专访:国务委员兼外长王毅在柏林接受路透社副总编加洛尼专访

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 中国国务委员兼外交部长王毅在柏林接受路透社专访,就抗疫,中美关系,中欧关系,气候变化等多个问题回答了记者的提问。可以说,王毅外长的回答就是中国外交政策的宣言。下面是访谈实录:

加洛尼:新冠肺炎疫情显然对于中国人民来说是个非常严峻的挑战,同时也蔓延到了世界其他地区。有一些国家对华实行了旅行限制,中国是否面临一场对华信心危机?
王毅:这场疫情突如其来,确实给中国和世界带来了一次严峻挑战。但在习近平主席领导下,中国政府和人民经受住了考验,用自己的努力甚至牺牲赢得了国际社会的尊重和认可。This sudden outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP, or COVID-19) is a severe challenge to China and the world at large. Under the leadership of President Xi Jinping, the Chinese government and people have withstood the test and won the respect and recognition of the international community with their efforts and even sacrifice.
疫情发生后,中国政府第一时间建立举国体制,汇集全国资源,采取了最全面、最严格、最彻底的措施迎击疫情,其中很多措施都超出了国际卫生条例的要求和世界卫生组织的建议。After the outbreak, the Chinese government immediately set up a nationwide mechanism to mobilize resources from across the country. We have taken the most comprehensive, stringent and thorough prevention and control measures, many of which are well beyond what is required by the International Health Regulations and the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).
我们以中国速度日以继夜抢救每一位患者的生命,用中国力量众志成城阻止疫情的进一步蔓延。经过艰苦努力,疫情总体上得到了控制。湖北以外地区确诊病例数量连续11天下降,下降幅度超过50%,治愈人数快速上升,已经有近7000位患者康复出院,全国病亡率控制在2.2%左右,如果不算湖北则在0.49%。With the Chinese speed, we are working day and night to save the life of every patient. With the Chinese strength, we are united as one to contain the further spread of the epidemic. Through these arduous efforts, the epidemic is generally under control. For example, outside Hubei, the number of confirmed cases has been declining for 11 consecutive days across China. That is a cumulative drop of over 50 percent. There is a rapid increase in the cure rate, and nearly 7,000 people have recovered and been discharged from hospital. The case fatality rate is about 2.2 percent nationwide and just 0.49 percent outside Hubei.
这些事实和数据充分说明,中国采取的果断措施是正确和有效的,这次疫情总体上也是可控和可治的。正如习近平主席指出,我们完全有信心、有能力、也有把握早日战胜疫情。These facts and data show that China’s decisive response is both right and effective, and that by and large, the outbreak is controllable and the disease curable. As President Xi Jinping points out, we have the confidence, capability and determination to prevail over the virus at an early date.
作为一个负责任大国,中国从一开始就采取公开、透明的态度,及时向国际社会通报疫情信息,开展国际合作,努力阻止疫情在全球扩散。截止到现在,在中国境外的确诊病例数量不到总数的1%。中国不仅全力维护了本国人民的生命安全和身体健康,也为全球公共卫生安全做出了贡献,付出了牺牲。世卫组织多次高度赞赏中国的负责任态度,充分肯定中国采取的果断措施,对中国战胜疫情充满信心。As a responsible major country, China has from the start acted in an open and transparent manner in releasing relevant information to the world and seeking international cooperation to prevent the spread of the epidemic worldwide. To date, the number of confirmed cases outside China is less than one percent of the total. We are not only doing our very best to ensure the life, safety and health of the Chinese people, but also making contribution and sacrifice for global public health. WHO has on multiple occasions commended China for its responsible actions, speaking highly of China’s decisive response and expressing confidence that China will overcome this epidemic.
病毒没有国界,需要国际社会共同面对。已经有160多个国家和国际组织负责人发电或发函,对中国表示慰问和支持。几十个国家政府和人民纷纷向中国伸出援手。对于这些善意,我们表示衷心感谢。

Virus respects no borders. It requires a collective response from the international community. To date, leaders of over 160 countries and international organizations have expressed their sympathy and support through telegrams or letters. The governments and peoples of several dozen countries are lending a helping hand, and we are truly grateful for these acts of kindness.
一些国家采取了加强检测的措施,有其合理之处。但也有一些国家反应过度,引发不必要的恐慌,也不符合世卫组织的建议。我相信,随着疫情得到进一步控制,这些国家也会思考放宽限制。毕竟国与国之间需要开展正常的交往与合作。In our view, the enhanced inspection measures taken by some countries are reasonable but some other countries have overreacted. Their overreaction has caused unnecessary panic and is not consistent with the WHO recommendations. I believe as the epidemic is gradually brought under control, these countries may consider relaxing the restrictions. At the end of the day, normal exchanges and cooperation among countries must be maintained.
中国有句话,“烈火炼真金”。我们相信,经过这场疫情考验,中国人民将会更加坚强团结,中国经济将更加稳健可持续,全体中国人民会以更坚实步伐,实现全面小康,迈向现代化进程。There is a Chinese saying: True gold can stand the test of fire. I’m sure that emerging from this test, the Chinese people will become more resilient and united and the Chinese economy will achieve more solid and sustainable growth. The Chinese people will continue to march confidently toward the goal of establishing a society of moderate prosperity in all respects and embark on a new journey of modernization.
中国还有一句话叫做“患难见真情”。在共同抗击疫情的斗争中,中国同各国之间的友谊和信任将得到加强和深化。各国都会意识到,我们身处一个地球村,国与国的命运已经紧密地联系在一起。There’s another Chinese saying, “Adversity reveals true friendship.” As China battles the disease together with the world, its friendship and trust with other countries will be strengthened and deepened. Countries will realize that they live in a global village, with their future interconnected like never before.

加洛尼:您刚才谈到透明,但是一开始中方对疫情形势的判断和了解并不是很完整,中国国内有人更早提出了相关预警,最终的决定是怎么做出的?
王毅:这次疫情是由一个新型病毒导致的,自然有一个认识和鉴定的过程。实际上每次世界上发生疫情,各国政府作出最终决定前,都必须经过认真和反复论证,这是一种负责任的态度。Well, this is a new virus. So naturally it takes time for people to gain more understanding and knowledge about it. The same has happened in other countries. If we look at past epidemics, we will see that the government will eventually make decisions based on serious and repeated tests and study. That is how a responsible government deals with it.
中国政府发现病例后,在第一时间采取措施,并向世卫组织作了通报。同时经过认真评估,在很短时间内确定这是新型病毒疫情,迅速建立起覆盖全国的联防联控机制。我们这次采取的措施非常及时,动作非常迅速。这也是世卫组织总干事到中国考察后得出的结论。After individual cases emerged, the Chinese government took prompt actions and informed the WHO at the first opportunity. At the same time, we have made rigorous assessments. In a short period of time, we identified and decided that this is a new virus. Once that decision was made, a nationwide inter-agency task force was quickly put in place. The measures taken by China are timely and swift. This is also the conclusion of the WHO Director-General after his visit to China.

加洛尼:您说有一些国家实际上做了过度反应,请问是哪些国家?
王毅:我并不想列举这些国家的名字,各国都有其自己的考虑和理由。我想大家都看得见,一些国家采取的措施远远超出了世界卫生组织的建议,比如全面关闭人员往来,又如不仅从武汉撤出人员,而且还要从疫情并不严重、只有个别病例的地区撤出人员。我们不会干涉别国的决定,但这些措施是否有利于各国共同应对这场疫情,要划一个大大的问号。I don’t want to single out individual countries. They have their own judgments and reasons. Everybody can see that the measures taken by those countries go far beyond the recommendations of the WHO. For example, measures have been taken to comprehensively stop people-to-people exchanges. And not only people in Wuhan are evacuated, people in regions where there are only isolated cases or where the epidemic is not severe are also pulled out. We do not interfere with the decisions of other countries. However, when these measures are taken, we must see whether they are truly beneficial to a joint response to the epidemic. There is a question mark on it.

