological, medical and pharmacieutical field, energy saving and environmental protection, green transportation and communication as well as smart city. Recently due to the Covid 19, medical care and health, transnational online shopping has seen an increase and can become new economic growth sectors. I hope industries in both sides should grasp the opportunities and actively tap the potential for solid cooperation.

Q: Can you briefly introduce China’s efforts and experiences in fighting against Covid 19?

A: Since the beginning of this year, Covid 19 broke out in many countries in the world becoming the most severe public health crisis in the world since the second world war bringing severe impact on the world on many aspects. Covid 19 also brought about unprecedented blow to China’s economic and social development. Facing such sudden and severe test, Chinese government insisted on prioritizing people’s lives and health among other aspects and launched a people’s campaign against the virus and put the virus spreading under control by comprehensive and strict isolation methods. 1.4 billion people acted in concert to isolate the virus by taking well coordinated measures to protect people’s lives and health. Meanwhile, China also well coordinated in pushing forward the work of controlling the virus and resuming the manufacturing orderly and steadily.

China insisted on new development idea and Chinese economy sees a good trend by turning from negative growth into positive growth of 3.2 percent during the second quarter becoming the first country in the world to realize the positive growth. China’s growth has injected confidence and driving force for the world economic growth.

Chinese President Xi Jinping stressed that mankind live in a common community. Unity and cooperation are the most powerful weapon for the international community to defeat the virus. Since the outbreak of the Covid 19, China has held on the mankind common community idea and supported many countries to fight against the disease. President Xi carried out a series of diplomacy with head of state in various countries and voiced his view of joining hands with various countries to deal with the Covid 19 together. China has donated 50 million dollars to the World Health Organization and provided emergency medical material to over 150 countries and international organizations. China will continue to take a series of measures to consolidate international cooperation in fighting against Covid 19. The measures include providing 2 billion dollars of international assistance, establish global humanitarian emergency stockhouse and communication hub, establish hospital cooperation mechanism and make the vaccine as global public product after the successful production of covid 19 vaccine in the future. China will resolutely join hands with the international community including Sweden to deal with the Covid 19 and establish mankind health community.

Q: What is your expectations on overseas Chinese in Sweden?

A: Chinese home and abroad are forever belonging to the same family. Since long time ago, overseas Chinese in Sweden have kept Chinese traditional morality, self independent, diligent and actively melted in the Swedish society and contributed to the Swedish social and economic development. Meanwhile, Chinese in Sweden also continue to carry on their Chinese culture and put up forward proposals for China’s development pushing forward Sino-Swedish friendly cooperation and exchange. I was impressed. When China encountered the Covid 19 in January, overseas Chinese in Sweden immediately organized donation activities to collect funds and buy medical products and some even help send the products to Chinese hospitals in person. China’s achievements in fighting against Covid 19 so far cannot be separated from overseas Chinese efforts. The motherland will never forget your contributions!

Since the outbreak of Covid 19 in Sweden, many overseas Chinese began to work hard for Sweden’s campaign against Covid 19. Many Chinese associations have actively helped each other and kept yourself healthy. Currently the virus is still spreading in the world including Sweden, I just hope that you continue to protect yourselves from being infected, while deeply melting into the local society, pushing forward Sino-Swedish cooperation and exchange in various fields and actively shouldering the responsibility of being a good bridge between China and Sweden so that bilateral relations will further develop. Your proposal, suggestions and efforts are welcome.

专访:桂从友大使接受北欧绿色邮报网书面专访展望中瑞关系未来发展

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)今天是中国驻瑞典大使桂从友抵瑞履职三周年的日子。在过去三年里,他走访了瑞典的许多城市和乡村,亲自考察了瑞典多个行业的发展,深入实际,广交朋友,给很多和他接触过的人留下了深刻的印象。他的足迹北到柳里奥,南到卡尔玛,西到哥德堡,深入基层,增进感情。日前,围绕中瑞关系的话题,北欧绿色邮报网对桂大使进行了书面专访。全文如下。

问:桂大使您好,今年8月您抵瑞履职3周年,在过去的3年中,您兢兢业业,开拓进取,为中瑞关系的友好发展做了很多工作。3年里您也走访了瑞典很多地区,您对瑞典印象如何?

答:3年来,我访问了瑞典三分之二的省份,与当地社会各界和普通民众广泛交流,走访了不少企业、工厂和农场,深入体会了各地风土人情和社会经济特点,了解了瑞典社会各界和普通民众对发展中瑞关系的愿望和想法。我结识了很多瑞典朋友,留下了很多难忘的回忆。瑞典社会各界人士和民众善良热情,对中国怀有友好感情,支持两国人民开展各领域友好合作交流。我认为,这是瑞典社会对华民意主流。

瑞典良好的生态环境和绿色环保理念也令我印象深刻。在蓝天绿水间,我和瑞典朋友经常讨论如何将瑞典可持续发展的先进理念、技术与中国创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念对接。我们一致认为,中瑞两国发展理念契合,产业互补性强,在扩大绿色环保、生态科技等领域合作方面大有可为,能够携手为全球应对气候变化、推动可持续发展发挥更大作用。

问:您如何评价当前的中瑞关系?对中瑞关系的未来有何展望?

答:今年是中瑞建交70周年。70年前,瑞典在西方国家中率先超越政治制度和意识形态差异,第一个与新中国建交。70年来,友好交往始终是我们两国关系的主旋律,中国视瑞典为友好国家和重要合作伙伴。

现在,我们两国互为在北欧和亚洲的最大贸易伙伴。瑞方多年保持对华贸易顺差,中瑞科技、教育、文化等领域交流密切。中瑞在多边领域也保持着良好沟通,共同倡导多边主义和自由贸易,反对保护主义,维护经济全球化和多边贸易体制,致力于地区热点问题的和平解决,共同为世界和平稳定发展做出了积极贡献。

中瑞70年友好合作的政治基础是相互尊重、平等相待、互不干涉内政。70年来的经验一再证明,双方只要保持这一原则,两国关系就能够顺利发展,双方交流合作就能顺畅地开展,反之就会遇到困难,合作就会受影响。在建交70周年之际,我们更要保持建交初心,超越政治制度和意识形态差异,排除干扰,共同努力推动中瑞友好合作关系健康稳定向前发展。

问:中瑞有哪些领域可以进行更多的合作?

答:当前,疫情仍在世界范围内蔓延,全球经济下滑、增长动能不足,国际环境也面临更多不稳定不确定因素,这给包括中瑞在内的各国提出了新的挑战。对外开放是中国的基本国策,中国发展坚持开放共赢,致力构建人类命运共同体。作为世界货物贸易第一大国、外资流入第二大国,中国对全球经济增长的贡献率多年来均超过30%。面对当前的全球性危机,中国稳步推进复工复产,经济稳步复苏,承担起了大国的责任。二季度GDP增长3.2%,7月份货物贸易进出口同比增长6.5%。可以预见,下半年中国经济将持续向好,这为中瑞合作提供更多机遇。中瑞在高端制造、生物医药、节能环保、绿色交通、智慧城市等领域有深入合作,近期因应疫情带来的医疗保健、跨境电商等行业的发展也有望成为双方务实合作新增长点。希望双方实业界抓住新机遇,积极拓展双方务实合作。

问:您能否介绍当前中国的抗疫情况?

答:今年以来,新冠肺炎疫情在全球暴发蔓延,成为二战结束以来最严重的公共卫生危机,给世界造成全方位冲击,也给中国经济社会发展带来前所未有的冲击。面对突如其来的严峻考验,中国党和政府团结和带领全国人民,坚持把人民生命安全和身体健康放在第一位,果断打响疫情防控阻击战,采取了最全面、最严格、最彻底的防控措施。14亿中国人民上下一心,同舟共济,经过艰苦卓绝努力,取得防控抗疫重大战略性成果,维护了人民生命安全和身体健康。与此同时,中国党和政府统筹推进疫情防控和经济社会发展工作,稳步有序推进复工复产,坚持新发展理念,中国经济逆势上扬,GDP增速由负转正,第二季度增长3.2%,成为第一个实现正增长的主要经济体和世界经济增长的主要贡献者,为世界经济复苏注入了信心和动力。

习近平主席强调,人类是命运共同体,团结合作是国际社会战胜疫情最有力的武器。疫情发生以来,中国始终秉持人类命运共同体理念,支持各国人民团结抗疫。习近平主席亲力亲为开展元首外交,发出国际社会携手抗疫、共克时艰的最强音。中国向世界卫生组织捐资5000万美元,向150多个国家和国际组织提供紧急医疗物资援助。接下来,中国还将继续推进疫情防控国际合作一系列举措,包括提供20亿美元国际援助、设立全球人道主义应急仓库和枢纽、建立对口医院合作机制、在新冠疫苗研发完成并投入使用后将疫苗作为全球公共产品等。中国将坚定地与包括瑞典在内的国际社会携手抗击疫情,共建人类卫生健康共同体。

问:您对瑞典华侨华人有什么期望?

答:海内外中华儿女永远是骨肉相连的一家人。长期以来,旅瑞华侨华人发扬中华民族的传统美德,自立自强,克勤克俭,积极融入当地社会,为瑞典社会经济发展作出重要贡献。同时,广大旅瑞华侨华人积极传承中华文化,为祖(籍)国发展献计献策献力,推动中瑞友好交流与合作,我对此予以充分肯定。今年国内发生新冠疫情以来,广大旅瑞侨胞第一时间自发组织,筹集捐赠防疫物资和资金,一些侨领、侨胞还亲自运送防疫物资到国内抗疫第一线。当前国内疫情防控取得的重大战略性成果与包括瑞典侨胞在内的广大海外华侨华人的贡献是分不开的,你们的贡献祖国永远不会忘记!

瑞典疫情发生以来,旅瑞侨胞又在各自的岗位上为瑞典抗疫出谋划策、筹集分发物资。广大侨社带领侨胞们积极行动,互帮互助,采取严格防控措施,保障了自身健康安全。当前疫情仍在世界范围内蔓延,瑞典疫情也还在持续,希望广大侨胞在继续做好防控工作的同时,更加深入地融入当地社会,并大力推动中瑞各领域交流和合作,更加积极主动地承担起中瑞友好合作桥梁和纽带作用,为两国关系进一步发展献计献策献力。

(主编 陈雪霏)

专访:国务委员兼外长王毅在柏林接受路透社副总编加洛尼专访

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 中国国务委员兼外交部长王毅在柏林接受路透社专访,就抗疫,中美关系,中欧关系,气候变化等多个问题回答了记者的提问。可以说,王毅外长的回答就是中国外交政策的宣言。下面是访谈实录:

加洛尼:新冠肺炎疫情显然对于中国人民来说是个非常严峻的挑战,同时也蔓延到了世界其他地区。有一些国家对华实行了旅行限制,中国是否面临一场对华信心危机?
王毅:这场疫情突如其来,确实给中国和世界带来了一次严峻挑战。但在习近平主席领导下,中国政府和人民经受住了考验,用自己的努力甚至牺牲赢得了国际社会的尊重和认可。This sudden outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP, or COVID-19) is a severe challenge to China and the world at large. Under the leadership of President Xi Jinping, the Chinese government and people have withstood the test and won the respect and recognition of the international community with their efforts and even sacrifice.
疫情发生后,中国政府第一时间建立举国体制,汇集全国资源,采取了最全面、最严格、最彻底的措施迎击疫情,其中很多措施都超出了国际卫生条例的要求和世界卫生组织的建议。After the outbreak, the Chinese government immediately set up a nationwide mechanism to mobilize resources from across the country. We have taken the most comprehensive, stringent and thorough prevention and control measures, many of which are well beyond what is required by the International Health Regulations and the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).
我们以中国速度日以继夜抢救每一位患者的生命,用中国力量众志成城阻止疫情的进一步蔓延。经过艰苦努力,疫情总体上得到了控制。湖北以外地区确诊病例数量连续11天下降,下降幅度超过50%,治愈人数快速上升,已经有近7000位患者康复出院,全国病亡率控制在2.2%左右,如果不算湖北则在0.49%。With the Chinese speed, we are working day and night to save the life of every patient. With the Chinese strength, we are united as one to contain the further spread of the epidemic. Through these arduous efforts, the epidemic is generally under control. For example, outside Hubei, the number of confirmed cases has been declining for 11 consecutive days across China. That is a cumulative drop of over 50 percent. There is a rapid increase in the cure rate, and nearly 7,000 people have recovered and been discharged from hospital. The case fatality rate is about 2.2 percent nationwide and just 0.49 percent outside Hubei.
这些事实和数据充分说明,中国采取的果断措施是正确和有效的,这次疫情总体上也是可控和可治的。正如习近平主席指出,我们完全有信心、有能力、也有把握早日战胜疫情。These facts and data show that China’s decisive response is both right and effective, and that by and large, the outbreak is controllable and the disease curable. As President Xi Jinping points out, we have the confidence, capability and determination to prevail over the virus at an early date.
作为一个负责任大国,中国从一开始就采取公开、透明的态度,及时向国际社会通报疫情信息,开展国际合作,努力阻止疫情在全球扩散。截止到现在,在中国境外的确诊病例数量不到总数的1%。中国不仅全力维护了本国人民的生命安全和身体健康,也为全球公共卫生安全做出了贡献,付出了牺牲。世卫组织多次高度赞赏中国的负责任态度,充分肯定中国采取的果断措施,对中国战胜疫情充满信心。As a responsible major country, China has from the start acted in an open and transparent manner in releasing relevant information to the world and seeking international cooperation to prevent the spread of the epidemic worldwide. To date, the number of confirmed cases outside China is less than one percent of the total. We are not only doing our very best to ensure the life, safety and health of the Chinese people, but also making contribution and sacrifice for global public health. WHO has on multiple occasions commended China for its responsible actions, speaking highly of China’s decisive response and expressing confidence that China will overcome this epidemic.
病毒没有国界,需要国际社会共同面对。已经有160多个国家和国际组织负责人发电或发函,对中国表示慰问和支持。几十个国家政府和人民纷纷向中国伸出援手。对于这些善意,我们表示衷心感谢。

Virus respects no borders. It requires a collective response from the international community. To date, leaders of over 160 countries and international organizations have expressed their sympathy and support through telegrams or letters. The governments and peoples of several dozen countries are lending a helping hand, and we are truly grateful for these acts of kindness.
一些国家采取了加强检测的措施,有其合理之处。但也有一些国家反应过度,引发不必要的恐慌,也不符合世卫组织的建议。我相信,随着疫情得到进一步控制,这些国家也会思考放宽限制。毕竟国与国之间需要开展正常的交往与合作。In our view, the enhanced inspection measures taken by some countries are reasonable but some other countries have overreacted. Their overreaction has caused unnecessary panic and is not consistent with the WHO recommendations. I believe as the epidemic is gradually brought under control, these countries may consider relaxing the restrictions. At the end of the day, normal exchanges and cooperation among countries must be maintained.
中国有句话,“烈火炼真金”。我们相信,经过这场疫情考验,中国人民将会更加坚强团结,中国经济将更加稳健可持续,全体中国人民会以更坚实步伐,实现全面小康,迈向现代化进程。There is a Chinese saying: True gold can stand the test of fire. I’m sure that emerging from this test, the Chinese people will become more resilient and united and the Chinese economy will achieve more solid and sustainable growth. The Chinese people will continue to march confidently toward the goal of establishing a society of moderate prosperity in all respects and embark on a new journey of modernization.
中国还有一句话叫做“患难见真情”。在共同抗击疫情的斗争中,中国同各国之间的友谊和信任将得到加强和深化。各国都会意识到,我们身处一个地球村,国与国的命运已经紧密地联系在一起。There’s another Chinese saying, “Adversity reveals true friendship.” As China battles the disease together with the world, its friendship and trust with other countries will be strengthened and deepened. Countries will realize that they live in a global village, with their future interconnected like never before.