加洛尼:对于习近平主席来说,这次疫情是一个相当大的挑战。中国政府对此如何回应?
王毅:这场疫情防控阻击战,是一场总体战,也是人民战争,每个人都做出努力,每个人都发挥作用。在习近平主席亲自指挥部署下,我们迅速建立了覆盖全国的联防联控机制。在中国960万平方公里土地上,14亿人民团结一致,把疫情防控做得如此彻底、如此全面,这是史无前例的,在很多国家也是难以想像的,但是,中国做到了。This is a comprehensive battle and a people’s war, with every person pitching in and playing a role. President Xi is personally overseeing and guiding the response to the epidemic. We quickly set up a national framework of epidemic control on this land of 9.6 million square kilometers and with 1.4 billion people. We are doing everything we can, leaving no stone unturned, in our efforts to contain and mitigate this epidemic. This is an unprecedented endeavor, which is probably unimaginable in many countries. But China pulled this off.
可能仍会有个别人提出质疑,但绝大多数国家都对此表示了高度赞赏,指出只有在中国,只有在习近平主席领导下,才得以有效管控住这场突如其来而且传播速度相当快的疫情,中国不仅有力维护了本国人民的生命健康,也阻止了疫情向世界的快速扩散。There may be certain questions or challenges to China. Yet the overwhelming majority of countries have expressed their appreciation for what China has been doing. They clearly recognized that only in China and only under the leadership of President Xi can there be such effective measures to put this sudden and fast spreading epidemic under control. What we’re doing is protecting the health of the Chinese people and preventing this epidemic from further spreading to other parts of the world.

我举个例子。中国每年最重要的节日就是春节。习近平主席就是在中国农历新年的第一天,亲自主持召开中共中央政治局常务委员会会议,就应对疫情作出全面部署和动员,由此展开了全国范围内疫情防控阻击战。农历新年第一天召开中央政治局常委会会议,在中国历史上前所未有,这恰恰体现了习近平主席本人对这场疫情的敏锐洞察力和卓越领导力,彰显了一声令下中国强大的动员力。I can give you an example. The Spring Festival is one of the most important holidays in China. On the very first day of the Spring Festival holiday, President Xi convened the highest level meeting of the governing body, which is the meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the Central Party Committee, to draw up a comprehensive plan on responding to this epidemic, which initiated this nationwide battle against the epidemic. It has never happened before in Chinese history to have the highest level meeting of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau on the first day of the Spring Festival. It shows President Xi’s penetrating grasp of the situation, his outstanding leadership and China’s strong mobilization capability.

加洛尼:美国到现在为止有没有采取一些行动来帮助中方抗击疫情?
王毅:特朗普总统多次公开表态,支持中国抗击疫情,对中国取得胜利展现信心。他还主动给习近平主席打电话,转达他本人对中国的支持。美国社会各界和民间行动起来,向中国捐款、捐物。这些物资正在陆续运到中国武汉。President Trump has, on many occasions, publicly expressed his support to China’s battle against the epidemic and his confidence that China will win the final victory. He called President Xi to convey his personal support to China. And all sectors in the US and the American people have acted to provide assistance to China, including cash and supplies. Those assistance is being delivered to Wuhan in different batches.
我们近日也听到美国政府宣布准备出资1亿美元帮助中国和其他有需要的国家,我们对此表示赞赏。建议美方尽快将这笔资金用在他们认为需要的地方。The latest news is that the US government is prepared to offer US$100 million to help China and other countries in need. We appreciate this goodwill gesture. We suggest that the assistance provided by the US be channeled and delivered as soon as possible to where the US believes are most in need.

加洛尼:问一个关于贸易的问题,也是跟新冠肺炎疫情有关。中方在履行中美第一阶段经贸协议关于进口更多美国产品和服务的承诺上是否面临困难?
王毅:中国是一个重信守诺的国家,只要我们同意的事情,都会说到做到。中美第一阶段经贸协议,是在平等和相互尊重基础上达成的。中方愿同美方共同努力,把这个协议落实好,使其真正有利于中国,有利于美国,有利于整个世界。We the Chinese people always honor our commitments. For whatever promise we have made, we will deliver on that. The phase one trade agreement has been reached between the two sides based on equality and mutual respect. We stand ready to work with the US to implement this agreement, which is good for China, good for the US and good for the world at large.
中国已经准备好。我们的市场足够大,尽管疫情对中国经济带来一些暂时的影响,但是疫情过后,积累的消费需求会快速释放,中国经济的动能会强力反弹,市场规模也会持续扩大。我们正在按照自己的时间表和路线图,深入推进改革,扩大开放,实现协议中达成的其他共识,也不存在问题。China is ready for that. The Chinese market is big enough to withstand the impact of the epidemic, which is temporary. When the epidemic is over, the subdued consumer demand will be released rapidly, the dynamism of China’s economy will rebound strongly, and the market will continue to grow. We are advancing reform and opening up according to our own timetable and roadmap. There is no problem on the implementation of other aspects of the agreement.
现在出现的一个新情况是,由于美方全面限制中美人员往来,客观上会对履行协议带来一些困难。我希望美方能思考这个问题,怎么在继续防范疫情的前提下,尊重世卫组织提出的建议,不采取不必要的贸易和人员限制,克服可能会对履行协议带来的不便。双方应共同努力,把协议执行好。中国会履行我们做出的承诺,美方也应履行好他们在第一阶段协议中对中方做出的承诺。I do see one issue that is happening. Given the US’ highest-level travel advisory against China, practically that will bring about some challenges to the implementation of the agreement. We hope the US could think about this. While fighting the epidemic, what it could do to respect WHO’s professional advice and refrain from taking unnecessary trade and travel restrictions in order to overcome the challenges to the implementation of this agreement. As long as the two sides are working together, I am sure that the implementation will be good. China will keep up its end of the bargain. We hope the US will do the same.

加洛尼:中方是否会通过磋商对第一阶段经贸协议做出一些调整?中方对于第二阶段经贸协议磋商的期望是什么?
王毅:已经达成的协议为什么要做出调整?第一阶段协议不仅涉及贸易,还包括很多其他领域,比如知识产权、汇率和金融等等。这是一个内容很丰富的协议。Since we have this phase one agreement, I don’t see any need to adjust it. The phase one trade agreement is not only about trade, but also concerns other aspects including IPR protection, exchange rates and financial services. So this is a wide-ranging agreement.
现在应当集中精力把第一阶段协议落实到位,看到实实在在的成果,不仅推动中美两国贸易走向正常和健康轨道,同时也促进全球经济的增长。在此过程中双方可以不断积累和总结经验,之后再考虑第二阶段的问题。我认为这是合情合理的处理办法。What we hope to do at the moment is to concentrate on the implementation of phase one agreement. We want to see real tangible results, and that will not only help bring China-US trade onto the track of sound and healthy development, but also help with global economic growth. While we implement the phase one agreement, we will accumulate experience, look back at the experience, and then we can proceed to see how we will enter into phase two trade talks. That would be a workable approach.

加洛尼:昨天,美国宣布了针对华为的一些新指控,包括偷窃美国公司商业机密,中国政府对此有何回应?
王毅:我们不知道美国这个超级大国为什么要动员国家力量,甚至调动其所有盟友来无端打压一家中国企业。华为是百分之百的民营企业,是靠自己的汗水、智慧,凭借市场竞争发展起来的。美国如此打压恐怕只有一个理由,就是华为发展得太好了。但美国企业可以发展得很好,为什么中国企业就不能凭借自身努力发展得好一些?美国为何不能接受别的国家的企业也能够在经济、科技方面崭露头角?We cannot understand why the United States, a superpower, is employing its state power and mobilizing its allies to attack Huawei, which is a private company. Huawei is a one-hundred-percent private business. It has developed itself in market competition, relying on its own diligence, hard work and wisdom. The only reason that the United States is doing that is maybe Huawei is doing too well. The US companies can excel and succeed, but why can’t a Chinese company succeed by relying on its own efforts? Why can’t the United States accept other countries’ businesses to excel and perform well in their economy and technology?
恐怕内心有一种阴暗的心理,就是不希望看到别的国家发展起来,不希望看到别国的企业也能够做大做强。美方甚至通过编造谣言来诋毁别国企业,总是说华为有后门,损害了美国安全,但是到现在为止,也没有拿出任何实实在在的证据。I’m afraid that the United States has its own dark intentions sometimes. It doesn’t want to see other countries develop. It doesn’t want to see other countries’ businesses grow and succeed. It has been spreading rumors to smear other countries’ businesses. The United States has been claiming that Huawei products have the backdoor that will undermine US national security. But so far it hasn’t produced any credible evidence.
从维基解密和斯诺登事件可以看出,反而是其他通讯企业在做这些事情。华为已经正式、公开地向世界宣示,愿意同任何国家和组织签署无后门协议,通过法律约束力来证明自己的清白和透明。这难道还不够吗?还要继续打压华为吗?这种做法不仅没有道理,甚至是不道德的。As we can see from Wikileaks and the Snowden incident, it is other telecom companies that are doing these things. Huawei has publicly pledged that they could sign no-backdoor agreement with any government and organization if they so wish. Huawei wants to clear its name and show its transparency in this legal form. Isn’t that enough? Why is there still the attempt to attack this company? It doesn’t make sense. And it is immoral.
我们看到很多国家,比如英国和德国,并没有一味听信谣言,在维护好本国通讯基础设施安全基础上,愿意给其他各国企业包括华为提供一个公平竞争的环境。我认为这才是符合市场规则的,也是一个独立主权国家做出的明智和正确选择。

Fortunately, many countries, including the UK and Germany, have not been misled by this rumor. While they are doing their best to ensure the security of their telecommunication infrastructure, they are trying to provide a level playing field for businesses of other countries, including Huawei. I believe this is a practice consistent with market rules. These countries are making the sensible and right decision as independent sovereign states.