加洛尼:您刚才谈到透明,但是一开始中方对疫情形势的判断和了解并不是很完整,中国国内有人更早提出了相关预警,最终的决定是怎么做出的?
王毅:这次疫情是由一个新型病毒导致的,自然有一个认识和鉴定的过程。实际上每次世界上发生疫情,各国政府作出最终决定前,都必须经过认真和反复论证,这是一种负责任的态度。Well, this is a new virus. So naturally it takes time for people to gain more understanding and knowledge about it. The same has happened in other countries. If we look at past epidemics, we will see that the government will eventually make decisions based on serious and repeated tests and study. That is how a responsible government deals with it.
中国政府发现病例后,在第一时间采取措施,并向世卫组织作了通报。同时经过认真评估,在很短时间内确定这是新型病毒疫情,迅速建立起覆盖全国的联防联控机制。我们这次采取的措施非常及时,动作非常迅速。这也是世卫组织总干事到中国考察后得出的结论。After individual cases emerged, the Chinese government took prompt actions and informed the WHO at the first opportunity. At the same time, we have made rigorous assessments. In a short period of time, we identified and decided that this is a new virus. Once that decision was made, a nationwide inter-agency task force was quickly put in place. The measures taken by China are timely and swift. This is also the conclusion of the WHO Director-General after his visit to China.

加洛尼:您说有一些国家实际上做了过度反应,请问是哪些国家?
王毅:我并不想列举这些国家的名字,各国都有其自己的考虑和理由。我想大家都看得见,一些国家采取的措施远远超出了世界卫生组织的建议,比如全面关闭人员往来,又如不仅从武汉撤出人员,而且还要从疫情并不严重、只有个别病例的地区撤出人员。我们不会干涉别国的决定,但这些措施是否有利于各国共同应对这场疫情,要划一个大大的问号。I don’t want to single out individual countries. They have their own judgments and reasons. Everybody can see that the measures taken by those countries go far beyond the recommendations of the WHO. For example, measures have been taken to comprehensively stop people-to-people exchanges. And not only people in Wuhan are evacuated, people in regions where there are only isolated cases or where the epidemic is not severe are also pulled out. We do not interfere with the decisions of other countries. However, when these measures are taken, we must see whether they are truly beneficial to a joint response to the epidemic. There is a question mark on it.

加洛尼:对于习近平主席来说,这次疫情是一个相当大的挑战。中国政府对此如何回应?
王毅:这场疫情防控阻击战,是一场总体战,也是人民战争,每个人都做出努力,每个人都发挥作用。在习近平主席亲自指挥部署下,我们迅速建立了覆盖全国的联防联控机制。在中国960万平方公里土地上,14亿人民团结一致,把疫情防控做得如此彻底、如此全面,这是史无前例的,在很多国家也是难以想像的,但是,中国做到了。This is a comprehensive battle and a people’s war, with every person pitching in and playing a role. President Xi is personally overseeing and guiding the response to the epidemic. We quickly set up a national framework of epidemic control on this land of 9.6 million square kilometers and with 1.4 billion people. We are doing everything we can, leaving no stone unturned, in our efforts to contain and mitigate this epidemic. This is an unprecedented endeavor, which is probably unimaginable in many countries. But China pulled this off.
可能仍会有个别人提出质疑,但绝大多数国家都对此表示了高度赞赏,指出只有在中国,只有在习近平主席领导下,才得以有效管控住这场突如其来而且传播速度相当快的疫情,中国不仅有力维护了本国人民的生命健康,也阻止了疫情向世界的快速扩散。There may be certain questions or challenges to China. Yet the overwhelming majority of countries have expressed their appreciation for what China has been doing. They clearly recognized that only in China and only under the leadership of President Xi can there be such effective measures to put this sudden and fast spreading epidemic under control. What we’re doing is protecting the health of the Chinese people and preventing this epidemic from further spreading to other parts of the world.

我举个例子。中国每年最重要的节日就是春节。习近平主席就是在中国农历新年的第一天,亲自主持召开中共中央政治局常务委员会会议,就应对疫情作出全面部署和动员,由此展开了全国范围内疫情防控阻击战。农历新年第一天召开中央政治局常委会会议,在中国历史上前所未有,这恰恰体现了习近平主席本人对这场疫情的敏锐洞察力和卓越领导力,彰显了一声令下中国强大的动员力。I can give you an example. The Spring Festival is one of the most important holidays in China. On the very first day of the Spring Festival holiday, President Xi convened the highest level meeting of the governing body, which is the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Party Committee, to draw up a comprehensive plan on responding to this epidemic, which initiated this nationwide battle against the epidemic. It has never happened before in Chinese history to have the highest level meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau on the first day of the Spring Festival. It shows President Xi’s penetrating grasp of the situation, his outstanding leadership and China’s strong mobilization capability.

加洛尼:美国到现在为止有没有采取一些行动来帮助中方抗击疫情?
王毅:特朗普总统多次公开表态,支持中国抗击疫情,对中国取得胜利展现信心。他还主动给习近平主席打电话,转达他本人对中国的支持。美国社会各界和民间行动起来,向中国捐款、捐物。这些物资正在陆续运到中国武汉。President Trump has, on many occasions, publicly expressed his support to China’s battle against the epidemic and his confidence that China will win the final victory. He called President Xi to convey his personal support to China. And all sectors in the US and the American people have acted to provide assistance to China, including cash and supplies. Those assistance is being delivered to Wuhan in different batches.
我们近日也听到美国政府宣布准备出资1亿美元帮助中国和其他有需要的国家,我们对此表示赞赏。建议美方尽快将这笔资金用在他们认为需要的地方。The latest news is that the US government is prepared to offer US$100 million to help China and other countries in need. We appreciate this goodwill gesture. We suggest that the assistance provided by the US be channeled and delivered as soon as possible to where the US believes are most in need.

加洛尼:问一个关于贸易的问题,也是跟新冠肺炎疫情有关。中方在履行中美第一阶段经贸协议关于进口更多美国产品和服务的承诺上是否面临困难?
王毅:中国是一个重信守诺的国家,只要我们同意的事情,都会说到做到。中美第一阶段经贸协议,是在平等和相互尊重基础上达成的。中方愿同美方共同努力,把这个协议落实好,使其真正有利于中国,有利于美国,有利于整个世界。We the Chinese people always honor our commitments. For whatever promise we have made, we will deliver on that. The phase one trade agreement has been reached between the two sides based on equality and mutual respect. We stand ready to work with the US to implement this agreement, which is good for China, good for the US and good for the world at large.
中国已经准备好。我们的市场足够大,尽管疫情对中国经济带来一些暂时的影响,但是疫情过后,积累的消费需求会快速释放,中国经济的动能会强力反弹,市场规模也会持续扩大。我们正在按照自己的时间表和路线图,深入推进改革,扩大开放,实现协议中达成的其他共识,也不存在问题。China is ready for that. The Chinese market is big enough to withstand the impact of the epidemic, which is temporary. When the epidemic is over, the subdued consumer demand will be released rapidly, the dynamism of China’s economy will rebound strongly, and the market will continue to grow. We are advancing reform and opening up according to our own timetable and roadmap. There is no problem on the implementation of other aspects of the agreement.
现在出现的一个新情况是,由于美方全面限制中美人员往来,客观上会对履行协议带来一些困难。我希望美方能思考这个问题,怎么在继续防范疫情的前提下,尊重世卫组织提出的建议,不采取不必要的贸易和人员限制,克服可能会对履行协议带来的不便。双方应共同努力,把协议执行好。中国会履行我们做出的承诺,美方也应履行好他们在第一阶段协议中对中方做出的承诺。I do see one issue that is happening. Given the US’ highest-level travel advisory against China, practically that will bring about some challenges to the implementation of the agreement. We hope the US could think about this. While fighting the epidemic, what it could do to respect WHO’s professional advice and refrain from taking unnecessary trade and travel restrictions in order to overcome the challenges to the implementation of this agreement. As long as the two sides are working together, I am sure that the implementation will be good. China will keep up its end of the bargain. We hope the US will do the same.

加洛尼:中方是否会通过磋商对第一阶段经贸协议做出一些调整?中方对于第二阶段经贸协议磋商的期望是什么?
王毅:已经达成的协议为什么要做出调整?第一阶段协议不仅涉及贸易,还包括很多其他领域,比如知识产权、汇率和金融等等。这是一个内容很丰富的协议。Since we have this phase one agreement, I don’t see any need to adjust it. The phase one trade agreement is not only about trade, but also concerns other aspects including IPR protection, exchange rates and financial services. So this is a wide-ranging agreement.
现在应当集中精力把第一阶段协议落实到位,看到实实在在的成果,不仅推动中美两国贸易走向正常和健康轨道,同时也促进全球经济的增长。在此过程中双方可以不断积累和总结经验,之后再考虑第二阶段的问题。我认为这是合情合理的处理办法。What we hope to do at the moment is to concentrate on the implementation of phase one agreement. We want to see real tangible results, and that will not only help bring China-US trade onto the track of sound and healthy development, but also help with global economic growth. While we implement the phase one agreement, we will accumulate experience, look back at the experience, and then we can proceed to see how we will enter into phase two trade talks. That would be a workable approach.

加洛尼:昨天,美国宣布了针对华为的一些新指控,包括偷窃美国公司商业机密,中国政府对此有何回应?
王毅:我们不知道美国这个超级大国为什么要动员国家力量,甚至调动其所有盟友来无端打压一家中国企业。华为是百分之百的民营企业,是靠自己的汗水、智慧,凭借市场竞争发展起来的。美国如此打压恐怕只有一个理由,就是华为发展得太好了。但美国企业可以发展得很好,为什么中国企业就不能凭借自身努力发展得好一些?美国为何不能接受别的国家的企业也能够在经济、科技方面崭露头角?We cannot understand why the United States, a superpower, is employing its state power and mobilizing its allies to attack Huawei, which is a private company. Huawei is a one-hundred-percent private business. It has developed itself in market competition, relying on its own diligence, hard work and wisdom. The only reason that the United States is doing that is maybe Huawei is doing too well. The US companies can excel and succeed, but why can’t a Chinese company succeed by relying on its own efforts? Why can’t the United States accept other countries’ businesses to excel and perform well in their economy and technology?
恐怕内心有一种阴暗的心理,就是不希望看到别的国家发展起来,不希望看到别国的企业也能够做大做强。美方甚至通过编造谣言来诋毁别国企业,总是说华为有后门,损害了美国安全,但是到现在为止,也没有拿出任何实实在在的证据。I’m afraid that the United States has its own dark intentions sometimes. It doesn’t want to see other countries develop. It doesn’t want to see other countries’ businesses grow and succeed. It has been spreading rumors to smear other countries’ businesses. The United States has been claiming that Huawei products have the backdoor that will undermine US national security. But so far it hasn’t produced any credible evidence.
从维基解密和斯诺登事件可以看出,反而是其他通讯企业在做这些事情。华为已经正式、公开地向世界宣示,愿意同任何国家和组织签署无后门协议,通过法律约束力来证明自己的清白和透明。这难道还不够吗?还要继续打压华为吗?这种做法不仅没有道理,甚至是不道德的。As we can see from Wikileaks and the Snowden incident, it is other telecom companies that are doing these things. Huawei has publicly pledged that they could sign no-backdoor agreement with any government and organization if they so wish. Huawei wants to clear its name and show its transparency in this legal form. Isn’t that enough? Why is there still the attempt to attack this company? It doesn’t make sense. And it is immoral.
我们看到很多国家,比如英国和德国,并没有一味听信谣言,在维护好本国通讯基础设施安全基础上,愿意给其他各国企业包括华为提供一个公平竞争的环境。我认为这才是符合市场规则的,也是一个独立主权国家做出的明智和正确选择。

Fortunately, many countries, including the UK and Germany, have not been misled by this rumor. While they are doing their best to ensure the security of their telecommunication infrastructure, they are trying to provide a level playing field for businesses of other countries, including Huawei. I believe this is a practice consistent with market rules. These countries are making the sensible and right decision as independent sovereign states.

加洛尼:中美是不是会不可避免地走向文明的冲突?
王毅:所谓文明冲突的说法是一个伪命题。人类社会已经进入21世纪,人类文明也已经发展到很高程度,如果现在还鼓吹甚至制造文明冲突,就是开历史的倒车。The so-called clash of civilizations is a false argument. We are already in the 21st century and the human civilization is quite advanced. If anyone is trying to clamor for or even to create the clash of civilizations, he is trying to reverse the wheels of history.
中国历来主张,文明没有高低优劣之分,各种文明都建立在自身深厚的历史人文积淀中,都有其独特的价值。这个世界本来就是丰富多彩的,不同文明应该相互尊重、互学互鉴,共同推动人类进步和发展。We advocate that all civilizations are equal and no one is superior to others. All civilizations are grounded in the unique history and culture of that particular country, and each civilization has its own unique values. The world is a diverse and colorful place. What we call for is mutual respect and mutual learning among different civilizations and joint efforts to seek common progress.
鼓吹“文明冲突论”的人,心灵深处恐怕残留着某种西方文明优越论的潜意识。他们看来没有准备好,也不想接受任何一个非西方国家的发展和振兴。但这是不公平的。任何国家都是平等的,都有发展的权利。西方国家已经先发展起来了,其他国家也要加快发展,这是我们应有的权利。只有所有国家都发展起来,我们这个世界才能够实现繁荣稳定,我们才能共同建设好人类共同居住的这个地球村。For those who clamored for clash of civilizations, subconsciously they still believe in the superiority of Western civilizations. They are not prepared to accept the development and revitalization of non-Western civilizations. This is not fair, because all countries are equal and all countries are entitled to develop. Western countries have developed already and other countries also need faster development. This is our integral right. We believe that only when all countries enjoy development, can our world be a prosperous and stable one, and can we live in peace in this global village and on this planet that we call home.