加洛尼:中美是不是会不可避免地走向文明的冲突?
王毅:所谓文明冲突的说法是一个伪命题。人类社会已经进入21世纪,人类文明也已经发展到很高程度,如果现在还鼓吹甚至制造文明冲突,就是开历史的倒车。The so-called clash of civilizations is a false argument. We are already in the 21st century and the human civilization is quite advanced. If anyone is trying to clamor for or even to create the clash of civilizations, he is trying to reverse the wheels of history.
中国历来主张,文明没有高低优劣之分,各种文明都建立在自身深厚的历史人文积淀中,都有其独特的价值。这个世界本来就是丰富多彩的,不同文明应该相互尊重、互学互鉴,共同推动人类进步和发展。We advocate that all civilizations are equal and no one is superior to others. All civilizations are grounded in the unique history and culture of that particular country, and each civilization has its own unique values. The world is a diverse and colorful place. What we call for is mutual respect and mutual learning among different civilizations and joint efforts to seek common progress.
鼓吹“文明冲突论”的人,心灵深处恐怕残留着某种西方文明优越论的潜意识。他们看来没有准备好,也不想接受任何一个非西方国家的发展和振兴。但这是不公平的。任何国家都是平等的,都有发展的权利。西方国家已经先发展起来了,其他国家也要加快发展,这是我们应有的权利。只有所有国家都发展起来,我们这个世界才能够实现繁荣稳定,我们才能共同建设好人类共同居住的这个地球村。For those who clamored for clash of civilizations, subconsciously they still believe in the superiority of Western civilizations. They are not prepared to accept the development and revitalization of non-Western civilizations. This is not fair, because all countries are equal and all countries are entitled to develop. Western countries have developed already and other countries also need faster development. This is our integral right. We believe that only when all countries enjoy development, can our world be a prosperous and stable one, and can we live in peace in this global village and on this planet that we call home.

加洛尼:中方如何能够说服美方,中国以及中国的政治制度对美国并不构成、也不应该构成威胁?
王毅:美国的制度和模式,是美国人民的选择,我们从不干涉美国的内政。同时,中国特色社会主义制度,是中国人民的选择,并且已经在中国大地上取得巨大成功,美方也应尊重中国人民的这一选择。The US system and model are the choices of the American people. We do not intervene in the internal affairs of the US. By the same token, socialism with Chinese characteristics is the choice of the Chinese people, and it has already been proved hugely successful in China. The United States should also respect this choice made by the Chinese people.
只要双方都遵守联合国宪章的宗旨和原则,特别是恪守不干涉内政原则,尊重各国的主权,不同社会制度的国家并不会相互构成威胁。中方始终愿同美方遵循和平共处五项原则,建立和发展长期稳定的友好合作关系。这是中方的既定政策。但美国恰恰相反,不断向中国施加压力,动辄指责和抹黑中国。事实就摆在我们的面前。

For countries with different systems, as long as they observe the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, particularly the principle of non-interference in internal affairs, and respect countries’ sovereignty, there won’t be any threat to anyone. For China, we stand ready to work with the United States on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence to build and grow this long-term and stable relationship of peace and friendship. That is our set policy. However, the United States is doing the opposite. It has been upping its pressure on China, and it has been blaming and bashing China, and the facts are clear for everyone to see.
比如,中国全国人民代表大会从来没有通过任何涉及美国内部事务的提案,而美国国会却一个又一个地审议通过各种粗暴干涉中国内部事务的议案;中国的军舰和飞机从来没有到美国周边去展示力量,但恰恰是美国不断派遣军舰飞机到中国家门口来耀武扬威;中国从来没有制裁过任何一家美国企业,我们欢迎美国企业赴华投资兴业,并为他们提供良好营商环境,但美方却千方百计打压中国的企业,并对中国企业实施所谓单边制裁和长臂管辖,限制中国的发展权利。因此,如果说到威胁,不是中国在威胁美国,而是美国在威胁中国。要解决的也是如何消除美国对中国的各种威胁。

For example, China’s National People’s Congress has never introduced any bill on the internal affairs of the United States. However, the US Congress has reviewed and adopted one bill after another that blatantly interferes in China’s internal affairs. China has never sent its military vessels and aircraft to the neighborhood of the United States to flex muscles, yet the US naval ships and airplanes have been flexing muscles at China’s doorsteps. China has never sanctioned any US businesses. On the contrary, we welcome US businesses to invest in China, and we have provided them with a sound business environment. However, the United States has tried every opportunity and means to suppress Chinese companies. It has introduced unilateral sanctions against Chinese companies by exercising long-arm jurisdiction, and tried to limit China’s development rights. So talking about threat, it is not that China is threatening the US, but the US is threatening China. And the issue is how to address the US threat to China.

加洛尼:中方是否认为需要在中东地区保持军事存在以确保自身的能源供应安全?目前中国和其他国家一样,都依赖美国在中东提供的安全保障,中国是否认为也应当在中东承担更多的责任?

王毅:如果说美国为中国以及其他国家依赖美国在中东提供安全保障,我想很多中东国家都不会认可这种说法。Well I’m afraid that many countries in the Middle East would not agree that the United States is providing security guarantee for China and countries in the region.
试问,几十年来,美国在中东发动了多少战争?造成了多大损失?给中东各国人民带来了多大灾难?这是在为中东提供安全保障吗?美国的做法不仅没有使中东保持稳定和发展,反而陷入了无尽无止的动荡或贫困中。美国的做法实际上只是在维护自身利益,并没有惠及中东国家。

Think about this: In the past decades, how many wars has the US started in the Middle East? How much damage and devastation has it brought to the people of the region? Is the US providing security guarantee in the Middle East? What the US has been doing is not bringing stability and development to the Middle East, but rather endless turbulence and persistent poverty. In addition, the United States is taking actions out of its own interests, which has not benefited countries in the Middle East.
我认为,国与国之间建立起相互信任,同时通过互利合作形成利益融合,这才是长久也是可靠的安全保障,而不是仅仅依靠军事力量的威慑。In our view, the most enduring and reliable security guarantee would be for countries to build mutual trust and align their interests through mutually beneficial cooperation. Security guarantee just cannot be achieved only with military power.
就地区安全而言,中方根据联合国决议以及中东地区国家愿望,一直在努力为中东的安全稳定作出贡献。比如,中方向中东派出了1800位维和人员,遍布地区各国;中方已经坚持十多年在亚丁湾护航,保护所有过往亚丁湾的各国船舶;我们还同中东国家举办中东安全论坛,提议摆脱陈旧的冷战思维,探讨打造共同、综合、合作、可持续的新安全框架。中方将会继续为促进中东的和平、安全与发展发挥建设性作用。Responding to the call of the United Nations and based on the will of countries in the region, China has been working to contribute to the security in the Middle East. For example, we have sent over 1,800 peacekeepers to the Middle East in every corner of the region. Our naval vessels have been conducting escort missions in the Gulf of Aden for over a decade, protecting ships of all countries passing that body of water. We have also initiated a Middle East Security Forum with regional countries, calling on countries to reject the old-fashioned cold-war mentality and put in place a new security architecture that underpins common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. Going forward, we will continue to play a constructive role in promoting peace, security and development in the Middle East.

加洛尼:关于气候变化问题,中方在气候变化问题上发挥了领导作用,特别是在美国退出巴黎协定之后,中方是否愿意进一步提高减排目标?是否愿意为格拉斯哥气候变化大会作出贡献?
王毅:中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,我们的工业化进程还没有完成,需要加快发展进程,让中国人民也能够过上更加美好的生活。同时,我们意识到中国作为一个大国,应该承担应尽的国际责任和义务。China is the world’s largest developing country, and our industrialization process is still ongoing. We need to develop faster to make life even better for the Chinese people. At the same time, we do realize that as a major country, we must shoulder our due international responsibilities and obligations.
因此,中国积极参与了巴黎协定谈判,在谈判最关键的时候,为促成最终达成巴黎协定发挥了重要作用。中方既然签署了,就一定会履行承诺,百分之百地完成我们向世界宣布的减排目标。Therefore, China took an active part in the negotiation of the Paris Agreement, and played a major role in securing the final agreement at the most critical moment of the negotiation. About the Paris Agreement, since we have signed it, we will implement it 100 percent. We have announced to the whole world our emission reduction targets, and we intend to meet these targets.
同时,我们已经确定了新的发展理念,追求绿色、环保、可持续的发展,也就是说改变过去只追求GDP的增长速度,而是寻求实现更高质量的发展。For China’s own development, we have been shifting to a new philosophy. We want to seek green, environmentally-friendly and sustainable development. In the past, the attention was paid to high GDP growth, but now we focus on achieving high-quality development.
中方愿同国际社会一道,排除各种困难干扰,继续推进落实巴黎协定。今年,中方将主办生物多样性公约缔约方大会。我们愿为会议成功作出自己的贡献。同时我们也将同法国等志同道合的国家一道,为推进全球应对气候变化发挥作用。China will continue to work with the international community to overcome all challenges and difficulties to ensure that the Paris Agreement will be implemented. This year, China is going to host the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and we will make our own contributions to ensure its success. We will also work with other like-minded countries like France to contribute to the global fight against climate change.

加洛尼:中方是否做好准备提升减排承诺?会不会有更加有雄心的目标?因为很多国家在格拉斯哥会议之前都被呼吁进一步提升减排目标。中方是否做好了准备,何时愿意这样做?
王毅:中国是一个负责任的国家,既然说了,就会做到。我们不会像有些国家那样,说得好听,但实际上做不到。比如应对气候变化基金,发达国家承诺每年向发展中国家提供1000亿美元,但是到现在还没有实现。China is a responsible country; we will match our words with concrete deeds. Unlike other countries, they may talk a lot but they don’t deliver. For example, in terms of climate change fund, for developed countries, they pledged to provide US$100 billion annually to developing countries. But so far they haven’t done that.
中方不需要说很多大话,去赢得所谓赞誉。我们准备踏实实地把承诺的事情做好。如果一个14亿人口的大国履行好减排承诺,那本身就是对世界的最大贡献,也是对人类发展的最大贡献。Rather than talking big and fishing for praise, we will take concrete measures to deliver our commitments. China has 1.4 billion people. If we can meet our target in emissions reduction, that in itself would be the biggest contribution to the world and to the development of humanity.
我可以举几个数字。比如,单位GDP减排强度指标,中国每年都提前完成计划。又如新能源汽车保有量,中国已经占有全世界的一半;可再生能源装机量,中国已经占到全世界的1/3。这些工作我们都在扎扎实实地做。中国不是用口号,而是用行动,参与国际社会应对气候变化的努力。

To give you some examples, in terms of the emission intensity of China’s GDP, we have met the target every year ahead of schedule. In terms of new energy vehicles, we have over 50 percent of the world’s total. And China has about one third of installed capacity of the world’s renewable energy. So China has taken solid steps to fight climate change. We are not making big statements, but we are making a big difference with concrete measures. And we are contributing our share to the international response to climate change.

加洛尼:中欧将于今年9月举行一次非常重要的峰会,气候变化协议有望成为峰会成果的一部分。中方是否期待从欧方那里得到一些什么积极的成果,作为应对气候变化总体协议的一部分?
王毅:这是一个很具体的问题。昨天我同德国外长马斯专门就此进行了讨论。我们注意到新一届欧盟机构提出“绿色新政”,雄心勃勃,要赶超时代发展潮流。欧盟国家都是发达国家,有必要也有能力在全球绿色发展上发挥更加重要的示范作用。This is a specific issue. I discussed it with German Foreign Minister Maas yesterday. We have noticed that the new EU institution has introduced this ambitious green deal. Indeed, this is what we need given the current trend of the world. The EU is mainly composed of developed countries, so it must and can play a more important exemplary role in implementing green development in the world.
同时实现绿色发展,走可持续发展,也已成为中国的既定国策。比如中方积极倡议建设绿色“一带一路”,并为此出台了很多政策和支持措施。

At the same time, China is promoting green and sustainable development at home. We have made it a state policy. For example, the BRI is designed to pursue green development and we have introduced a lot of policies and measures for this purpose.

今年预定举行的中欧峰会议题很多,我们首先要共同发出维护多边主义、维护自由贸易、维护国际法权威和国际公平正义的声音,共同应对当前国际社会面临的各种风险挑战。同时中方也愿意同欧盟探讨在绿色经济方面加强互利合作。在这一问题上,中欧优势互补。欧盟有绿色发展的技术,中国有巨大的绿色产品市场,欧洲设备可以在中国市场上发挥应有作用。我们还可以探讨建立中欧绿色伙伴关系。我认为这会得到大多数欧洲国家的支持。There will be a packed agenda during this year’s summit. China and the EU should send out a joint message to support multilateralism, free trade, the authority of international law, international fairness and justice, and work together to address the risks and challenges confronting the international community. Meanwhile, we are ready to work with the EU to explore mutually beneficial cooperation on green economy. In this area, we each have our comparative advantages. The EU has the technologies and know-how on green development, while China has a huge market for green products. We believe that European equipment can play its role in China. We can also explore the possibility of a China-EU green partnership. I believe most countries in Europe will support this initiative.

加洛尼:关于香港问题,中国有哪些证据表明英国和美国煽动香港的抗议活动?

王毅:这样的证据和事实举不胜举,俯拾皆是。任何人看到香港街头情况之后都会得出同样的结论。

Well, there is a long list of evidence. Anyone who sees what is happening on the streets of Hong Kong will arrive at the right conclusion.比如,一些西方国家的外交人员,包括一些非政府组织,频繁跟那些街头暴力分子会见,给他们撑腰打气。再比如,一些西方势力不仅不批评那些严重违法犯罪分子,反而指责依法执法的香港警察,企图摧毁香港的法治。还有些国家的议会甚至通过了干涉香港内部事务的法案。这些不都是事实吗?不容抵赖。As we have seen, diplomatic personnel and NGOs of some Western countries have had many meetings with the rioters to embolden them. And instead of criticizing the law-breaking activities of some radicals, they are criticizing the police in Hong Kong for performing their duties according to law, with the aim of compromising the rule of law in Hong Kong. The legislatures of some countries have even introduced bills that interfere in Hong Kong’s internal affairs. These are all clear facts that cannot be denied.
这些以双重标准干涉中国香港内部事务的做法实际上并没有得逞。香港形势目前正在逐渐恢复稳定,香港的法治也在重新走上正轨,“一国两制”方针将会继续坚定贯彻执行。香港绝大多数同胞都会意识到,“一国两制”才是香港长期繁荣稳定的最重要保障。Such double standards and practices trying to interfere in the internal affairs of China’s Hong Kong have not succeeded. The situation in Hong Kong is gradually improved and law and order is being restored. And “one country, two systems” will continue to be implemented resolutely. The majority of people in Hong Kong have realized that “one country, two systems” is the most important guarantee for Hong Kong’s long-term prosperity and stability.

加洛尼:对香港来说没有其他路径吗?没有其他的道路,是这样吗?
王毅:香港是中国的一部分,“一国两制”已经以基本法的方式确定下来。当然要依法行事。现在香港有些年轻人,受到外部蛊惑,竟然举着外国国旗,幻想成为某国公民,呼吁外国解救。他们完全背叛了自己的列祖列宗,忘记了中国人的身份认同,令人不齿。这些人根本不能代表香港的绝大多数同胞。

Hong Kong is part of China. The “one country, two systems” is established by the Basic Law of the Hong Kong SAR. So everything must be done in accordance with the law. Some young people in Hong Kong have been misled. They have even waved the flags of foreign countries, imagining themselves as citizens of certain countries and hoping that foreign countries will come and rescue them. By doing that, they have completely betrayed their own roots and forgotten the identity of themselves as Chinese. This is disgraceful. They do not represent the majority of people in Hong Kong.