加洛尼:中方如何能够说服美方,中国以及中国的政治制度对美国并不构成、也不应该构成威胁?
王毅:美国的制度和模式,是美国人民的选择,我们从不干涉美国的内政。同时,中国特色社会主义制度,是中国人民的选择,并且已经在中国大地上取得巨大成功,美方也应尊重中国人民的这一选择。The US system and model are the choices of the American people. We do not intervene in the internal affairs of the US. By the same token, socialism with Chinese characteristics is the choice of the Chinese people, and it has already been proved hugely successful in China. The United States should also respect this choice made by the Chinese people.
只要双方都遵守联合国宪章的宗旨和原则,特别是恪守不干涉内政原则,尊重各国的主权,不同社会制度的国家并不会相互构成威胁。中方始终愿同美方遵循和平共处五项原则,建立和发展长期稳定的友好合作关系。这是中方的既定政策。但美国恰恰相反,不断向中国施加压力,动辄指责和抹黑中国。事实就摆在我们的面前。

For countries with different systems, as long as they observe the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, particularly the principle of non-interference in internal affairs, and respect countries’ sovereignty, there won’t be any threat to anyone. For China, we stand ready to work with the United States on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence to build and grow this long-term and stable relationship of peace and friendship. That is our set policy. However, the United States is doing the opposite. It has been upping its pressure on China, and it has been blaming and bashing China, and the facts are clear for everyone to see.
比如,中国全国人民代表大会从来没有通过任何涉及美国内部事务的提案,而美国国会却一个又一个地审议通过各种粗暴干涉中国内部事务的议案;中国的军舰和飞机从来没有到美国周边去展示力量,但恰恰是美国不断派遣军舰飞机到中国家门口来耀武扬威;中国从来没有制裁过任何一家美国企业,我们欢迎美国企业赴华投资兴业,并为他们提供良好营商环境,但美方却千方百计打压中国的企业,并对中国企业实施所谓单边制裁和长臂管辖,限制中国的发展权利。因此,如果说到威胁,不是中国在威胁美国,而是美国在威胁中国。要解决的也是如何消除美国对中国的各种威胁。

For example, China’s National People’s Congress has never introduced any bill on the internal affairs of the United States. However, the US Congress has reviewed and adopted one bill after another that blatantly interferes in China’s internal affairs. China has never sent its military vessels and aircraft to the neighborhood of the United States to flex muscles, yet the US naval ships and airplanes have been flexing muscles at China’s doorsteps. China has never sanctioned any US businesses. On the contrary, we welcome US businesses to invest in China, and we have provided them with a sound business environment. However, the United States has tried every opportunity and means to suppress Chinese companies. It has introduced unilateral sanctions against Chinese companies by exercising long-arm jurisdiction, and tried to limit China’s development rights. So talking about threat, it is not that China is threatening the US, but the US is threatening China. And the issue is how to address the US threat to China.

加洛尼:中方是否认为需要在中东地区保持军事存在以确保自身的能源供应安全?目前中国和其他国家一样,都依赖美国在中东提供的安全保障,中国是否认为也应当在中东承担更多的责任?

王毅:如果说美国为中国以及其他国家依赖美国在中东提供安全保障,我想很多中东国家都不会认可这种说法。Well I’m afraid that many countries in the Middle East would not agree that the United States is providing security guarantee for China and countries in the region.
试问,几十年来,美国在中东发动了多少战争?造成了多大损失?给中东各国人民带来了多大灾难?这是在为中东提供安全保障吗?美国的做法不仅没有使中东保持稳定和发展,反而陷入了无尽无止的动荡或贫困中。美国的做法实际上只是在维护自身利益,并没有惠及中东国家。

Think about this: In the past decades, how many wars has the US started in the Middle East? How much damage and devastation has it brought to the people of the region? Is the US providing security guarantee in the Middle East? What the US has been doing is not bringing stability and development to the Middle East, but rather endless turbulence and persistent poverty. In addition, the United States is taking actions out of its own interests, which has not benefited countries in the Middle East.
我认为,国与国之间建立起相互信任,同时通过互利合作形成利益融合,这才是长久也是可靠的安全保障,而不是仅仅依靠军事力量的威慑。In our view, the most enduring and reliable security guarantee would be for countries to build mutual trust and align their interests through mutually beneficial cooperation. Security guarantee just cannot be achieved only with military power.
就地区安全而言,中方根据联合国决议以及中东地区国家愿望,一直在努力为中东的安全稳定作出贡献。比如,中方向中东派出了1800位维和人员,遍布地区各国;中方已经坚持十多年在亚丁湾护航,保护所有过往亚丁湾的各国船舶;我们还同中东国家举办中东安全论坛,提议摆脱陈旧的冷战思维,探讨打造共同、综合、合作、可持续的新安全框架。中方将会继续为促进中东的和平、安全与发展发挥建设性作用。Responding to the call of the United Nations and based on the will of countries in the region, China has been working to contribute to the security in the Middle East. For example, we have sent over 1,800 peacekeepers to the Middle East in every corner of the region. Our naval vessels have been conducting escort missions in the Gulf of Aden for over a decade, protecting ships of all countries passing that body of water. We have also initiated a Middle East Security Forum with regional countries, calling on countries to reject the old-fashioned cold-war mentality and put in place a new security architecture that underpins common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. Going forward, we will continue to play a constructive role in promoting peace, security and development in the Middle East.

加洛尼:关于气候变化问题,中方在气候变化问题上发挥了领导作用,特别是在美国退出巴黎协定之后,中方是否愿意进一步提高减排目标?是否愿意为格拉斯哥气候变化大会作出贡献?
王毅:中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,我们的工业化进程还没有完成,需要加快发展进程,让中国人民也能够过上更加美好的生活。同时,我们意识到中国作为一个大国,应该承担应尽的国际责任和义务。China is the world’s largest developing country, and our industrialization process is still ongoing. We need to develop faster to make life even better for the Chinese people. At the same time, we do realize that as a major country, we must shoulder our due international responsibilities and obligations.
因此,中国积极参与了巴黎协定谈判,在谈判最关键的时候,为促成最终达成巴黎协定发挥了重要作用。中方既然签署了,就一定会履行承诺,百分之百地完成我们向世界宣布的减排目标。Therefore, China took an active part in the negotiation of the Paris Agreement, and played a major role in securing the final agreement at the most critical moment of the negotiation. About the Paris Agreement, since we have signed it, we will implement it 100 percent. We have announced to the whole world our emission reduction targets, and we intend to meet these targets.
同时,我们已经确定了新的发展理念,追求绿色、环保、可持续的发展,也就是说改变过去只追求GDP的增长速度,而是寻求实现更高质量的发展。For China’s own development, we have been shifting to a new philosophy. We want to seek green, environmentally-friendly and sustainable development. In the past, the attention was paid to high GDP growth, but now we focus on achieving high-quality development.
中方愿同国际社会一道,排除各种困难干扰,继续推进落实巴黎协定。今年,中方将主办生物多样性公约缔约方大会。我们愿为会议成功作出自己的贡献。同时我们也将同法国等志同道合的国家一道,为推进全球应对气候变化发挥作用。China will continue to work with the international community to overcome all challenges and difficulties to ensure that the Paris Agreement will be implemented. This year, China is going to host the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and we will make our own contributions to ensure its success. We will also work with other like-minded countries like France to contribute to the global fight against climate change.

加洛尼:中方是否做好准备提升减排承诺?会不会有更加有雄心的目标?因为很多国家在格拉斯哥会议之前都被呼吁进一步提升减排目标。中方是否做好了准备,何时愿意这样做?
王毅:中国是一个负责任的国家,既然说了,就会做到。我们不会像有些国家那样,说得好听,但实际上做不到。比如应对气候变化基金,发达国家承诺每年向发展中国家提供1000亿美元,但是到现在还没有实现。China is a responsible country; we will match our words with concrete deeds. Unlike other countries, they may talk a lot but they don’t deliver. For example, in terms of climate change fund, for developed countries, they pledged to provide US$100 billion annually to developing countries. But so far they haven’t done that.
中方不需要说很多大话,去赢得所谓赞誉。我们准备踏实实地把承诺的事情做好。如果一个14亿人口的大国履行好减排承诺,那本身就是对世界的最大贡献,也是对人类发展的最大贡献。Rather than talking big and fishing for praise, we will take concrete measures to deliver our commitments. China has 1.4 billion people. If we can meet our target in emissions reduction, that in itself would be the biggest contribution to the world and to the development of humanity.
我可以举几个数字。比如,单位GDP减排强度指标,中国每年都提前完成计划。又如新能源汽车保有量,中国已经占有全世界的一半;可再生能源装机量,中国已经占到全世界的1/3。这些工作我们都在扎扎实实地做。中国不是用口号,而是用行动,参与国际社会应对气候变化的努力。

To give you some examples, in terms of the emission intensity of China’s GDP, we have met the target every year ahead of schedule. In terms of new energy vehicles, we have over 50 percent of the world’s total. And China has about one third of installed capacity of the world’s renewable energy. So China has taken solid steps to fight climate change. We are not making big statements, but we are making a big difference with concrete measures. And we are contributing our share to the international response to climate change.

加洛尼:中欧将于今年9月举行一次非常重要的峰会,气候变化协议有望成为峰会成果的一部分。中方是否期待从欧方那里得到一些什么积极的成果,作为应对气候变化总体协议的一部分?
王毅:这是一个很具体的问题。昨天我同德国外长马斯专门就此进行了讨论。我们注意到新一届欧盟机构提出“绿色新政”,雄心勃勃,要赶超时代发展潮流。欧盟国家都是发达国家,有必要也有能力在全球绿色发展上发挥更加重要的示范作用。This is a specific issue. I discussed it with German Foreign Minister Maas yesterday. We have noticed that the new EU institution has introduced this ambitious green deal. Indeed, this is what we need given the current trend of the world. The EU is mainly composed of developed countries, so it must and can play a more important exemplary role in implementing green development in the world.
同时实现绿色发展,走可持续发展,也已成为中国的既定国策。比如中方积极倡议建设绿色“一带一路”,并为此出台了很多政策和支持措施。

At the same time, China is promoting green and sustainable development at home. We have made it a state policy. For example, the BRI is designed to pursue green development and we have introduced a lot of policies and measures for this purpose.

今年预定举行的中欧峰会议题很多,我们首先要共同发出维护多边主义、维护自由贸易、维护国际法权威和国际公平正义的声音,共同应对当前国际社会面临的各种风险挑战。同时中方也愿意同欧盟探讨在绿色经济方面加强互利合作。在这一问题上,中欧优势互补。欧盟有绿色发展的技术,中国有巨大的绿色产品市场,欧洲设备可以在中国市场上发挥应有作用。我们还可以探讨建立中欧绿色伙伴关系。我认为这会得到大多数欧洲国家的支持。There will be a packed agenda during this year’s summit. China and the EU should send out a joint message to support multilateralism, free trade, the authority of international law, international fairness and justice, and work together to address the risks and challenges confronting the international community. Meanwhile, we are ready to work with the EU to explore mutually beneficial cooperation on green economy. In this area, we each have our comparative advantages. The EU has the technologies and know-how on green development, while China has a huge market for green products. We believe that European equipment can play its role in China. We can also explore the possibility of a China-EU green partnership. I believe most countries in Europe will support this initiative.

加洛尼:关于香港问题,中国有哪些证据表明英国和美国煽动香港的抗议活动?

王毅:这样的证据和事实举不胜举,俯拾皆是。任何人看到香港街头情况之后都会得出同样的结论。

Well, there is a long list of evidence. Anyone who sees what is happening on the streets of Hong Kong will arrive at the right conclusion.比如,一些西方国家的外交人员,包括一些非政府组织,频繁跟那些街头暴力分子会见,给他们撑腰打气。再比如,一些西方势力不仅不批评那些严重违法犯罪分子,反而指责依法执法的香港警察,企图摧毁香港的法治。还有些国家的议会甚至通过了干涉香港内部事务的法案。这些不都是事实吗?不容抵赖。As we have seen, diplomatic personnel and NGOs of some Western countries have had many meetings with the rioters to embolden them. And instead of criticizing the law-breaking activities of some radicals, they are criticizing the police in Hong Kong for performing their duties according to law, with the aim of compromising the rule of law in Hong Kong. The legislatures of some countries have even introduced bills that interfere in Hong Kong’s internal affairs. These are all clear facts that cannot be denied.
这些以双重标准干涉中国香港内部事务的做法实际上并没有得逞。香港形势目前正在逐渐恢复稳定,香港的法治也在重新走上正轨,“一国两制”方针将会继续坚定贯彻执行。香港绝大多数同胞都会意识到,“一国两制”才是香港长期繁荣稳定的最重要保障。Such double standards and practices trying to interfere in the internal affairs of China’s Hong Kong have not succeeded. The situation in Hong Kong is gradually improved and law and order is being restored. And “one country, two systems” will continue to be implemented resolutely. The majority of people in Hong Kong have realized that “one country, two systems” is the most important guarantee for Hong Kong’s long-term prosperity and stability.

加洛尼:对香港来说没有其他路径吗?没有其他的道路,是这样吗?
王毅:香港是中国的一部分,“一国两制”已经以基本法的方式确定下来。当然要依法行事。现在香港有些年轻人,受到外部蛊惑,竟然举着外国国旗,幻想成为某国公民,呼吁外国解救。他们完全背叛了自己的列祖列宗,忘记了中国人的身份认同,令人不齿。这些人根本不能代表香港的绝大多数同胞。

Hong Kong is part of China. The “one country, two systems” is established by the Basic Law of the Hong Kong SAR. So everything must be done in accordance with the law. Some young people in Hong Kong have been misled. They have even waved the flags of foreign countries, imagining themselves as citizens of certain countries and hoping that foreign countries will come and rescue them. By doing that, they have completely betrayed their own roots and forgotten the identity of themselves as Chinese. This is disgraceful. They do not represent the majority of people in Hong Kong.

加洛尼:自从1997年回归之后,我们看到有很多努力让香港融入中国大陆,大陆也调动了很多资源努力赢取香港民心,但是我们看到这些做法在香港受到了一些抵制,您对此怎么看?
王毅:这恰恰再次证明有一些外部势力唯恐香港不乱。他们千方百计想搞乱香港,进而影响甚至干扰中国的整体发展。为此无所不用其极,频繁制造街头暴力,导致香港法治受到严重损害。但这一现象是暂时的,不可能长久。在香港同胞自身努力下,在中国中央政府支持下,香港会很快恢复稳定和法治,大陆和香港之间的经济联系也会更加紧密。It once again shows that some foreign elements are trying whatever they can to stir up trouble in Hong Kong. They want to destabilize Hong Kong in order to hold back and even disrupt the overall development in China. They have exploited every opportunity to bring violence to the streets, which seriously undermines the rule of law in Hong Kong. But these situations are temporary and will not last long. With the effort of the people of Hong Kong and the support from the central government, stability and law and order will soon be restored in Hong Kong. The economic ties between the mainland and Hong Kong will only grow closer and stronger.
中央政府已经制定了一个宏大的经济战略,就是香港、澳门和广东形成一个大湾区,大湾区的建设启动,将会成为中国发展的又一重要引擎,不仅将给香港发展注入持久动力,也会带动整个中国经济的发展。英国、美国等很多国家在香港都有重要利益。维护好香港的繁荣、稳定和法治,符合所有各方利益。

The central government has introduced an ambitious economic development initiative, the Greater Bay Area of Hong Kong, Macao and Guangdong. With that, we will build another important engine for China’s development. It will provide sustained impetus to Hong Kong’s development and it will also contribute to China’s economy in the long run. Many countries including the UK and the US have major interests in Hong Kong. It therefore serves everyone’s interests to uphold prosperity, stability and the rule of law in Hong Kong.