加洛尼:自从1997年回归之后,我们看到有很多努力让香港融入中国大陆,大陆也调动了很多资源努力赢取香港民心,但是我们看到这些做法在香港受到了一些抵制,您对此怎么看?
王毅:这恰恰再次证明有一些外部势力唯恐香港不乱。他们千方百计想搞乱香港,进而影响甚至干扰中国的整体发展。为此无所不用其极,频繁制造街头暴力,导致香港法治受到严重损害。但这一现象是暂时的,不可能长久。在香港同胞自身努力下,在中国中央政府支持下,香港会很快恢复稳定和法治,大陆和香港之间的经济联系也会更加紧密。It once again shows that some foreign elements are trying whatever they can to stir up trouble in Hong Kong. They want to destabilize Hong Kong in order to hold back and even disrupt the overall development in China. They have exploited every opportunity to bring violence to the streets, which seriously undermines the rule of law in Hong Kong. But these situations are temporary and will not last long. With the effort of the people of Hong Kong and the support from the central government, stability and law and order will soon be restored in Hong Kong. The economic ties between the mainland and Hong Kong will only grow closer and stronger.
中央政府已经制定了一个宏大的经济战略,就是香港、澳门和广东形成一个大湾区,大湾区的建设启动,将会成为中国发展的又一重要引擎,不仅将给香港发展注入持久动力,也会带动整个中国经济的发展。英国、美国等很多国家在香港都有重要利益。维护好香港的繁荣、稳定和法治,符合所有各方利益。

The central government has introduced an ambitious economic development initiative, the Greater Bay Area of Hong Kong, Macao and Guangdong. With that, we will build another important engine for China’s development. It will provide sustained impetus to Hong Kong’s development and it will also contribute to China’s economy in the long run. Many countries including the UK and the US have major interests in Hong Kong. It therefore serves everyone’s interests to uphold prosperity, stability and the rule of law in Hong Kong.

加洛尼:关于朝核问题,中方是否会对朝鲜失去信心?什么时候会对朝鲜失去耐心?
王毅:朝核问题的关键不在中国是否有耐心,而是美朝之间是否具有相向而行的诚意。

The issue is not about China’s patience, but about the sincerity of the US and the DPRK to reach out and meet each other halfway.
中国的立场是一贯和清晰的。我们主张通过对话实现半岛无核化,同时维护半岛的和平稳定,在此过程中解决好朝鲜方面的合理和正当关切。

China’s position has been consistent and clear-cut. We have called for dialogue to achieve denuclearization, and peace and stability of the Peninsula. And in that process, the reasonable and legitimate concerns of the DPRK need to be addressed.
特朗普总统同金正恩委员长在新加坡达成了一个很好的协议。其中有两条重要共识:一是要在半岛建立永久和平机制;二是要实现半岛的完全无核化。中方对此表示支持,因为这两条恰恰是我们多年来希望达成的目标。President Trump and Chairman Kim Jong-un reached a good agreement during their Singapore meeting, which includes two important common understandings: first, to establish a permanent peace mechanism on the Korean Peninsula and second, to achieve full denuclearization. China supports both of them. They are exactly what China has been working for over these many years.
如何实现这两个目标?需要一个切实可行的路线图。中方提出了我们的建议,就是按照“分阶段,同步走”的思路,并行推进并最终同时加以实现。这是中方总结20多年来经验提出的建议,是合情合理的。To achieve these two objectives requires a practicable roadmap. That is why China has put forth a dual-track approach, that is, the US and the DPRK will take phased and synchronized steps to proceed and advance these two processes together, so that the two objectives can be achieved in parallel. This is a reasonable proposal that is based on our experience of dealing with the issue for the past two decades and more.
俄罗斯同中方持有同样立场,韩国也接受了这一建议。据我们了解,美国不少人士,包括处理半岛核问题的一些关键人物,也开始认为要“分阶段,同步走”,但目前美国内似乎还没有形成真正的共识。Russia is on the same page with China and the ROK has come on board as well. We also know that inside the US, many people, including some key figures who have been dealing with the nuclear issue, also see the value of this phased and synchronized approach. However, there is yet to be a real consensus within the US.
我们希望美朝之间能够就路线图尽快达成一致。中方愿为此继续发挥积极作用。我们不能让来之不易的缓和局面再次失去,也不能够让和平的窗口再度关闭。We hope that the US and the DPRK can come to an agreement on the roadmap as early as possible. China is ready to continue to play a positive role for that to be realized. We just cannot afford to let the de-escalation that has been so hard to achieve slip away. We cannot afford to let the window of opportunity for peace be closed again.

加洛尼:回到最开始的问题,中方从应对疫情过程中,吸取了什么样的经验或者教训?
王毅:人类社会就是在同各种疾病进行抗争的过程中不断发展起来的。任何国家都会有这样一个过程,中国也不例外。Human society has evolved in the fight against various epidemics. That is the case for all countries and also for China.
病毒今天可能发生在这个国家,明天也许发生在另一个国家,因此,公共卫生安全是国际社会的共同挑战。应该说,中国在这方面已经做得很好了。疫情之后,中方当然会认真总结经验,进一步提高公共卫生水平,包括这方面的能力建设。The epidemic may happen in one country today and it may happen in any other country tomorrow. Public health security is therefore a common challenge for the world. But to be fair, China has done a good job so far in responding to the epidemic. When the epidemic is over, we will of course look back and summarize experiences to see what can be done to improve the public health services in China, including our capacity.
同时,我们也会帮助世界上其他卫生系统脆弱的国家提升能力。中国同非洲正在开展八大合作计划,其中就有公共卫生合作计划。中方将继续同非洲国家开展卫生领域合作,就像当年我们挺身而出帮助非洲国家抗击埃博拉疫情一样。As we improve ourselves, we will also help with the capacity building of other countries that are still weak in public health system. For example, we have introduced the eight major initiatives for China’s cooperation with Africa, one of which focuses exactly on public health. So we will continue to promote public health cooperation with countries in Africa, just like what we did to help during the Ebola outbreak.
其他国家同样如此。美国2009年发生的甲型H1N1流感造成了很大损害,影响到214个国家和地区。美方也需要认真总结经验,吸取教训。总之,公共卫生是个国际社会共同面对的课题,需要各国加强合作,形成合力。Other countries also have a part to play in this regard. When the H1N1 flu started in the United States in 2009, the virus also caused serious damage, affecting 214 countries and regions in the world. The US also needs to look back and learn from the experiences and lessons. All in all, public health is a common subject for the entire world. We need to work together to combine our strengths.

来源中国外交部网站, 中国日报网站。 编辑陈雪霏

Xinjiang Photo Exhibition held in Stockholm

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 27(Greenpost, chineseonline) — While the dark and rainy weather made people sad and lonely, a warm Xinjiang Photo Exhibition has been held in Stockholm recently.

The exhibition was held by Green Post(www.greenpost.se) and Chinese Online(www.chineseonline.se) in cooperation with China Europe Cultural Association and ABF(Swedish Workers Association) at the citykonferensen in Stockholm.

Xuefei Chen Axelsson, Chief Editor and photographer of Green Post and freelance journalist said the exhibition came against the background that she was invited to attend a journalistic trip to Xinjiang in August 2018 together with journalists from 13 countries along the belt and road routes. And after that she went to Xinjiang twice respectively in March to Turpan after the National People’s Congress and National Day celebration in Beijing to personally experience the atmosphere in Urumqi city, capital of Xinjiang Ugyor Autonomous Region.

“I was impressed by the journeys and felt that Xinjiang now is very safe to travel and the cultural and tourist resources were rich. During my journey, I can feel business in Grand Bazar is booming and the ugyors dancing and singing were wonderful. Thus, I like to share this feelings and impressions with all the people who are interested in Xinjiang. “said Chen Axelsson.

The purpose is to share the information about the living picture in Xinjiang. The exhibition focuses on Xinjiangs infrastructure such as the fast train, subways and wide road, busy business in Grandbazar, music and art, dancing, beautiful scenery and environmental protection.

To let people have a taste of Xinjiang music and song, Luan Dehan played violin Why the flower is so red.

Artist Zhu Yingying sang the song which was about love between a woman and a ugyor soldier and moved all the audience. A whole generation of people were moved by the film and the song in China’s 80s.