加洛尼:关于朝核问题,中方是否会对朝鲜失去信心?什么时候会对朝鲜失去耐心?
王毅:朝核问题的关键不在中国是否有耐心,而是美朝之间是否具有相向而行的诚意。

The issue is not about China’s patience, but about the sincerity of the US and the DPRK to reach out and meet each other halfway.
中国的立场是一贯和清晰的。我们主张通过对话实现半岛无核化,同时维护半岛的和平稳定,在此过程中解决好朝鲜方面的合理和正当关切。

China’s position has been consistent and clear-cut. We have called for dialogue to achieve denuclearization, and peace and stability of the Peninsula. And in that process, the reasonable and legitimate concerns of the DPRK need to be addressed.
特朗普总统同金正恩委员长在新加坡达成了一个很好的协议。其中有两条重要共识:一是要在半岛建立永久和平机制;二是要实现半岛的完全无核化。中方对此表示支持,因为这两条恰恰是我们多年来希望达成的目标。President Trump and Chairman Kim Jong-un reached a good agreement during their Singapore meeting, which includes two important common understandings: first, to establish a permanent peace mechanism on the Korean Peninsula and second, to achieve full denuclearization. China supports both of them. They are exactly what China has been working for over these many years.
如何实现这两个目标?需要一个切实可行的路线图。中方提出了我们的建议,就是按照“分阶段,同步走”的思路,并行推进并最终同时加以实现。这是中方总结20多年来经验提出的建议,是合情合理的。To achieve these two objectives requires a practicable roadmap. That is why China has put forth a dual-track approach, that is, the US and the DPRK will take phased and synchronized steps to proceed and advance these two processes together, so that the two objectives can be achieved in parallel. This is a reasonable proposal that is based on our experience of dealing with the issue for the past two decades and more.
俄罗斯同中方持有同样立场,韩国也接受了这一建议。据我们了解,美国不少人士,包括处理半岛核问题的一些关键人物,也开始认为要“分阶段,同步走”,但目前美国内似乎还没有形成真正的共识。Russia is on the same page with China and the ROK has come on board as well. We also know that inside the US, many people, including some key figures who have been dealing with the nuclear issue, also see the value of this phased and synchronized approach. However, there is yet to be a real consensus within the US.
我们希望美朝之间能够就路线图尽快达成一致。中方愿为此继续发挥积极作用。我们不能让来之不易的缓和局面再次失去,也不能够让和平的窗口再度关闭。We hope that the US and the DPRK can come to an agreement on the roadmap as early as possible. China is ready to continue to play a positive role for that to be realized. We just cannot afford to let the de-escalation that has been so hard to achieve slip away. We cannot afford to let the window of opportunity for peace be closed again.

加洛尼:回到最开始的问题,中方从应对疫情过程中,吸取了什么样的经验或者教训?
王毅:人类社会就是在同各种疾病进行抗争的过程中不断发展起来的。任何国家都会有这样一个过程,中国也不例外。Human society has evolved in the fight against various epidemics. That is the case for all countries and also for China.
病毒今天可能发生在这个国家,明天也许发生在另一个国家,因此,公共卫生安全是国际社会的共同挑战。应该说,中国在这方面已经做得很好了。疫情之后,中方当然会认真总结经验,进一步提高公共卫生水平,包括这方面的能力建设。The epidemic may happen in one country today and it may happen in any other country tomorrow. Public health security is therefore a common challenge for the world. But to be fair, China has done a good job so far in responding to the epidemic. When the epidemic is over, we will of course look back and summarize experiences to see what can be done to improve the public health services in China, including our capacity.
同时,我们也会帮助世界上其他卫生系统脆弱的国家提升能力。中国同非洲正在开展八大合作计划,其中就有公共卫生合作计划。中方将继续同非洲国家开展卫生领域合作,就像当年我们挺身而出帮助非洲国家抗击埃博拉疫情一样。As we improve ourselves, we will also help with the capacity building of other countries that are still weak in public health system. For example, we have introduced the eight major initiatives for China’s cooperation with Africa, one of which focuses exactly on public health. So we will continue to promote public health cooperation with countries in Africa, just like what we did to help during the Ebola outbreak.
其他国家同样如此。美国2009年发生的甲型H1N1流感造成了很大损害,影响到214个国家和地区。美方也需要认真总结经验,吸取教训。总之,公共卫生是个国际社会共同面对的课题,需要各国加强合作,形成合力。Other countries also have a part to play in this regard. When the H1N1 flu started in the United States in 2009, the virus also caused serious damage, affecting 214 countries and regions in the world. The US also needs to look back and learn from the experiences and lessons. All in all, public health is a common subject for the entire world. We need to work together to combine our strengths.

来源中国外交部网站, 中国日报网站。 编辑陈雪霏

Xinjiang Photo Exhibition held in Stockholm

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 27(Greenpost, chineseonline) — While the dark and rainy weather made people sad and lonely, a warm Xinjiang Photo Exhibition has been held in Stockholm recently.

The exhibition was held by Green Post(www.greenpost.se) and Chinese Online(www.chineseonline.se) in cooperation with China Europe Cultural Association and ABF(Swedish Workers Association) at the citykonferensen in Stockholm.

Xuefei Chen Axelsson, Chief Editor and photographer of Green Post and freelance journalist said the exhibition came against the background that she was invited to attend a journalistic trip to Xinjiang in August 2018 together with journalists from 13 countries along the belt and road routes. And after that she went to Xinjiang twice respectively in March to Turpan after the National People’s Congress and National Day celebration in Beijing to personally experience the atmosphere in Urumqi city, capital of Xinjiang Ugyor Autonomous Region.

“I was impressed by the journeys and felt that Xinjiang now is very safe to travel and the cultural and tourist resources were rich. During my journey, I can feel business in Grand Bazar is booming and the ugyors dancing and singing were wonderful. Thus, I like to share this feelings and impressions with all the people who are interested in Xinjiang. “said Chen Axelsson.

The purpose is to share the information about the living picture in Xinjiang. The exhibition focuses on Xinjiangs infrastructure such as the fast train, subways and wide road, busy business in Grandbazar, music and art, dancing, beautiful scenery and environmental protection.

To let people have a taste of Xinjiang music and song, Luan Dehan played violin Why the flower is so red.

Artist Zhu Yingying sang the song which was about love between a woman and a ugyor soldier and moved all the audience. A whole generation of people were moved by the film and the song in China’s 80s.

Duan Maoli, President of Swedish Anhui Sci-Tech and Commerce Association expressed his appreciation for the exhibition.

“I would like to say thanks to Xuefei for holding such an exhibition. The media under her leadership is a professional media. With this exhibition, we can see the beautiful Xinjiang and the safe Xinjiang. I like to say it should be A beautiful Xinjiang forever!”

Zhu Jinchuan, General Manager of Air China in Stockholm also looked at the exhibition.

He said it was impressive to see these photos. Watching these beautiful pictures let people feel the life there is quite colourful and it is easy to visit there with Air China because the airlines can fly there directly from Beijing. It can also fly directly to other cities.

Journalists from PROFOCA and FPA attended the exhibition. Swedish innovation entrepreneur Skycab manager Åker Aredal also attended the exhibition. He was quite excited to see President Xi’s photo with Ugyor people and even recalled the moment when he was with President Xi and presented him a letter.

During the exhibition, Xuefei Chen Axelsson also made a presentation about the pictures and added more pictures about the daily lives there in the Grand Bazar. She illustrated the stories behind every photo.

During the exhibition, Axelsson also answered some questions.

Many visitors said they learnt a lot about Xinjiang and felt glad that the situation is safe and secure and life is lively there. Some even said they like to visit Xinjiang some day.

More lively photos in Grand Bazar and Turpan.

Photo and text by Xuefei Chen Axelsson

photo by Xuefei Chen Axelsson

北欧绿色邮报网北京报道:庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年大会在北京隆重举行

北欧绿色邮报网特派主编记者陈雪霏报道:10月1日上午10时,中华人民共和国成立70周年大会在北京天安门广场隆重开幕。首先,放70响礼炮,然后升旗,奏国歌。

习近平主席在天安门城楼发表重要讲话 新华图片

中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在天安门城楼上发表重要讲话。他总结了中国70年发展的光辉历程,发展经历和取得的巨大成就。最后,他非常自信地说出了三个万岁:伟大的中华人民共和国万岁,伟大的中国共产党万岁、伟大的中国人民万岁!

讲话完毕,两辆轿车驶入天安门,接出习近平主席检阅三军。习主席时不时地说,同志们好!同志们辛苦了。战士们喊出主席好!

半小时以后,习主席返回天安门城楼,陆海空,补给方队等15个方队在长安街上游行走过。上图为女兵方队。看她们那英姿飒爽的面貌让人感到巾帼不让须眉的英雄态势。

10月1日凌晨6点时的天安门庄严肃穆 陈雪霏拍摄
天安门城楼右侧的花坛分外妖娆 陈雪霏拍摄
各民族代表入场

这是一次史无前例的重大庆祝活动。他首先向世人宣布,中国人民是有能力的,中国共产党是有能力的。中国的历届领导人都是全心全意为人民服务的。他们的使命是一脉相承的。他们的行动是认真的。

与此同时,经过70年的努力,中国人民过上了小康生活,人民幸福美满,心情愉快。走在长安街上是全国各省市自治区的代表,各行各业的代表,各民族的代表,科技,大学,工人,农民代表都有。开始的方阵是军人。当老兵的车通过的时候,一个个已经为共和国牺牲的战士的遗像出来的时候,人们开始敬礼。共和国不会忘记。

最后是小学生,红领巾,少先队唱起我们是共产主义接班人。

给记者印象最深的是他们把自行车队也安排在了游行队伍中。但是,到邓小平时代并没有安排轿车队伍。一方面是实际考虑,但另一方面也是实际考虑没有必要鼓动大家开车。

军乐团在两个多小时的时间里,现场演奏各种歌曲,让人们感到熟悉,幸福。中国政府是代表各个民族的政府,各界代表都有。一时间,天安门成了花的海洋。歌声的海洋。人们自豪,人们骄傲。

12点40分,太阳高照,庆祝活动在欢快的气氛中结束。当晚天安门又举办歌舞晚会。一

图文 陈雪霏

亲爱的读者,请继续跟踪北欧绿色邮报网,我们将有更多更好的报道。

President Xi stresses peaceful development and win-win solution

ByChinaeurope

 OCT 23, 2020  70th anniversaryKorean PennisulaPresident XiXi Jinping

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Stockholm, Oct. 23(ChinaEurope) — Chinese President Xi Jinping made a long speech today at the grand ceremony celebrating China’s 70th anniversary of Korean War and stressed peace and development.

In Chinese the ceremony was called China’s 70th anniversary of sending voluntary army to the Korean Peninsula when a civil war was fought and with the request of North Korea.

He used a lot of glamourous words to praise the Chinese army’s courage describing them as being heroic, persistant, undefeatable, flexible and not afraid of big power with advanced arms.

Even though he used a lot of inspiring words to describe such a great deeds China has done, and it seems to be the first time that Chinese leader summarised such a battle and gave such a high level appraisal of the war.

In fact, China was almost curfewed by the west after its liberation in 1949 and felt very isolated. Many historians studied why China dared to send volunteers to the Korean Peninsula even though China was very weak at that time.

With the disclosure of many secrets 50 years ago, historians got to know that China was forced to take such a bold decision by Mao Zedong to face the strong fleet led by American General MacArthur, the five star General in America.

China was really worried that the warfire would be burned to China’s northeast across the Yalu River. Thus China sent the voluntary troops to the Korean Peninsula. People have to say that the Chinese army was brave and experienced under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party.

Even though Xi used a long chapter to talk about this great history, what he really liked to express was China’s fundamental principles:

  1. China will never become a hegemony but China is not afraid of hegemony. This principle has been repeated many times for many years. No matter how strong China becomes or how developed China becomes, China will not become a hegemony.
  2. China’s military policy and strategy has always been defensive. China will never offend other countries, especially neighbours, but if any country offends China, China will take measure to defend itself if necessary. But China never expanded its land, typical exemple was the war with India in 1962, even though China defeated Indian army and chased them far into Indian border, Chinese army retreated back to where they were.
  3. China will make unswerving or unremitting efforts to maintain the world peace, especially peace in Asia. It has been proved by history that China has been really a stable force in Asia. Without China’s great efforts of peace and development, no one knows what would have happened or how it will be like today.
  4. With China’s efforts, east Asia has been very peaceful.

President Xi emphasized that China has its tradition and core value to love your neighbour be friendly with the neighbours. Good relations with the neighbours have always been prioritized.

Xi stressed again that the world is a destine shared community, thus should support each other, look for win-win solution and achieve a win-win result.

Xi also expressed that countries around the world should search for peace and development.

“The Chinese nation has always upheld the concept of “being kind and showing kindness to neighbours.” As a responsible major country, China adheres to the common values ​​of peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy, and freedom of all mankind, adheres to the global governance concept of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and unswervingly pursues a road of peaceful, open, cooperative and common development. As long as we adhere to the path of peaceful development and work with the people of all countries to promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind, we will surely be able to usher in a bright future of peace and development for mankind!” President Xi said in his inspiring speech.

习近平:中国永远不称霸、不扩张,坚决反对霸权主义和强权政治

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 10月23日,中国国家主席习近平在纪念中国人民志愿军抗美援朝出国作战70周年大会上发表重要讲话。他强调,中国永远不称霸、不扩张,坚决反对霸权主义和强权政治。

他回顾了朝鲜战争的历史,介绍了中国人民志愿军当时为什么出兵朝鲜,出兵以后志愿军是如何英勇作战取得胜利的可歌可泣的光荣历史。但他也强调,中国一贯奉行防御性国防政策,中国军队始终是维护世界和平的坚定力量。

他说,中华民族历来秉持“亲仁善邻”的理念。作为负责任大国,中国坚守和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,坚持共商共建共享的全球治理观,坚定不移走和平发展、开放发展、合作发展、共同发展道路。只要坚持走和平发展道路,同各国人民一道推动构建人类命运共同体,就一定能够迎来人类和平与发展的美好未来!以下是习近平主席的讲话现场实录。

(现场实录)习近平:在纪念中国人民志愿军抗美援朝出国作战70周年大会上的讲话2020-10-23 10:45:18 来源: 新华网

  在纪念中国人民志愿军抗美援朝出国作战70周年大会上的讲话

  (2020年10月23日)

  习近平

同志们,朋友们:

  今天,我们在这里隆重集会,纪念中国人民志愿军抗美援朝出国作战70周年。

  70年前,由中华优秀儿女组成的中国人民志愿军,肩负着人民的重托、民族的期望,高举保卫和平、反抗侵略的正义旗帜,雄赳赳、气昂昂,跨过鸭绿江,发扬伟大的爱国主义精神和革命英雄主义精神,同朝鲜人民和军队一道,历经两年零9个月艰苦卓绝的浴血奋战,赢得了抗美援朝战争伟大胜利。

  伟大的抗美援朝战争,抵御了帝国主义侵略扩张,捍卫了新中国安全,保卫了中国人民和平生活,稳定了朝鲜半岛局势,维护了亚洲和世界和平。

  抗美援朝战争伟大胜利,将永远铭刻在中华民族的史册上!永远铭刻在人类和平、发展、进步的史册上!

  ——70年来,我们始终没有忘记老一辈革命家为维护国际正义、捍卫世界和平、保卫新生共和国所建立的不朽功勋,始终没有忘记党中央和毛泽东同志当年作出中国人民志愿军出国作战重大决策的深远意义。此时此刻,我们要向老一辈革命家,表示最深切的怀念!

  ——70年来,我们始终没有忘记谱写了气壮山河英雄赞歌的中国人民志愿军将士,以及所有为这场战争胜利作出贡献的人们。我代表党中央、国务院和中央军委,向所有健在的中国人民志愿军老战士、老同志、伤残荣誉军人,向当年支援抗美援朝战争的全国各族人民特别是参战支前人员,向中国人民志愿军烈属、军属,致以最诚挚的问候!

  ——70年来,我们始终没有忘记在抗美援朝战争中英勇牺牲的烈士们。19万7千多名英雄儿女为了祖国、为了人民、为了和平献出了宝贵生命。烈士们的功绩彪炳千秋,烈士们的英名万古流芳!

  在抗美援朝战争中,朝鲜党、政府、人民关心、爱护、支援中国人民志愿军,中朝两国人民和军队休戚与共、生死相依,用鲜血凝结成了伟大战斗友谊。世界上一切爱好和平的国家和人民、友好组织和友好人士,对中国人民志愿军入朝作战给予了有力支援和支持。我代表中国党、政府、军队,向他们表示衷心的感谢!

  同志们、朋友们!

  中华民族是爱好和平的民族,中国人民是爱好和平的人民。近代以后,中国人民饱受列强侵略之害、饱经战火蹂躏之苦,更是深深懂得战争的残酷、和平的宝贵。新中国成立之初,百废待兴,百业待举,中国人民无比渴望和平安宁。但是,中国人民的这个愿望却受到了粗暴挑战,帝国主义侵略者将战争强加在了中国人民头上。

  1950年6月25日,朝鲜内战爆发。美国政府从其全球战略和冷战思维出发,作出武装干涉朝鲜内战的决定,并派遣第七舰队侵入台湾海峡。1950年10月初,美军不顾中国政府一再警告,悍然越过三八线,把战火烧到中朝边境。侵朝美军飞机多次轰炸中国东北边境地区,给人民生命财产造成严重损失,我国安全面临严重威胁。

  值此危急关头,应朝鲜党和政府请求,中国党和政府以非凡气魄和胆略作出抗美援朝、保家卫国的历史性决策。1950年10月19日,中国人民志愿军在彭德怀司令员兼政治委员率领下进入朝鲜战场。这是以正义之师行正义之举。

  抗美援朝战争,是在交战双方力量极其悬殊条件下进行的一场现代化战争。当时,中美两国国力相差巨大。在这样极不对称、极为艰难的情况下,中国人民志愿军同朝鲜军民密切配合,首战两水洞、激战云山城、会战清川江、鏖战长津湖等,连续进行5次战役,此后又构筑起铜墙铁壁般的纵深防御阵地,实施多次进攻战役,粉碎“绞杀战”、抵御“细菌战”、血战上甘岭,创造了威武雄壮的战争伟业。全国各族人民由衷称赞志愿军将士为“最可爱的人”!经过艰苦卓绝的战斗,中朝军队打败了武装到牙齿的对手,打破了美军不可战胜的神话,迫使不可一世的侵略者于1953年7月27日在停战协定上签字。

  在抗美援朝战争期间,党中央统揽全局,实施有力的战争动员和正确的战争指导,采取边打、边稳、边建的方针,开展了波澜壮阔的抗美援朝运动,全国各族人民举国同心支撑起这场事关国家和民族前途命运的伟大抗争,最终用伟大胜利向世界宣告“西方侵略者几百年来只要在东方一个海岸上架起几尊大炮就可霸占一个国家的时代是一去不复返了”!

  同志们、朋友们!

  抗美援朝战争伟大胜利,是中国人民站起来后屹立于世界东方的宣言书,是中华民族走向伟大复兴的重要里程碑,对中国和世界都有着重大而深远的意义。

  经此一战,中国人民粉碎了侵略者陈兵国门、进而将新中国扼杀在摇篮之中的图谋,可谓“打得一拳开,免得百拳来”,帝国主义再也不敢作出武力进犯新中国的尝试,新中国真正站稳了脚跟。这一战,拼来了山河无恙、家国安宁,充分展示了中国人民不畏强暴的钢铁意志!

  经此一战,中国人民彻底扫除了近代以来任人宰割、仰人鼻息的百年耻辱,彻底扔掉了“东亚病夫”的帽子,中国人民真正扬眉吐气了。这一战,打出了中国人民的精气神,充分展示了中国人民万众一心的顽强品格!

  经此一战,中国人民打败了侵略者,震动了全世界,奠定了新中国在亚洲和国际事务中的重要地位,彰显了新中国的大国地位。这一战,让全世界对中国刮目相看,充分展示了中国人民维护世界和平的坚定决心!

  经此一战,人民军队在战争中学习战争,愈战愈勇,越打越强,取得了重要军事经验,实现了由单一军种向诸军兵种合成军队转变,极大促进了国防和军队现代化。这一战,人民军队战斗力威震世界,充分展示了敢打必胜的血性铁骨!

  经此一战,第二次世界大战结束后亚洲乃至世界的战略格局得到深刻塑造,全世界被压迫民族和人民争取民族独立和人民解放的正义事业受到极大鼓舞,有力推动了世界和平与人类进步事业。它用铁一般的事实告诉世人,任何一个国家、任何一支军队,不论多么强大,如果站在世界发展潮流的对立面,恃强凌弱、倒行逆施、侵略扩张,必然会碰得头破血流。这一战,再次证明正义必定战胜强权,和平发展是不可阻挡的历史潮流!

  同志们、朋友们!

  在波澜壮阔的抗美援朝战争中,英雄的中国人民志愿军始终发扬祖国和人民利益高于一切、为了祖国和民族的尊严而奋不顾身的爱国主义精神,英勇顽强、舍生忘死的革命英雄主义精神,不畏艰难困苦、始终保持高昂士气的革命乐观主义精神,为完成祖国和人民赋予的使命、慷慨奉献自己一切的革命忠诚精神,为了人类和平与正义事业而奋斗的国际主义精神,锻造了伟大抗美援朝精神。

  伟大抗美援朝精神跨越时空、历久弥新,必须永续传承、世代发扬。

  ——无论时代如何发展,我们都要砥砺不畏强暴、反抗强权的民族风骨。70年前,帝国主义侵略者将战火烧到了新中国的家门口。中国人民深知,对待侵略者,就得用他们听得懂的语言同他们对话,这就是以战止战、以武止戈,用胜利赢得和平、赢得尊重。中国人民不惹事也不怕事,在任何困难和风险面前,腿肚子不会抖,腰杆子不会弯,中华民族是吓不倒、压不垮的!

  ——无论时代如何发展,我们都要汇聚万众一心、勠力同心的民族力量。在抗美援朝战争中,中国人民在爱国主义旗帜感召下,同仇敌忾、同心协力,让世界见证了蕴含在中国人民之中的磅礴力量,让世界知道了“现在中国人民已经组织起来了,是惹不得的。如果惹翻了,是不好办的”!

  ——无论时代如何发展,我们都要锻造舍生忘死、向死而生的民族血性。在朝鲜战场上,志愿军将士面对强大而凶狠的作战对手,身处恶劣而残酷的战场环境,抛头颅、洒热血,以“钢少气多”力克“钢多气少”,谱写了惊天地、泣鬼神的雄壮史诗。志愿军将士冒着枪林弹雨勇敢冲锋,顶着狂轰滥炸坚守阵地,用胸膛堵枪眼,以身躯作人梯,抱起炸药包、手握爆破筒冲入敌群,忍饥受冻绝不退缩,烈火烧身岿然不动,敢于“空中拼刺刀”。在他们中涌现出杨根思、黄继光、邱少云等30多万名英雄功臣和近6000个功臣集体。英雄们说:我们的身后就是祖国,为了祖国人民的和平,我们不能后退一步!这种血性令敌人胆寒,让天地动容!

  ——无论时代如何发展,我们都要激发守正创新、奋勇向前的民族智慧。勇于创新者进,善于创造者胜。志愿军将士面对陌生的战场、陌生的敌人,坚持“你打你的,我打我的,你打原子弹,我打手榴弹”,把灵活机动战略战术发挥得淋漓尽致。面对来自各方面的风险挑战,面对各种阻力压力,中国人民总能逢山开路、遇水架桥,总能展现大智大勇、锐意开拓进取,“杀出一条血路”!

  同志们、朋友们!

  抗美援朝战争胜利60多年来,在中国共产党坚强领导下,中国发生了前所未有的历史巨变,中国特色社会主义进入了新时代,中华民族迎来了从站起来、富起来到强起来的伟大飞跃。

  今天,我们正站在实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标的历史交汇点上,全面建成小康社会胜利在望,全面建设社会主义现代化国家前景光明。前进道路不会一帆风顺。我们要铭记抗美援朝战争的艰辛历程和伟大胜利,敢于斗争、善于斗争,知难而进、坚韧向前,把新时代中国特色社会主义伟大事业不断推向前进。

  ——铭记伟大胜利,推进伟大事业,必须坚持中国共产党领导,把党锻造得更加坚强有力。抗美援朝战争伟大胜利再次证明,没有任何一支政治力量能像中国共产党这样,为了民族复兴、人民幸福,不惜流血牺牲,不懈努力奋斗,团结凝聚亿万群众不断走向胜利。只要我们不忘初心、牢记使命,以自我革命精神全面推进党的建设新的伟大工程,不断增强党的政治领导力、思想引领力、群众组织力、社会号召力,就一定能够使党始终成为中国人民最可靠、最坚强的主心骨!

  ——铭记伟大胜利,推进伟大事业,必须坚持以人民为中心,一切为了人民、一切依靠人民。历史是人民创造的。中国共产党的力量,人民军队的力量,根基在人民。我们要坚持全心全意为人民服务的根本宗旨,为民谋利,为民尽责,为民担当,把人民对美好生活的向往作为始终不渝的奋斗目标,始终保持党同人民群众的血肉联系。只要我们始终坚持人民立场、人民至上,就一定能够激发出无往而不胜的强大力量,就一定能够不断书写中华民族伟大复兴的精彩华章!

  ——铭记伟大胜利,推进伟大事业,必须坚持推进经济社会发展,不断壮大我国综合国力。落后就要挨打,发展才能自强。新中国成立70多年来,我国用几十年时间走完了发达国家几百年走过的发展历程,创造了举世瞩目的发展奇迹。当前,我国将进入新发展阶段,面对新机遇新挑战,只要我们统筹推进“五位一体”总体布局、协调推进“四个全面”战略布局,坚定不移贯彻新发展理念,构建新发展格局,就一定能够实现更高质量、更有效率、更加公平、更可持续、更为安全的发展,不断创造让世界惊叹的更大奇迹!

  ——铭记伟大胜利,推进伟大事业,必须加快推进国防和军队现代化,把人民军队全面建成世界一流军队。没有一支强大的军队,就不可能有强大的祖国。坚持和发展中国特色社会主义,必须统筹发展和安全、富国和强军。要贯彻新时代党的强军思想,贯彻新时代军事战略方针,毫不动摇坚持党对人民军队的绝对领导,坚持政治建军、改革强军、科技强军、人才强军、依法治军,全面提高捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益的战略能力,更好履行新时代人民军队使命任务。只要我们与时俱进加强国防和军队建设,向着党在新时代的强军目标阔步前行,就一定能够为实现中华民族伟大复兴提供更为坚强的战略支撑!

  ——铭记伟大胜利,推进伟大事业,必须维护世界和平和正义,推动构建人类命运共同体。中华民族历来秉持“亲仁善邻”的理念。作为负责任大国,中国坚守和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的全人类共同价值,坚持共商共建共享的全球治理观,坚定不移走和平发展、开放发展、合作发展、共同发展道路。只要坚持走和平发展道路,同各国人民一道推动构建人类命运共同体,就一定能够迎来人类和平与发展的美好未来!

  同志们、朋友们!

  世界是各国人民的世界,世界面临的困难和挑战需要各国人民同舟共济、携手应对,和平发展、合作共赢才是人间正道。当今世界,任何单边主义、保护主义、极端利己主义,都是根本行不通的!任何讹诈、封锁、极限施压的方式,都是根本行不通的!任何我行我素、唯我独尊的行径,任何搞霸权、霸道、霸凌的行径,都是根本行不通的!不仅根本行不通,最终必然是死路一条!

  中国一贯奉行防御性国防政策,中国军队始终是维护世界和平的坚定力量。中国永远不称霸、不扩张,坚决反对霸权主义和强权政治。我们决不会坐视国家主权、安全、发展利益受损,决不会允许任何人任何势力侵犯和分裂祖国的神圣领土。一旦发生这样的严重情况,中国人民必将予以迎头痛击!

  同志们、朋友们!

  回望70年前伟大的抗美援朝战争,进行具有许多新的历史特点的伟大斗争,瞻望中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景,我们无比坚定、无比自信。让我们更加紧密地团结在党中央周围,弘扬伟大抗美援朝精神,雄赳赳、气昂昂,向着全面建设社会主义现代化国家新征程,向着实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,继续奋勇前进!

土地征收“成片开发”标准征求意见 公益用地比例不低于40%

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)很多人一提起中国的决策,经常说是领导一拍脑袋,就决定了。事实并非如此。建国71年来,尤其是改革开放以后这40年,中国人大每年开一次会,讨论国家的立法执法情况,同时,监督政府政策的制定和执行情况。

各个部委都要制定一系列关于国计民生的大政方针,一系列政策。怎么制定?首先改革开放的总设计部门发改委要制定中国的中长期发展规划,然后,各部委再在自己的责权范围内制定有关政策。他们提出草稿,然后发布征求意见稿,都是公开在网上发布的。任何人都可以提出自己的意见,仁者见仁,智者见智。然后,他们再综合各方意见总结以后,才最后制定。然后,再由人大批准通过。下面就是自然资源部关于土地征收成片开发标准的征求意见稿。

2020年10月22日 18:40 来源于 财新网征求意见稿提出,申请土地征收“成片开发”,要经过村民会议决策,获得三分之二以上成员或村民代表的同意

  【财新网】(记者 黄姝伦)自然资源部日前发布的《土地征收“成片开发”标准(试行)》(征求意见稿)提出,土地征收“成片开发”方案中,要依据国土空间规划,确定土地征收范围内基础设施、公共服务设施以及其他公益性用地比例,一般情况下不低于40%,各市县的具体比例,由省级政府视地区情况差异确定。

今日头条:桂从友大使就瑞典5G建设涉中方企业有关问题接受瑞典电视台专访

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)据中国驻瑞典大使馆网站,10月21日,桂从友大使就瑞典5G建设涉中方企业有关问题在使馆接受瑞典电视台新闻节目和《当前新闻》栏目专访。

  问:大使先生,您对瑞方禁止华为和中兴参加瑞典5G建设有何回应?

  桂大使:瑞方的这个决定是错误的。我们使馆发言人昨天已经发表谈话,今天中国外交部发言人也回答了有关提问。瑞典一向主张开放发展和自由竞争,瑞典经济成功发展也正得益于此。华为和中兴等中国企业在瑞典经营多年,一直严格遵守瑞典的法律法规,对瑞典相关基础设施建设和社会经济发展作出了重要贡献。华为、中兴与瑞典的爱立信等公司之间开展了良好合作和竞争,促进了相关领域的科技进步。瑞方的决定是滥用“国家安全”概念,动用行政手段和国家力量排斥、打压特定中方企业,违反了市场经济和自由竞争原则,我们对此表示强烈不满和坚决反对。希望瑞典政府尽快纠正错误做法,重新审视这一决定。

  问:瑞典邮政和电信管理局、安全部门、军方等有关部门都声称中国对瑞典安全造成威胁,包括对瑞典进行网络间谍活动等。他们的这些说法都是错误的吗?

  桂大使:我认为都是错误的。这些部门对中国对外政策缺乏基本了解,中国不对任何国家构成威胁。网络化是世界新趋势和新现象,中方同样是网络窃密等涉网络安全事件的受害者。在没有任何事实根据的前提下,无端指责中国对瑞典构成所谓的“威胁”,我们坚决反对。实际上中方一直是维护网络安全的贡献者。前不久中方提出《全球数据安全倡议》,就是要同世界各国合作共同维护网络和数字安全。我们希望瑞典政府同中方一道加入到共同维护网络安全的队伍中来,而不是无端指责中国。

  问:瑞典安全部门负责人称中国对瑞典进行间谍行为,这是华为和中兴不能参与瑞典5G建设的原因。他的说法错了吗?