Duan Maoli, President of Swedish Anhui Sci-Tech and Commerce Association expressed his appreciation for the exhibition.

“I would like to say thanks to Xuefei for holding such an exhibition. The media under her leadership is a professional media. With this exhibition, we can see the beautiful Xinjiang and the safe Xinjiang. I like to say it should be A beautiful Xinjiang forever!”

Zhu Jinchuan, General Manager of Air China in Stockholm also looked at the exhibition.

He said it was impressive to see these photos. Watching these beautiful pictures let people feel the life there is quite colourful and it is easy to visit there with Air China because the airlines can fly there directly from Beijing. It can also fly directly to other cities.

Journalists from PROFOCA and FPA attended the exhibition. Swedish innovation entrepreneur Skycab manager Åker Aredal also attended the exhibition. He was quite excited to see President Xi’s photo with Ugyor people and even recalled the moment when he was with President Xi and presented him a letter.

During the exhibition, Xuefei Chen Axelsson also made a presentation about the pictures and added more pictures about the daily lives there in the Grand Bazar. She illustrated the stories behind every photo.

During the exhibition, Axelsson also answered some questions.

Many visitors said they learnt a lot about Xinjiang and felt glad that the situation is safe and secure and life is lively there. Some even said they like to visit Xinjiang some day.

More lively photos in Grand Bazar and Turpan.

Photo and text by Xuefei Chen Axelsson

photo by Xuefei Chen Axelsson

北欧绿色邮报网北京报道:庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年大会在北京隆重举行

北欧绿色邮报网特派主编记者陈雪霏报道:10月1日上午10时,中华人民共和国成立70周年大会在北京天安门广场隆重开幕。首先,放70响礼炮,然后升旗,奏国歌。

习近平主席在天安门城楼发表重要讲话 新华图片

中共中央总书记、国家主席、中央军委主席习近平在天安门城楼上发表重要讲话。他总结了中国70年发展的光辉历程,发展经历和取得的巨大成就。最后,他非常自信地说出了三个万岁:伟大的中华人民共和国万岁,伟大的中国共产党万岁、伟大的中国人民万岁!

讲话完毕,两辆轿车驶入天安门,接出习近平主席检阅三军。习主席时不时地说,同志们好!同志们辛苦了。战士们喊出主席好!

半小时以后,习主席返回天安门城楼,陆海空,补给方队等15个方队在长安街上游行走过。上图为女兵方队。看她们那英姿飒爽的面貌让人感到巾帼不让须眉的英雄态势。

10月1日凌晨6点时的天安门庄严肃穆 陈雪霏拍摄
天安门城楼右侧的花坛分外妖娆 陈雪霏拍摄
各民族代表入场

这是一次史无前例的重大庆祝活动。他首先向世人宣布,中国人民是有能力的,中国共产党是有能力的。中国的历届领导人都是全心全意为人民服务的。他们的使命是一脉相承的。他们的行动是认真的。

与此同时,经过70年的努力,中国人民过上了小康生活,人民幸福美满,心情愉快。走在长安街上是全国各省市自治区的代表,各行各业的代表,各民族的代表,科技,大学,工人,农民代表都有。开始的方阵是军人。当老兵的车通过的时候,一个个已经为共和国牺牲的战士的遗像出来的时候,人们开始敬礼。共和国不会忘记。

最后是小学生,红领巾,少先队唱起我们是共产主义接班人。

给记者印象最深的是他们把自行车队也安排在了游行队伍中。但是,到邓小平时代并没有安排轿车队伍。一方面是实际考虑,但另一方面也是实际考虑没有必要鼓动大家开车。

军乐团在两个多小时的时间里,现场演奏各种歌曲,让人们感到熟悉,幸福。中国政府是代表各个民族的政府,各界代表都有。一时间,天安门成了花的海洋。歌声的海洋。人们自豪,人们骄傲。

12点40分,太阳高照,庆祝活动在欢快的气氛中结束。当晚天安门又举办歌舞晚会。一

图文 陈雪霏

亲爱的读者,请继续跟踪北欧绿色邮报网,我们将有更多更好的报道。

埃及《消息晚报》总编辑:疫情防控体现了中国政府的责任感和决断力

据国际在线报道(记者 米春泽、刘素云):针对中国新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎疫情及中国政府采取的一系列防控措施,埃及《消息晚报》总编辑贾迈勒·侯赛因近日在接受本网记者专访时表示,中国应对此次突发疫情彰显了政府杰出的决策效率与民众的凝聚力。贾迈勒认为,中国地幅辽阔、人口众多,这些客观条件增加了疫情的管控难度,但中国政府在防控疫情方面采取的果断措施迅速防止了疫情的进一步蔓延。他说:“中国采取的疫情防控措施是充分、有力的,同时也获得了来自世界卫生组织的肯定。从目前来看,中国针对疫情扩散的封锁举措也取得了显著的成效。可以预见,中国将在近期取得更为鼓舞人心的阶段性成果。”贾迈勒曾访问过中国北京、广州等地,对中国快速发展的基建行业并不陌生。他说,此次 “防疫战”中令他印象最为深刻的便是武汉火神山、雷神山医院的建设速度。火神山医院历时10天宣告竣工令人赞叹:“中国是发展中大国,更是‘基建大国’,中国宣布在数日内紧急建设两座大型医院收治病患,这一承诺在世界范围内引起关注,也只有中国才能实现它。毫无疑问,这是中国在防治疫情期间的一项伟业,体现了中国人民团结的强烈意志和中国政府防治疫情的责任感和决断力。”贾迈勒表示,此次新型冠状病毒疫情引发了国际社会对世界卫生健康合作的深层次思考,在这一背景下,埃及希望以中国的疫情防控经验为参考,加强两国在医疗卫生领域的合作。他表示:“目前世界多国都出现了感染病例,埃及虽然尚未受到波及,但政府层面已宣布采取了全面的预防性措施。同时,在疫情尚未消除期间加强医疗卫生信息互通也是埃中两国下一阶段医疗卫生合作的着眼点。疫情防控事无巨细,中国对突发事件的应急处理能力得到了世界认可。”2月1日,埃及卫生与人口部发表声明,将向中国提供10吨医疗物资支持,以协助应对新型冠状病毒疫情。对此贾迈勒表示,“患难见真情”,埃及政府向中国输送救援物资是对中国长期援助埃及的回报,在困难时期更能体现双方的牢固友谊。他说,自疫情出现后,埃及对中国从政府到民众层面都显示出高度关切的态度,包括埃及等国在内的国际社会也将与中国并肩抗击此次疫情。他衷心希望中国能够以最快的速度、最小的损失顺利度过这一难关,相信中国人民能够在此次“防疫战”中取得胜利。来源:国际在线

心理学家:中国建设社会心理服务体系刻不容缓

  据中新社北京2月20日电    “新冠肺炎疫情的应对,是对中国治理体系和治理能力的一次大考,也是对中国社会心理服务体系和危机干预机制的一次大考。”
  中国科学院心理研究所副所长陈雪峰、所长傅小兰近日在《中国科学院院刊》网络平台联合撰文呼吁,此次疫情应对再次凸显社会心理服务体系建设的重要性和紧迫性,中国建设社会心理服务体系已刻不容缓。
  她们指出,个体和社会心理需要往往与生命安全、物质需要、利益诉求等交织在一起,不仅影响疫情防控和疫后重建,更影响经济社会发展大局。人民对美好生活的向往,以及社会的文明先进程度,不仅体现在物质层面的应急应对,更体现在心理层面的安全安心。在疫情防控工作中,在国家应急管理和社会治理中,必须重视心理建设。
  随着疫情防控工作的不断推进,中国社会心理服务体系建设面临的挑战也日益显现,集中体现在 相关法律不健全、管理体制不明确、运行机制不畅通三个方面。
  这两位心理学家表示,中国社会心理服务体系是各部门各类组织有效协同、高效协作的体系,在个体、组织、社会、文化等层面,通过公共政策、公共服务等手段,同时充分调动社会力量的积极性,为个人和组织提供针对性的心理服务。她们还针对疫情防控等突发事件的应急管理,对进一步加强中国社会心理服务体系建设提出 五项政策建议:
  一是充分发挥现有社会心理服务资源在疫情应对中的作用;二是将社会心理服务纳入应急管理法律法规体系;三是加强行业管理,建设应急管理社会心理服务专业队伍;四是加强信息系统建设,为应急管理高效率运行提供保障;五是加强应急管理心理学研究。
  其中,专业队伍建设方面,要以国家、省(自治区、直辖市)、地级行政区三级行政等级为基础,分别组建应急管理社会心理服务保障专业志愿者队伍,成员包括精神科医生、心理健康及社会工作等领域的专业人员,形成一支可以分级分类实施干预的专业化志愿者队伍。
  陈雪峰、傅小兰强调,社会治理体系、国家应急管理体系、社会心理服务体系的建设,归根到底是人的行为——体系建设是人的行为,体系实施是对人的行为产生影响。加强和完善国家治理,要坚持以人民为中心,在治理体系建设中充分尊重人民的心理特点和心理需求。
  她们希望中国有关部门在制定“十四五”及中长期发展规划时,应充分重视应急管理和社会心理服务的科学研究和人才培养,为完善治理体系、提高治理效能、提升治理能力提供科学支撑和人才储备。(完)     