  桂大使:当然是错的。我们坚决拒绝这样的无端指责。华为和中兴公司在瑞典经营20多年来,一直遵守瑞典的法律法规,没有做过任何违反瑞典法律法规的事。如果你感兴趣的话,可以问问瑞典这位安全部门负责人,问问所谓华为给瑞典造成“安全威胁”有没有事实根据,让事实说话。华为公司早就向瑞典政府提出,如果有担心,可以签署“无后门”协议。但现在瑞方既拿不出事实根据,又不愿跟华为签署“无后门”协议,就断然把华为等中方企业排除在瑞典5G建设之外,我们当然坚决反对。

  问:瑞典有关部门的看法与您的观点是很不同的。他们为什么会有这样的看法呢?如果他们的看法都不是真的,为什么要撒谎呢?

  桂大使:那你得问他们自己了。你可以问问他们为什么在拿不出任何事实根据的情况下排除华为和中兴?为什么不愿意同华为签署“无后门”协议?我们也正等着贵国军方和安全部门的回答。

  问:中方或者您本人同瑞典政府就此有过任何形式的讨论吗?

  桂大使:我们同瑞典政府、华为公司同瑞方合作伙伴都一直保持着密切沟通。首先,没有任何事实根据表明华为和中兴的设备有安全问题。瑞典军方和安全部门的决定是没有事实根据的,是无端的。其次,华为公司已经向全世界宣布,如果哪个国家担心安全问题,他们可以跟对方签署“无后门”协议。这方面的沟通一直非常顺畅。但瑞典军方和安全部门这个态度让人惊讶,也让瑞方合作伙伴感到惊讶。

  问:中国外交部发言人今天表示,如果瑞典不改变这一做法的话,瑞典和瑞典公司将会承担相应的后果,“相应的后果”具体指的是什么?

  桂大使:我们希望瑞典政府采取明智、正确的决定,避免给双方的务实合作和瑞典在华企业造成负面影响。瑞典有600多家企业在华长期生产经营,获得了良好的效益,他们都看好中国的市场发展前景。我们希望瑞典政府与中方相向而行,为瑞典企业在华经营提供有利的条件和环境。我们希望瑞方采取积极的态度,达到积极的结果。我们不希望瑞方采取消极的态度,导致消极的结果。

  问:我不是很明白您的回答,会有后果吗?

  桂大使:开放不可能是单方面的,市场开放应该是相互的。我们希望瑞方政府为中方企业合法经营提供自由开放、公平公正和非歧视性的环境。瑞典政府和企业都一直希望中方进一步开放市场,在相互开放的前提下,中方对他们开放的大门会越来越大。因此,我们希望瑞典政府尽快纠正错误决定,与中方相向而行,采取积极的态度,这样对大家都有好处。对大家没有好处的事我们都不要去做。

  问:如果瑞典政府不改变他们的决定,即华为和中兴无法参加瑞典的5G建设,会有后果吗?如果有消极结果的话,会对瑞典公司制裁吗?

  桂大使:我理解你的问题,但是我的回答还是希望看到瑞方积极的决定和积极结果。我们希望瑞典政府尽快纠正错误。如果瑞方在5G建设中将中方特定企业排除在外,那不可能没有后果。正如我刚才所说,市场开放应该是相互的。

  问:那么会有什么样的后果?

  桂大使:无疑会给中瑞双方的务实合作,以及瑞典在华企业的正常经营带来消极影响。我们希望瑞典政府能够清醒认识到这一点,立即纠正错误做法。

  问:那么您是指对瑞典在华公司进行制裁,或者是让瑞典公司在华经营变得更困难吗?

  桂大使:中方为包括瑞典在内的所有外国在华企业的合法经营提供了良好的环境和条件,也愿向包括瑞典企业在内的外国企业进一步开放市场。我们希望瑞典政府改变排斥中国企业参与5G建设的错误做法,避免给瑞典企业在华进一步发展带来消极影响。我明白你是从最坏的结果出发来提问题,但是我更愿意以积极的态度来回答你的问题,我们希望看到积极的结果。

  问:在我听来,您的回答还是像对瑞典政府发出的威胁,如果他们不改变做法的话就会有后果。那么您是在传递一个威胁吗?

  桂大使:我们不喜欢“威胁”,我们是在提希望。

  问:所以您想要给瑞典政府传达的信息是什么?

  桂大使:良好的愿望,就是希望瑞典政府采取积极的态度,改变错误的做法,就像中方允许瑞典企业参与中方5G建设竞标一样,也允许华为等中方企业参与瑞方5G建设竞标。

  也许我们俩对同一个事物的理解有所不同,比如我希望今天的天气能暖和一些,但是你不能将此理解为我对瑞典天气发出了威胁。我们从来都是从积极的角度来看待问题,以积极的态度来解决问题。我们希望瑞典政府改正错误的做法,是要向瑞典政府表达良好积极的愿望。

背景是瑞典邮电部门宣布瑞典5G项目将在11月10日进行拍卖。他们选择了四家瑞典运营商,Telia, Tele 2, Telenor 和Tre. 而且宣布如果已经安装华为和中兴的设备的尤其是无线电和频带等关键技术,将在2025年1月拆除。将来新的安装不再采用华为和中兴设备。

根据瑞典国防部和安全警察部的规定,其理由和评估标准如下:

以下是他们评判订货运营商的标准。


咨询机构将考虑以下条件:

•操作员或供应商受到影响/承受压力的可能性。 这种影响/压力可以通过但不限于存在来支持以下因素之一:

o耦合,即所有权,以及与政府或 第三国(非欧盟国家)的主管部门。

o第三国立法,尤其是在法律或民主原则下 丢失或无法应用安全性或数据保护协议的地方。

o与进攻性国家或组织的链接 针对瑞典的网络操作或其他对抗活动。

o第三国施加压力的其他机会,包括生产资产的地理位置。

 •供应商确保交付关键产品的能力

今日头条:瑞典对中国的应对气候变化承诺表示欢迎

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 瑞典外交部国务秘书克里斯特松.尼尔森19日在出席中瑞可持续交通视频会议致辞时表示,中国的节能减排应对气候变化政策非常全面,听到中国宣布2060年实现碳中和的目标,瑞典对此表示欢迎。

尼尔森说,瑞典和欧盟也都期待着和中国一道探索如何合作共同应对气候变化。从这个角度讲,本次可持续交通会议开得非常及时。节能减排的关键要看交通部门,交通问题也是联合国2030年议程的大问题。中国致力于为联合国制定的计划而努力。那么瑞典的目标是在2045年实现碳中和。要实现这样的目标,就必须使用电动车,电池车,必须更新和改进软件,通过政府采购的方式推动市场的发展。这是瑞典政府支持公司发展的方式。

他相信中瑞专家们一定会找到更好的合作方法和合作机会。

特格内尔:瑞典新冠局势比以往更糟 再遇高峰

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)–关于新冠问题,最好是警钟长鸣,切不可大意。瑞典本来已经在死亡人数方面创了世界第一。二波来临时,有人胡乱报道瑞典群体免疫成功了,西班牙,意大利,尤其是英国比利时大幅增加时,瑞典还没到。不是没到,是时候没到。事实是,新冠感染可能卷土重来。会越来越严重。

瑞典公共卫生局负责人特格内尔表示,他又没有想到。

“在瑞典,我们曾经认为情况较其他国家略微缓和。不幸的是,我们目前遭遇了同样困难。瑞典的局势比以往更糟,感染的传播再次处于高峰。重症监护病房的患者数量每周都有一定的增长,尽管各地区情况有差异,但绝对没有高负荷运转。死亡人数也保持在非常低的水平。保持追踪很重要,这样瑞典才不会陷入其他国家的困境。”

他说,瑞典的大部分地区都在向不利的方向发展,所以必须要认真对待。目前乌普萨拉最严重,一周感染400多人。公共部门建议民众应该避免安排和参加聚会,要真的保持社交距离,尽可能不使用公共交通。这里的要求比一般要求严格一些,那就是不要和人见面。不要面对面的接触。

他给出建议,不要有大型私人聚会,例如生日聚会,最好在野外举行,或者就取消。如果坐的和平时一样,感染的机率太大。不要到餐馆聚餐。 要与家人或熟识的人在一起。商店不应该让更多的顾客进入。要有清晰的标志。

专家们也提醒夜生活遇到人较多,也无法保持社交距离,因此感染机率也会大大增加。

昨天,与一位瑞典朋友聊天,她说她5,6月份感染了新冠。真的非常难受,彷佛病毒要袭击每个细胞。她是在朋友生日聚会的时候感染的。

因此,最好不要搞聚会。可以出去锻炼身体,戴口罩。人多的地方一定要戴口罩。虽然瑞典一直不建议,但是,现在市场也都有卖口罩的了。同仁堂药店也有防新冠的药方,或者是如果感染了,到那里买药,也有现成配好方的药,可以邮寄。因此,大家不要担心,只要认真对待,勤洗手,多锻炼,好好休息,不熬夜。天越来越黑,越来越湿,温度越来越低都对新冠病毒传播有利,对人的健康没利,因此,大家一定要趋利避害,养精蓄锐。

驻瑞典使馆发言人就瑞典5G建设涉中方企业发表谈话

北欧绿色邮报网报道:中国驻瑞典使馆发言人今天就瑞典5G建设涉中方企业发表谈话。谈话指出,一段时间以来,瑞典有些人炒作有关华为和中兴等中方企业的设备构成所谓“国家安全威胁”的论调,但拿不出任何真凭实据。多年来,华为和中兴等中方企业积极促进中瑞信息与通讯技术合作,为瑞典相关基础设施建设作出了积极贡献,从来也没有对瑞典的国家安全有过什么“威胁”。

  我们坚决反对滥用“国家安全”概念,在没有任何事实根据和确凿证据的情况下,违背市场规律和公平竞争原则,排斥特定国家的特定企业,以“莫须有”罪名打压中方企业,人为阻隔合作。

  我们敦促瑞典政府遵循开放发展和公平竞争的市场原则,重新审视相关决定,向中方企业提供开放、公正、公平、非歧视性的营商环境,以维护相互开放大局。

Chinese Embassy Spokesperson against abuse of national security concept against Chinese enterprises

Chinese Embassy spokesperson published a news today urged Swedish government to abide by market principle of open and fair competition and review the relevant resolution on Chinese enterprises.

The spokesperson said some Swedish people cooked up the opinion about Huawei’s 5G technology. The so-called threat to national security is based on no evidence. Over the past years, Huawei and ZTE have actively cooperated with Swedish counterparts and contributed to Swedish relevant infrastructure construction without any threat to Swedish national security.

China resolutely opposed the abuse of national security and use that as a pretext to put pressure on Chinese enterprises. This action is against the market economy principle. China hopes that Sweden should not discriminate Chinese enterprises and continues to be open to Chinese enterprises.

南孔圣地 衢州有意思~ | An In-depth Tour in Quzhou, Zhejiang Province

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 今天我们要带小伙伴们领略一座高颜值的城市——浙江西部的古城衢州!她位于钱塘江源头、浙闽赣皖四省边际,市域面积8844平方公里,辖柯城、衢江2个区,龙游、常山、开化3个县和江山市。她可是一座让你一见倾心、再见倾情的城市哦。不信?一起来瞧瞧~Today, we are about to take you to a beautiful city – the ancient city of Quzhou in the west of Zhejiang province. It is located in the upper reaches of the Qiantangjiang River, adjoining Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces, covering an area of 8844 km² and governing Kecheng and Qujiang districts, Longyou, Changshan and Kaihua counties and Jiangshan city. Quzhou is quite a metropolitan that you would love at first sight. Sounds improbable? Let’s have a look ~

 可颜可甜 

 Diverse Nature 
衢州因山得名、因水而兴,仙霞岭山脉、怀玉山脉、千里岗山脉将衢州三面合抱,常山江、江山江、乌溪江等九条江在城中汇聚一体。

Quzhou is named after the surrounding mountain and flourishes because of the waters. Xianxialing Mountains, Huaiyu Mountains and Qianligang Mountains encircle the city in which nine rivers, including Changshan River, Jiangshan River and Wuxi River, converge.

六春湖 Liuchun Lake

全市森林覆盖率71.5%,人均公园绿地面积15.2平方米,是浙江的重要生态屏障、国家级生态示范区、国家园林城市、国家森林城市,2018年12月获联合国“国际花园城市”称号。
With a forest coverage rate of 71.5% and per capita green space of 15.2 ㎡, Quzhou is an important ecological barrier, a national eco-demonstration zone, a national garden and forest city in Zhejiang province. It was honored as “International Garden City” by the United Nations in December 2018.

鹿鸣山公园 Lumingshan Park

根宫佛国 The Root Palace Buddhist Culture Tourism Zone

根宫佛国 The Root Palace Buddhist Culture Tourism Zone江郎山是浙江第一个世界自然遗产,钱江源国家公园是华东地区唯一的国家公园体制试点,龙游姜席堰与都江堰、灵渠等一同跻身世界灌溉工程遗产名录。
Mount Jianglang is the first world natural heritage in Zhejiang province inscribed on the World Heritage List as part of China Danxia; Qianjiangyuan National Forest Park is the only pilot national park in East China; Jiangxiyan Irrigation System was added to World Heritage Irrigation Structures list along with Dujiangyan Irrigation System and Lingqu Canal, etc.

夕照江郎山 Sunset at Mount Jianglang / 郭红营 Guo Hongying

江郎山 Mount Jianglang

天脊龙门 Tianji Dragon Gate

张西石拱桥 Stone Arch Bridge in Zhangxi Village

廿八都 Nianbadu Ancient Town

石梁溪司马堰 Sima Weir in Shiliang Stream

桃源七里  Taoyuanqili Sceneic Area 

 内涵丰富 Profound Culture 

衢州城始建于东汉初平三年(192),有六千多年的文明史、一千八百多年的建城史,1994年被命名为国家历史文化名城,文脉绵延流长。

Quzhou municipality was built in the third year of Chuping era under the reign of Emperor Xian of Eastern Han dynasty (192 A.D.) with over 6000-year history of civilization. In 1994, it was named the national historical and cultural city for its profound cultural legacy.

南孔祭典 Commemoration of Confucius
“天不生仲尼,万古如长夜”。孔子家庙“普天下唯二焉”,一在山东曲阜,一在浙江衢州。每年9月28日,千余名海内外儒学专家、孔子学院代表等汇聚一堂,在衢州孔氏南宗家庙的大成殿前,纪念中国古代伟大思想家、教育家和儒家学派创始人、世界著名文化名人孔子诞辰。
“Without Confucius, all ages would have been in the dark”. There are only two family temples of Confucius in the world, one in Qufu, Shandong province, and the other in Quzhou, Zhejiang province. On September 28, more than 1000 scholars of Confucianism and representatives of the Confucius Institute at home and abroad engage in annual gathering in front of Dacheng Hall of Confucius’s family temple in Quzhou to commemorate the birth of the great philosopher, educator, founder of Confucianism and a world-famous cultural icon.

孔氏南宗家庙 Family Temple of Confucius in Quzhou“飞雪连天射白鹿,笑书神侠倚碧鸳”。1941年,金庸从嘉兴转入衢州中学(现衢州一中),度过了他难忘的高中时代。《一事能狂便少年》《人比黄花瘦》是金庸在衢州一中读高二时发表的,也是他一生最早公开面世的作品。
Chinese wuxia novelist Jin Yong was transferred to Quzhou Middle School (currently Quzhou No.1 Middle School) in 1941. His first works were published during his sophomore year in the school.