短评:诬蔑抹黑中国新疆反恐工作当休矣 Comment: Stop Slandering and Smearing China

据中新社北京2月20日电 题:诬蔑抹黑中国新疆反恐工作当休矣
  中新社记者 陈小愿
  近日,某所谓“人权团体”在美国公布所谓涉及新疆的“内部文件”,宣称记录了新疆职业技能教育培训中心(教培中心)部分人员“被收押原因”等信息,要求中国政府停止此类政策。

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said yesterday that some organizations and media attempted to slander and smear Xinjiang’s anti terrorism action and that attempt will be doomed to failure.

He said it was the same trick as what happened with New York Times last November. It is not difficult to see that a new wave of anti China and anti Xinjiang reports have been published.

But when China published two English TV documentary about Xinjiang, the western media immediately became silent.

Geng Shuang said Xinjiang’s anti terrorism education was necessary and the work was done very effectively. Facts show that since the beginning of the education, there has been no terrorist attack or bombing any more for three consecutive years.

Xinjiang now enjoys peace and development. Tourism has replaced terrorism and people’s wellbeing have been substantially improved. Greenpost reporter has been invited to visit Xinjiang in August 2018 and a series of reports have been published. If you click Xinjiang, you will find my story. (translated and edited by Xuefei Chen Axelsson)
  中国外交部发言人耿爽19日强调,个别组织和媒体企图通过所谓爆料诬蔑抹黑中国新疆反恐和去极端化努力的图谋注定失败。
  这并非此类“文件”首次“曝光”,与去年11月间《纽约时报》所谓相关文件不尽相同,其目的无非也是打着保障人权和宗教自由等幌子,攻击新疆教培中心,抹黑中国。
  这似乎已成一种“套路”——先以污蔑中国的“黑资料”铺路,继之政客、媒体引用大肆攻击,掀起一个阶段的反华波澜。观察家们不难看到,一个时期以来,境内外敌对势力,特别是民族分裂势力、宗教极端势力、暴力恐怖势力,相互勾连,企图肢解中国,蓄意歪曲史实、混淆是非。
  曾深受暴恐之害、在海外一度令人感到神秘的新疆,成为他们最乐于操作“议题”的地区之一。
  为帮助外界了解真实的新疆,中国过去五年已就新疆反恐去极端化斗争、职业技能教育培训工作、各民族平等团结发展等七度发表白皮书。2019年12月,中国还发布两部英文纪录片,讲述新疆反恐工作,对华并不友好的西方媒体一时哑口无言。
  事实证明,新疆反恐工作成效显著。1990年至2016年底,新疆发生了数千起暴恐事件,造成大量无辜人员伤亡和财产损失。正是在开展教培中心工作等一系列预防性反恐和去极端化措施,新疆才会连续三年不再发生暴恐事件。
  事实胜于雄辩。这也不是中国自说自话:去年上千名外国使节、国际组织官员、媒体人士等访问过新疆并认为,新疆为国际社会反恐、去极端化斗争,积累了宝贵经验,作出了重要贡献。
  对于有西方媒体以所谓涉疆“内部文件”指责中国,西南政法大学人权研究院执行院长张永和接受中新社记者采访时曾指出,这反映出少数西方媒体的三个谬误:无视恐怖主义危害的国际共识,对中国政府反恐立场的严重歪曲,对新疆地区反恐、去极端化工作的任意想象。
  正如新冠病毒一样,恐怖主义也是人类公敌。美国等西方国家近二十年多次受到暴恐的重大伤害。新疆探索依法严厉打击暴恐与源头预防相结合,既维护了地区稳定,也大大助益国际社会开展反恐、去极端化工作。
  在新疆各族民众人权得到有效保障、经济社会取得长足发展的事实面前,所谓涉疆“内部文件”的攻击显然是站不住脚的。
  当前仍有一些国家和地区面临暴恐危害,打击恐怖主义需要国际社会共同努力。那些诬蔑抹黑中国反恐工作的言论,当休矣。

华南美国商会疫情影响报告:仅2%企业欲改变在华再投资计划


据中新社广州2月20日电 (记者 王华)华南美国商会20日发布新冠肺炎疫情影响报告,仅不到2%受访企业表示将改变在中国再投资计划。
  为了解在华外国企业应对此次新冠肺炎疫情的情况,华南美国商会工作小组在2月10日至16日间,与399家企业进行了电话联系。由于多数企业在上述日期尚未返回工作岗位,大部分企业高管在家中接受电话连线访问。
   75%的受访企业表示,无论疫情影响如何,不会改变在华再投资计划;不到2%的受访者表示将改变在华再投资计划,而23%的受访者尚未决定。值得一提的是,97%的受访者表示,总部就此次疫情对业务影响处理得当,并可随时提供帮助。
  部分企业表示,因应此次疫情持续时间,可能不得不使用不可抗力法律条款避免损失,“根据中国国际投资促进委员会(CCPIT)官网报告,截至2月17日,中国已颁发1600多份不可抗力证书,以保护企业免受疫情所造成的损失。”
  华南美国商会会长哈利博士表示,大多数受访企业认为,2020年营收将受到疫情影响,许多企业采取加班形式弥补因假期延长、员工减少造成的减产、迟产。
   此次调查还显示,当下在华外企面临的主要困难是缺乏防护口罩、消毒剂和其他卫生用品,复工复产规定约束等。经华南美国商会及当地政府协调,上述困难得到有效缓解。广东省商务厅还与华南美国商会合作,开设一条外国企业复工复产热线;华南美国商会还与各地方政府共同开展疫情防控及复工复产政策宣传。
  华南美国商会是一个旨在促进美中两国双边经贸关系发展的无党派、非营利性机构,于1995年成立,代表旗下的2300多家企业及个人会员。

年后首趟“核桃”中欧班列从乌鲁木齐出发前往土耳其

  据中新社乌鲁木齐2月20日电 (吴奇 张国庆)20日12时,伴随着嘹亮的汽笛声,一列44辆、满载着核桃的X9403次中欧班列驶出乌鲁木齐集结中心。春节过后,这趟由乌鲁木齐开出的首趟“核桃”中欧班列将经由霍尔果斯出境,途经哈萨克斯坦阿克套、阿塞拜疆巴库,最终抵达土耳其梅尔辛站。
  “这是我们公司节后通过铁路发运的首批货物,以前我们主要是发运化工产品,发运核桃还是第一次。”阿拉山口国际快铁有限公司业务经理刘刚说,这批核桃来自新疆南部的喀什、和田、阿克苏等地,节前已经完成集货。新冠肺炎疫情发生后,该公司与客户协调,推迟到节后发运。
  据了解,阿拉山口国际快铁有限公司自2018年开始在中欧班列乌鲁木齐集结中心发运货物,货物流向主要是中欧、中俄、西亚、中亚方向,每个月大概发运2~3列货物。“企业的需求旺盛,货源也比较充足,就是希望疫情能够尽快过去,能够多发运货物。”刘刚表示。
  “我们积极响应客户需求,为客户量身制定了个性化运输方案,多方协调出境沿线各国铁路及海关单位,在疫情风险可控的前提下,保障货物畅通运输。”中国铁路乌鲁木齐局集团有限公司下属新疆大陆桥(集团)有限责任公司副总经理姚成表示。
  在防控疫情阻击战中,新疆大陆桥(集团)有限责任公司主动与企业对接,了解其产能情况及运输计划,积极组织货源,开行中欧班列,满足企业日常发运需求。
  “节后首趟‘核桃’中欧班列的开行,为新疆开行的中欧班列恢复常态化运行打下了基础。当前,本地货源和铁路运能都较为充足。相信防控疫情攻坚战取得胜利后,中欧班列的开行规模将会有明显的增长。”中国铁路乌鲁木齐局集团有限公司货运部相关负责人说,新疆铁路根据当前疫情防控实际,前移服务关口,主动对接客户,积极协调联系政府部门,解决在汽车短驳运输、装卸人员机具配置等方面存在的困难,做到随时有货,随时组织装运,快速安排发车,让新疆产品能够顺利走出国门。