2004年10月27日 金庸先生应邀回到母校衢州一中 Mr. Jin Yong was invited to visit Quzhou No.1 Middle School on October 27, 2004

针圣杨继洲,浙江三衢(今衢州市衢江区廿里镇六都杨村)人,明代著名针灸学家。其所撰著的《针灸大成》,堪为我国古代针灸医学的集大成者,被国内外医界尊为针灸经典。该书自公元1601年问世以来,被译成7种文字,79个版本,传播到180多个国家和地区,意义重大,影响深远。

Yang Jizhou, a native of Sanqu (present-day Liuduyang Village, Quzhou, Zhejiang), was a renowned acupuncturist of the Ming dynasty. His work The Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion has been translated into 7 languages and introduced to over 180 countries and regions in 79 versions since its publication in 1601.

《针灸大成》  The Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion

衢州还是围棋文化发源地,早在东晋时期就有樵夫王质在烂柯山遇神仙下围棋的故事,这是中国围棋起源最早的文字记载,烂柯山也被誉为“围棋仙地”。

Quzhou is also the birthplace of weiqi (the game of go) culture. Story about a woodman Wang Zhi playing weiqi in Lanke Mountain with immortals was told as early as the Eastern Jin dynasty (317 – 420), the earliest written record of weiqi in China. Lanke Mountain was subsequently known as “the immortal land of weiqi”.

衢州烂柯山 Lanke Mountain / 陈笑贞 Chen Xiaozhen

 开放大气  Full Openness 

衢州南接福建南平,西连江西上饶、景德镇,北邻安徽黄山,东与省内金华、丽水、杭州三市相交,境内航空、铁路、公路、水运齐全,历来是浙闽赣皖四省边际交通枢纽和物资集散地,素有“四省通衢、五路总头”之称。

Quzhou is adjacent to Nanping of Fujian province in the south, Shangrao and Jingdezhen of Jiangxi province in the west, Mount Huangshan of Anhui province in the north, and Jinhua, Lishui and Hangzhou in the east. With complete systems of air, railway, highway and water transport, Quzhou has long been the transport hub and distribution center of Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi and Anhui provinces, known as “the junction of four provinces and five transports”.

沿江公路 River highway

礼贤桥 Lixian Bridge

 Dynamic City 老衢州们都说,“不识水亭门,枉为衢州人。”自2016年9月修缮后重新开街以来,水亭门历史文化街区面貌焕然一新,年轻、时尚、活力。

Quzhou locals say that if you don’t know Shuiting Gate, you are hardly a local. Shuiting Gate Historical and Cultural Block was reopened to public after renovation in September 2016 to present a young, fashionable and energetic city landscape.

水亭门历史文化街区 Shuiting Gate Historical and Cultural Block

水亭门 Shuiting Gate一座巽峰塔,一条杜泽老街,一段衢州北的乡愁。2019年,诞生于清朝的衢江区杜泽老街改造一新后隆重开街,一时熙熙攘攘、车水马龙,成为衢州的新晋“网红”。

Xunfeng Tower and Duze Old Street mark the nostalgic sentiments in north Quzhou. In 2019, Duze Old Street in Qujiang District dating back to the Qing dynasty was grandly opened after renovation, attracting numerous visitors as the new Internet-famous site.

杜泽老街 Duze Old Street

信安阁 Xin’an Tower衢州——远山近水、青山绿水,水城交融、蓝绿交织,古城新市、交相辉映,产城人文、融合发展的历史之城、现代之城、未来之城。

Quzhou – a city of history, modernity and future, where green mountains lie and lucid rivers flow, where integrated industrial and cultural development is realized.

龙天红木小镇 Longtian Rosewood Town

 口舌添香  Savory Cuisine 
烤饼、麻糍、葱花馒头、水晶糕、搁袋饼、开化青蛳、常山贡面、龙游发糕、江山铜锣糕、双桥粉干、北乡汤圆……城市的味道,让你回味悠长。

Baked pancake, sesame glutinous rice pudding, steamed bread with scallion, crystal cake, pocket pancake, Kaihua river snail, Changshan tribute noodles, Longyou steamed sponge cake, Jiangshan gong cake, Shuangqiao rice noodles, Beixiang sweet dumplings …… It’s never too late to savor the taste of the city.

红糖麻糍 Sesame glutinous rice pudding with brown sugar

山粉肉圆 Starchy meat ball

汤瓶鸡 Pottery stewed chicken

廿八都豆腐 Nianbadu tofu

气糕 Steamed cake

葱花馒头 Steamed bread with scallion

青蛳 River snail

漂丸 Fish meat ball soup

苏庄炊粉 Suzhuang steamed meat and vegetables俗话有说:一座衢州城,半城烤饼香。衢州烤饼分为小烤饼和大烤饼,馅主要有葱花、猪肉、梅干菜,也可以加别的馅,但最好吃的还是梅干菜馅。热乎乎的小烤饼,咬一口,满嘴香脆~

As the saying goes, the aroma of baked pancake fills half of Quzhou city. Quzhou baked pancakes are divided into small pancakes and large pancakes with scallion, pork, salted vegetable and other fillings. Salted vegetable filling is the most recommended – one bite of the hot pancake gives you a mouthful of rich flavor and crispy enjoyment~

衢州烤饼 Quzhou baked pancake

杜泽空心饼 Duze hollow pancake

可颜可甜、内涵丰富、开放大气、活力满满……衢州的气质远远不止这些,还想要继续了解衢州的小伙伴可前往这座千年古城亲身体验一番,有礼之城静待你的光临。

Diverse nature, profound culture, full openness and dynamic city …… Quzhou always offers more. If you want to know more about this thousand-year-old city, you are more than welcome to pay a visit. The city of courteousness awaits your presence.

智慧新城 Smart new city

智慧新城大草原 Great lawn of smart new city

资料来源 Sources:

衢州城市品牌打造专班

浙江省文化和旅游厅


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今日头条:中瑞可持续交通合作视频会议圆满结束

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 中瑞可持续交通合作视频会议19日圆满结束。中国驻瑞典大使馆经商处韩晓东参赞和瑞典环境学院副院长厄斯腾全程出席会议。

中国驻瑞典大使桂从友阁下在10月15日的开幕式上致辞对大会表示祝贺。

今天,瑞典外交部国务秘书克里斯特松.尼尔森也在开头致辞,对中瑞合作给予祝贺。对中瑞合作前景进行了展望。

中国智能交通协会理事长李朝晨做了主旨演讲,介绍了中国近年来在智能交通和节能减排方面的巨大努力和取得的巨大进步。中国目前已经是世界上最大的温室气体排放国家,中国国家主席习近平承诺中国将在2060年实现碳中和。这无疑对14亿人口的中国是一个巨大的挑战。

但是,可喜的是中国已经在组织上实现了各个有关部委的协同行动,从上到下各个组织都在努力,因此,中国一定会实现自己的承诺。

会上,中瑞双方专家都展示了自己的特殊领域的能力,例如,沃尔沃卡车,斯堪尼亚大卡车,Evias的电动化公路等给人留下深刻印象,中国如皋市的沼气项目,中瑞道路安全研究项目等的介绍都给人留下深刻印象。

本次研讨会上主要从两国政府和行业领导者那里了解有关运输行业转型升级的计划,让双方即去企业间合作,政企合作的先进经验。要实现气候目标,中瑞继续加强交通领域合作势在必行。

哥德堡市政府交通和车辆负责人介绍了哥德堡市和中国的合作情况。

最后的圆桌会议,与会专家表示,今后的合作前景非常广阔,因为现在瑞典的研发技术都很不错,中国有需求,有市场,有愿望,因此,双方合作一定会晋升新台阶。

敬请关注北欧绿色邮报网,将有现场视频回放和更详细报道。

桂从友大使在第四届中瑞智慧城市合作大会线上致辞

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)中国驻瑞典大使桂从友10月15日在第四届中瑞智慧城市合作视频研讨会上致辞。

他说,中瑞智慧城市合作大会以绿色合作为主题,聚焦新型城市发展,自2015年起已经成功举办了3届,成为中瑞两国共享发展机遇的重要平台。今年的大会以未来城市设计规划和可持续交通合作为主题,通过开放性的网络平台,展示和研讨中瑞在应对气候变化方面的政策、合作项目和科技成果,探索未来中瑞智慧城市合作的新机遇。相信本届会议的召开必将进一步推动和促进中瑞绿色发展合作。

  “今年以来,中瑞贸易和投资合作受疫情影响出现一定下滑。1至7月双边贸易额99.6亿美元,同比下降6.2%。其中中方对瑞出口46.3亿美元,下降10.6%,自瑞进口53.3亿美元,下降2%。但这些降幅均低于中欧平均水平,而且近几个月双边贸易额降幅不断收窄。1-7月瑞典对华直接投资1.2亿美元,同比下降54.2%;中国对瑞投资3.2亿美元,同比下降7.4%。疫情暴发以来,我们使馆与瑞典工商界一直保持着密切沟通,了解到很多瑞典企业坚定看好中国市场,在华经营业绩良好,坚信我们两国贸易和投资很快将恢复双增长。”

  在扩大双方务实合作方面,这次召开以绿色合作为主题的智慧城市合作大会恰逢其时。正如大家所知,气候变化是国际社会面临的一个重大挑战,需要各国携手应对。习近平主席不久前在联合国大会上郑重宣布,中国将提高“国家自主贡献”力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。

  中方基于国内可持续发展内在要求和构建人类命运共同体的责任担当,对自身气候环境政策做出重大宣示,彰显了中方积极应对气候变化、走绿色低碳发展道路的坚定决心。中方将以绿色、低碳、可持续作为推进当前经济恢复、未来高质量发展的指导思想,加强应对气候变化、推进生态文明建设的战略定力绝不动摇。这也凸显了中方对多边主义的坚定支持。习近平主席的积极宣示为推进全球气候治理和《巴黎协定》实施贡献了中国力量,为应对气候变化多边进程注入正能量,有力提振了国际社会应对气候变化合作的信心,是中方构建人类命运共同体理念的又一次生动体现。中方此次宣示既顺应了全球加强气候行动、加速低碳发展的潮流,更展现了中方坚定支持《巴黎协定》履约,推动全球气候治理与各方共建清洁美丽世界的负责任大国担当。

桂大使也指出了在转型升级方面中国遇到的挑战。他说,中国是世界最大的发展中国家和排放大国,发展不平衡问题突出,实现产业转型升级和绿色低碳发展的任务十分艰巨。根据应对气候变化中长期目标和愿景,中方将在2030年前达到排放峰值后,用30年左右的时间由峰值过渡至碳中和。这个时限比许多发达国家承诺的目标短了将近一半,实现的难度可想而知,必须付出辛苦的努力才能完成。中方将采取有力举措践行这一承诺,推动发展方式和生活方式的“绿色革命”,建设“绿色中国”,实现疫情后世界的“绿色复苏”,在发展进程中呵护好人类的共同家园。

  瑞典早在上世纪70年代就提出了可持续发展理念,并积极行动减少温室气体排放。乌普萨拉的垃圾处理中心、哈马碧的智慧城市、韦斯特罗斯的太阳能板阵、克里斯蒂安斯塔德的环保农牧业都是瑞典践行可持续发展理念的例证。中瑞两国在绿色可持续发展方面合作潜力巨大。希望双方以这次召开智慧城市合作大会为契机,积极拓展在全球气候治理、绿色低碳、智慧城市、环境保护及相关科技创新等方面的交流合作,共同为我们两国的可持续发展、为全人类可持续发展贡献力量。

他预祝大会取得圆满成功!

本次大会将在周一10月19日继续进行一次。

桂从友大使同瑞典环境部国务秘书就共同应对气候变化和可持续发展合作交换意见

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)9月30日,桂从友大使同瑞典环境部国务秘书斯韦德令、瑞典气候大使弗洛梅里等视频连线,就共同应对气候变化和可持续发展合作交换意见。

  桂大使表示,9月22日,中国国家主席习近平在出席联合国成立75周年高级别会议上宣布,中国将提高“国家自主贡献”力度,采取更加有力的政策和措施,二氧化碳排放力争于2030年前达到峰值,努力争取2060年前实现碳中和。中方将采取有力举措践行这一承诺,推动发展方式和生活方式的“绿色革命”,建设“绿色中国”,并推动实现疫情后世界经济的“绿色复苏”,在发展进程中呵护好人类的共同家园。

  桂大使表示,瑞典早在上世纪70年代就提出了可持续发展理念,并积极行动减少温室气体排放。中方坚定推动绿色低碳发展,致力于在力所能及范围内做到最好。中瑞两国在应对气候变化、推动绿色可持续发展方面合作潜力巨大。中方愿同瑞方一道,积极推动双方科学界、企业界和地方之间加强相关领域合作,共同维护和推动气候变化的多边治理进程,为推动全球绿色低碳可持续发展作贡献。

  斯韦德令表示,瑞方欢迎中方关于减排中长期目标的宣示,赞赏中方坚定支持多边主义、积极开展国际减排合作,愿同中方加强相关合作,推动全球实现可持续发展。

  双方还就具体合作事宜交换了意见。

来自中国驻瑞典使馆网站

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2020 was awarded jointly to Paul R. Milgrom and Robert B. Wilson “for improvements to auction theory and inventions of new auction formats.”

This year’s Laureates, Paul Milgrom and Robert Wilson, have studied how auctions work. They have also used their insights to design new auction formats for goods and services that are difficult to sell in a traditional way, such as radio frequencies. Their discoveries have benefitted sellers, buyers and taxpayers around the world.

People have always sold things to the highest bidder, or bought them from whoever makes the cheapest offer. Nowadays, objects worth astronomical sums of money change hands every day in auctions, not only household objects, art and antiquities, but also securities, minerals and energy. Public procurements can also be conducted as auctions.

Using auction theory, researchers try to understand the outcomes of different rules for bidding and final prices, the auction format. The analysis is difficult, because bidders behave strategically, based on the available information. They take into consideration both what they know themselves and what they believe other bidders to know.

Robert Wilson developed the theory for auctions of objects with a common value – a value which is uncertain beforehand but, in the end, is the same for everyone. Examples include the future value of radio frequencies or the volume of minerals in a particular area. Wilson showed why rational bidders tend to place bids below their own best estimate of the common value: they are worried about the winner’s curse – that is, about paying too much and losing out.

Paul Milgrom formulated a more general theory of auctions that not only allows common values, but also private values that vary from bidder to bidder. He analysed the bidding strategies in a number of well-known auction formats, demonstrating that a format will give the seller higher expected revenue when bidders learn more about each other’s estimated values during bidding.

Over time, societies have allocated ever more complex objects among users, such as landing slots and radio frequencies. In response, Milgrom and Wilson invented new formats for auctioning off many interrelated objects simultaneously, on behalf of a seller motivated by broad societal benefit rather than maximal revenue. In 1994, the US authorities first used one of their auction formats to sell radio frequencies to telecom operators. Since then, many other countries have followed suit.

“This year’s Laureates in Economic Sciences started out with fundamental theory and later used their results in practical applications, which have spread globally. Their discoveries are of great benefit to society,” says Peter Fredriksson, chair of the Prize Committee.

Illustrations

The illustrations are free to use for non-commercial purposes. Attribute ”© Johan Jarnestad/The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences”

Paul R. Milgrom, born 1948 in Detroit, USA.
Ph.D. 1979 from Stanford University, Stanford, USA. Shirley and Leonard Ely Jr. Professor of Humanities and Sciences, Stanford University, USA.

Robert B. Wilson, born 1937 in Geneva, USA.
D.B.A. 1963 from Harvard University, Cambridge, USA. Adams Distinguished Professor of Management, Emeritus, Stanford University, USA.

The Prize amount: 10 million Swedish kronor, to be shared equally between the Laureates.


The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, founded in 1739, is an independent organisation whose overall objective is to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy takes special responsibility for the natural sciences and mathematics, but endeavours to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines.

习近平:深刻认识推进量子科技发展重大意义加强量子科技发展战略谋划和系统布局

北欧绿色邮报网援引新华社北京10月17日电 中共中央政治局10月16日下午就量子科技研究和应用前景举行第二十四次集体学习。中共中央总书记习近平在主持学习时强调,当今世界正经历百年未有之大变局,科技创新是其中一个关键变量。我们要于危机中育先机、于变局中开新局,必须向科技创新要答案。要充分认识推动量子科技发展的重要性和紧迫性,加强量子科技发展战略谋划和系统布局,把握大趋势,下好先手棋。

  清华大学副校长、中国科学院院士薛其坤就这个问题进行了讲解,提出了意见和建议。

  习近平在主持学习时发表了讲话。他指出,近年来,量子科技发展突飞猛进,成为新一轮科技革命和产业变革的前沿领域。加快发展量子科技,对促进高质量发展、保障国家安全具有非常重要的作用。安排这次集体学习,目的是了解世界量子科技发展态势,分析我国量子科技发展形势,更好推进我国量子科技发展。

  习近平强调,量子力学是人类探究微观世界的重大成果。量子科技发展具有重大科学意义和战略价值,是一项对传统技术体系产生冲击、进行重构的重大颠覆性技术创新,将引领新一轮科技革命和产业变革方向。我国科技工作者在量子科技上奋起直追,取得一批具有国际影响力的重大创新成果。总体上看,我国已经具备了在量子科技领域的科技实力和创新能力。同时,也要看到,我国量子科技发展存在不少短板,发展面临多重挑战。我们必须坚定不移走自主创新道路,坚定信心、埋头苦干,突破关键核心技术,努力在关键领域实现自主可控,保障产业链供应链安全,增强我国科技应对国际风险挑战的能力。

  习近平指出,要系统总结我国量子科技发展的成功经验,借鉴国外的有益做法,深入分析研判量子科技发展大势,找准我国量子科技发展的切入点和突破口,统筹基础研究、前沿技术、工程技术研发,培育量子通信等战略性新兴产业,抢占量子科技国际竞争制高点,构筑发展新优势。

  习近平强调,要加强顶层设计和前瞻布局。要加强战略研判,坚持创新自信,敢啃硬骨头,在组织实施长周期重大项目中加强顶层设计和前瞻布局,加强多学科交叉融合和多技术领域集成创新,形成我国量子科技发展的体系化能力。

  习近平指出,要健全政策支持体系。要加快营造推进量子科技发展的良好政策环境,形成更加有力的政策支持。要保证对量子科技领域的资金投入,同时带动地方、企业、社会加大投入力度。要加大对科研机构和高校对量子科技基础研究的投入,加强国家战略科技力量统筹建设,完善科研管理和组织机制。

  习近平强调,要加快基础研究突破和关键核心技术攻关。量子科技发展取决于基础理论研究的突破,颠覆性技术的形成是个厚积薄发的过程。要统筹量子科技领域人才、基地、项目,实现全要素一体化配置,加快推进量子科技重大项目实施。要加大关键核心技术攻关,不畏艰难险阻,勇攀科学高峰,在量子科技领域再取得一批高水平原创成果。

  习近平指出,要培养造就高水平人才队伍。重大发明创造、颠覆性技术创新关键在人才。要加快量子科技领域人才培养力度,加快培养一批量子科技领域的高精尖人才,建立适应量子科技发展的专门培养计划,打造体系化、高层次量子科技人才培养平台。要围绕量子科技前沿方向,加强相关学科和课程体系建设,造就一批能够把握世界科技大势、善于统筹协调的世界级科学家和领军人才,发现一批创新思维活跃、敢闯“无人区”的青年才俊和顶尖人才。要建立以信任为前提的顶尖科学家负责制,给他们充分的人财物自主权和技术路线决定权,鼓励优秀青年人才勇挑重担。要用好人才评价这个“指挥棒”,完善科技人员绩效考核评价机制,把科研人员创造性活动从不合理的经费管理、人才评价等体制中解放出来,营造有利于激发科技人才创新的生态系统。

  习近平强调,要促进产学研协同创新。要提高量子科技理论研究成果向实用化、工程化转化的速度和效率,积极吸纳企业参与量子科技发展,引导更多高校、科研院所积极开展量子科技基础研究和应用研发,促进产学研深度融合和协同创新。要加强量子科技领域国际合作,提升量子科技领域国际合作的层次和水平。

  习近平指出,各级党委和政府要高度重视科技创新发展,学习新知识,掌握新动态,做好重大科技任务布局规划,优化科技资源配置,采取得力措施保证党中央关于科技创新发展重大决策部署落地见效。要发挥宏观指导、统筹协调、服务保障作用,充分调动各方面积极性、主动性、创造性,有力推动重大科技任务攻关,为抢占科技发展国际竞争制高点、构筑发展新优势提供有力支持。【编辑:陈雪霏】

中国焦点面对面:人民币大幅升值,怎么看、怎么办?

 北欧绿色邮报网援引中新社北京10月17日电 题:人民币大幅升值,怎么看、怎么办?

  ——专访中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲

  作者 李金磊 彭婧如 程春雨

  近期,人民币持续快速升值,引发各方关注。在全球疫情持续的大背景下,人民币大幅升值的原因是什么?会对中国经济、金融市场和民众产生哪些影响?未来走势又将如何?

中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲接受<a target='_blank' rel=

中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲接受中新社“中国焦点面对面”专访,解析近期人民币大幅升值。 中新社记者 张兴龙 摄

  中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲接受中新社“中国焦点面对面”专访,对此进行权威解读。

  访谈实录如下:

  中新社记者:在刚刚过去的三季度,在岸人民币对美元涨幅达到3.89%,为2008年一季度来最大单季涨幅。本轮人民币升值从何时开始?

  谭雅玲:2005年“汇改”以来,人民币对美元走势是“前9后7”。“前9”是一个升值的周期,从2005年7月21日“汇改”起步的8.11元,一直到2013年1月份涨到了6.03元,升值幅度接近40%。人民币在这个阶段是直线升值,区间波动非常狭窄,单边升值非常明显。

  “后7”是从2014年至今,是在贬值的通道当中,最极端的是在2019年9月份走到了7.18元,今年5月份走到了7.17元,整体累加起来的贬值幅度在20%到25%之间。相对于升值的周期,它的修复性并没有完全达到均衡。

  人民币这一轮升值从6月份开始,到现在并没有截止,周期算比较长了。从这个角度看,整个国际经贸关系包括地缘政治,在外汇板块、货币竞争之间还是有很强的针对性和设计性的。

  中新社记者:2019年8月人民币汇率跌破“7”,但如今人民币对美元汇率中间价已经涨到了6.71关口。在新冠肺炎疫情冲击之下,本轮人民币升值的内在原因有哪些?

  谭雅玲:人民币升值的原因,第一就是中国经济向好。中国经济是现在唯一正增长的主要经济体,人们对人民币信心增强,是货币升值非常重要的一个要素。

  第二是跟中国的改革开放有比较重要的关系,尤其是证券市场和债券市场的开放速度比较快,规模和效果相对比较好,引起国际投资者的关注。而且,中美之间、中国和其他发达国家之间存在着巨大的利差和汇差缺口。如,美国十年期国债收益率大概在0.6%-0.7%,中国十年期国债收益率是在3.2%-3.3%。由于中国经济率先复苏,经济稳定、复工复产的态势比较好,再加上中国金融市场加速开放,所以国际资本在投机、对冲和套利方面比较青睐中国市场,这种叠加效应就促使了资金涌入中国市场。

  第三是跟海外市场有特别重要的关系。人民币汇率报价机制决定了海外参数非常重要,不排除海外有借题发挥的刻意性,借助中国比较良好的势头和开放的效果,主观上刻意推高人民币的嫌疑,应该引起高度关注。

10月16日,中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲在北京接受<a target='_blank' rel=

10月16日,中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲在北京接受中新社“中国焦点面对面”专访,对此进行权威解读。 中新社记者 张兴龙 摄

  中新社记者:三季度中国出口创下了季度历史新高,人民币升值会不会对中国现在良好的出口势头造成一定的影响?

  谭雅玲:中国出口指标相对比较好,与政策扶持、整个海外疫情的舒缓以及中国在世界贸易当中的地位和影响有特别重要的关系,但目前人民币升值,外贸企业承受的压力是非常大的。

  中国央行在今年国庆假期后的第一个周末决定,远期售汇业务的外汇风险准备金率从20%下调为0。这个调整特别及时,对整个汇率市场产生了特别大的影响,人民币从6.7元的关口又回到了6.7元以下的水平。

  因为6.7元再往上升的话,6.6元、6.5元、6.4元的汇率是不适合中国的,因为外贸企业的成本线,国企可能是6.7元、6.8元,中小企业可能是7元、7.02元,特别是外贸企业可能还是偏7元钱以下的水平。

  中新社记者:现在有大量的海外资金流入中国,有没有可能增加国内资产泡沫的压力?

  谭雅玲:这个可能性是存在的。人民币存在利差和汇差,中国市场本身的庞大和政策的可信度,再加上经济的可持续性,对外资来讲已经形成了非常好的认知,资金的投机是不可避免的,这个时候中国更应该警惕。

10月16日,中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲在北京接受<a target='_blank' rel=

10月16日,中国外汇投资研究院院长、首席经济学家谭雅玲在北京接受中新社“中国焦点面对面”专访,对此进行权威解读。 中新社记者 张兴龙 摄

  因为中国现有的金融市场结构、机制、效率、技术,还是存在很多不足,证券市场在逐渐开放,注册制也在紧锣密鼓推进,制度层面和结构层面的国际标准化和市场制度规则的准确度,还在进一步提升和加强过程当中,难免会有一些欠缺。如,中国并没有完整的外汇市场,依然是银行间的外汇市场,而海外的市场完全是自由化的市场,所以无论交易的经验、技术、规模还是影响力,中国处在被动的状态。所以防范相关风险对未来的中国经济而言特别重要。

  中新社记者:楼市和股市一头连着金融安全,一头连着老百姓,人民币升值会不会导致房价上行?对未来的股市走势又有什么影响?

  谭雅玲:人民币升值是否会导致房价上行,这个不必担忧。

  任何一个国家的强大都不是靠房地产,期待房地产上涨能够带动中国经济,不符合经济逻辑。过去中国房地产发展有点过度了,银行贷款等金融产品跟房地产连在一块的偏多,增加了很多的隐患。现在中央对房地产调控基调是“房子是用来住的,不是用来炒的”,非常坚定,对房地产是在进行微调和渐进的调整当中,这种共识基本上已经达成。“用房子来发家致富”的论点现在已经基本上去除了,实际上,有投资房子的人也在做这方面的准备和应对。

  人民币升值是不是一定会刺激股市?这一点大家都看得很清楚,这一轮人民币升值并没有刺激中国股市,中国股市还是在一定的区间内迂回,所以它们之间并没有直接的关系,因为汇率是对外关系的价格权衡,而股市是对内资产和经济基本面或者企业发展的一个基本体现,这两个的侧重完全不一样。

  中新社记者:最近“人民币是否已经进入升值新周期”的讨论很多,有国际投行预测人民币未来12个月还将大幅升值,可能升值到6.5,您如何看待人民币汇率的中长期走势?

  谭雅玲:中长期走势现在不太好判断。第一,美国大选没有落地。第二,中美贸易还处在不确定的状态。第三,疫情给中国经济、世界经济带来的结果是不确定的。虽然国际货币基金组织最新预测是向好的,但是伴随冬季的来临,疫情反复的可能性还是比较大,这一波疫情会对整个经济贸易产生多大的影响,目前还不确定。

山西省太原市一银行工作人员清点货币。(资料图) <a target='_blank' rel=

山西省太原市一银行工作人员清点货币。(资料图) 中新社记者 张云 摄

  人民币对美元汇率在6.7以下的水平波动应该是一个常态,至于能否回到7,是有可能的。因为最简单的一个逻辑:大涨就会大跌。这个技术逻辑是没有办法改变的。6月份开始,人民币的升值到现在并没有停歇,也面临着贬值的修复性,它要化解一定的风险,人民币可能向6.8、6.9偏贬值的方向修正。

  中新社记者:目前人民币是第五大国际支付货币,人民币对美元升值,是否会影响人民币的国际地位?人民币是否会成为全球外汇市场越来越重要的锚点?

  谭雅玲:人民币的国际地位首先是在信誉上占领了全世界。人民币还是一个不可自由兑换货币,在不可自由兑换的前提下被融入了SDR,这是一个世界创举。这跟中国所作出的贡献和诚信程度比较高有很大的关联。

  但从中国货币功能的角度看,我们不要去跟主要的发达国家攀比,对自己的货币定位要有一个准确的判断。要从发展中国家走向发达国家,奋斗的路途还十分遥远。同时,要从不可自由兑换货币变成可自由兑换货币,市场价值、市场制度、市场结构,包括市场参与者的知识技能和国际标准,都面临着急切的学习、补充和提高。

  虽然升值可能有利于人民币的地位和形象,但是升值对国民经济和财富的损失、压制等负效应也值得关注。

  中新社记者:今年以来,在新冠肺炎疫情冲击全球贸易、金融及经济的背景下,人民币跨境使用仍然保持韧性并呈现增长,但美国部分政客威胁强行切断人民币、港元与美元的结算。中国应该如何应对这类极端情况的出现?

  谭雅玲:这种极端情况,恐吓性的意味更大。因为对美元的流动性来说,港币和人民币都是非常重要的支撑点。如果美元的流动性因为港币和人民币出现了风险,美国人会给自己找麻烦吗?这个可能性是非常小的。

  美国的美元很有霸权,势力很强,但我们也要看到,从美国的经济背景和经济结构,或者经济逻辑来讲,它是最缺钱的国家。因为全世界最大的债务国是美国,它是靠借钱过日子的。

  中国是外汇储备的第一大国,其中美元的储备占绝对多数,港币则是联系汇率制,基本上以美元为主。

  现在美国的债务规模已达到27万亿美元,面临大选,如果割断港币、人民币跟美元之间的关系,美国人自己也会有麻烦,而且是很大的麻烦。所以,威慑和恐吓的可能性更多一些。不过未来,我们还是要跟踪观察,提高风险预警。

  中新社记者:近期,中国央行在深圳市开展了数字人民币红包试点。有观点认为,人民币数字化后,可大大加快人民币国际化的进程。您怎么看?

  谭雅玲:数字化加快人民币国际化的进程,这或许是一种路径、一种方法,但是我们还是应该加强人民币真正意义上国际化的进程。

  数字货币的推进可能对人民币国际化是一种辅助,但是不能代替人民币国际化,所以发展数字人民币要保持一个节奏,保持一种理性,人民币最终可自由兑换才是人民币国际化的根本目标。(完)

  编辑陈雪霏

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