编辑 陈雪霏

远望5号船再出发

 据中新社北京2月20日电 (郭超凯 高超)记者从中国卫星海上测控部获悉,2月20日上午,远望5号船鸣响汽笛,缓缓驶离码头,奔赴太平洋某海域,执行其2020年首次海上测控任务。
  记者了解到,靠港休整期间,为了保证任务绝对成功,远望5号船在开展各项任务准备的同时,有效开展防疫工作,确保全体船员“零感染”,安全健康进入参试岗位。春节假期还未结束,该船就听令及时收拢出海参试人员,并对休假返回、外出培训、厂所学习等相应人员共50余名进行集中隔离观察。此外,远望5号船还针对性补给了相关药品、消毒用品和防护用品等,提前制定了海上防疫处置应急预案,具备出海后应对突发情况的能力。
  远望5号船船长刘剑飞告诉中新社记者:“目前防疫工作开展及时、顺利、有效,同时我船已按计划完成设备检修、联调演练、物资补给、放行审定、技术状态核查等各项准备工作,为圆满完成任务打下了坚实基础!”
  远望5号船是中国自主设计和建造的第三代航天测量船,十多年来远涉重洋数十次,主要担负对火箭高中低轨卫星和飞船及空间站等目标的海上测控通信任务,圆满完成以神舟、嫦娥、北斗为代表的63次海上测控任务,测控成功率达百分之百。

中国科学家研究发现:亚洲沙尘暴两千年前主因已为人类活动

据中新社兰州2月20日电 (刘晓倩 丁思)兰州大学西部环境教育部重点实验室、中国科学院青藏高原研究所组成的团队于北京时间20日发表最新成果于《自然—通讯》(Nature Communications),研究揭示,两千年前,人类活动已成为影响亚洲沙尘暴的主要因素。
  该论文的并列第一作者与通讯作者陈发虎表示,目前,中国对过去两千年来气候变化对社会经济及朝代更替的影响已有较好研究,拥有相关的可靠演化历史重建及其影响的关联研究。但是,对于东亚夏季风降水引起文明更替后的生态效应,一直是未被科学界探索的科学问题,特别是气候环境变化导致人类活动变化,进而影响生态环境改变还缺少科学考证。
  黄土高原是世界上面积最大、沉积最厚的沙尘暴堆积区,其面积达到64万平方公里。粉尘从源区扬起,大量沉降到黄土高原,该区域研究可揭示亚洲沙尘暴的历史。
  2009年9月,陈发虎带领的团队钻取了山西北部吕梁山山顶名为“公海”的高山湖泊的湖芯样本。“该湖泊位于黄土高原之上,没有受到直接人类活动干扰,是研究亚洲沙尘暴变化与人类活动关系的理想载体。”陈发虎说。
  通过提取样品中的沙尘暴组分(沉积物中直径为19至78微米的颗粒),该团队重建了过去2000年亚洲沙尘暴的历史。
  通过对比过去2000年沙尘暴记录、粉尘源区人口数量以及夏季风雨量,团队揭示了两千年来亚洲沙尘暴的变化规律——东亚夏季风增强时,降雨增加,生态趋好,战乱减少,王朝兴盛(如汉、唐、北宋、明朝等),人口迅速增加,农业发展,开垦草原和荒漠草原为农田,林草植被遭到破坏,进而粉尘源区扩展,最终导致沙尘暴活动快速上升;相反,东亚夏季风减弱时,沙尘暴活动减少。
  该研究表明,东亚夏季风降水变化不仅对中国朝代文明的更替具有重要影响,还产生巨大生态效应。
  中国科学院青藏高原研究所刘建宝研究员也是这项研究的主要参与者,他说,不论未来气候如何变化,减少人类活动是控制该地区沙尘暴活动唯一有效措施。因此,在该地区因地制宜实施可持续土地利用政策(如退耕还林还草)将十分重要。

中医药战“疫”:在质疑声中出奇兵建功勋

据中新社广州2月20日电 题:中医药战“疫”:在质疑声中出奇兵建功勋
  作者 蔡敏婕
  在湖北省中西医结合医院,一位重症患者经过中西医治疗,再配合练习八段锦,5天后,她脱离无创呼吸机,如今只需要普通吸氧辅助;在另一病区,5位重症新冠肺炎患者接受中西医协同治疗后也获得治愈并集体出院。新冠肺炎隔离病区里的中药香正日渐浓郁。
  中医药、血清治疗、各种抗病毒药物……随着对新冠病毒了解的深入,基于相关研发水平和前期的积累,多种药物和疗法正在临床发挥效力,在改善轻症、重症和危重症患者方面各自发挥重要作用。
  中国工程院院士钟南山此前指出,西药在实验室对新冠病毒有效,但是相当多西药在进入人体后无效,中药则不一样,连花清瘟胶囊等中药在新冠肺炎临床治疗已经常用,中药在使用后显示能减少病毒进入细胞,减轻炎症症状,这可以给中药使用提供一些证据。
  “一旦有证据,中药是可以放心用的,特别是针对一些早中期患者。”钟南山称。
  中医认为新冠肺炎属于“疫病”范畴,因感受疫戾之气,肺脏受损,基本病机特点为“风、热、湿、毒、淤”。目前,预防新冠肺炎,中医强调在做好隔离防护的基础上,还要提高自身抵抗力,巩固自身“阳气”。
  中新社记者注意到,对预防和治疗新冠肺炎的过程中,对采取西医治疗还是中医治疗上有着较大的分歧,很多人各执一词、莫衷一是,对中医的效果一直有质疑之声。
  粤港澳地区自古是岭南地区中医药的发展核心地区,具有深厚的中医药底蕴。其中,在有着抗“非典”经验的广东,在疫情初起阶段,中医药机构已为一线防控救治工作人员、集中隔离人员等提供防流感中药汤剂、艾灸等特色疗法。
  广东有11家定点医院申请调剂透解祛瘟颗粒(曾用名“肺炎1号方”)治疗新冠肺炎轻症确诊病人和疑似病人。广州市第八人民医院中医科主任谭行华表示,透解祛瘟颗粒的研究结果提示患者总体临床症状明显改善,总有效率达到94.21%。其中,在抑制肺部炎症方面,由于新冠肺炎的加重与细胞因子风暴有关,大量炎性因子被释放,很多临床实验都表明清热解毒的中药,可以抑制炎症因子的释放,有减轻肺部炎症的作用。
  广东省第二中医院肺病科主任陈宁介绍,截至2月18日,在湖北省中西医结合医院的广东中医团队累计收治124例,其中重型或危重型达116例,经中医药为主的中西医结合治疗,已出院或达到出院标准的50例。目前看来,对于轻症和普通型患者,中医药的及早介入能有效阻止病情向重症和危重症转化。在重症救治上,中医药通过改善症状,为抢救危重患者赢得时间。
  中国国家中医药管理局医疗救治专家组副组长、广东省中医院副院长张忠德介绍,在抢救危重患者方面,中医通过组合拳,包括使用中药汤剂、中成药、中药注射剂和针灸等综合治疗;西医利用多种方法支撑患者生命和控制并发症,“让中西医协同起效,缩短住院天数,提高重症病人向普通病人转变几率,减少重症向危重症的转化”。
  “科学总在质疑中进步的,中医也不例外。”广州中医药大学第一附属医院主任中医师林培政称,中医药学在中华民族历经疫病中不断发展完善,新冠肺炎的中药方与17年前的“非典”有所不同,原来“非典”初起的时候,很少在清热、解毒、化湿的基础上用扶正的药物,这是历年来在质疑当中,发展了理论和学术,“我们对中医药、中西医结合治疗新冠肺炎要有信心”

中方驳斥蓬佩奥“限制言论自由”谬论:《华尔街日报》种族歧视标题违反职业道德

据中新社北京2月20日电 (黄钰钦)针对美国务卿蓬佩奥指责中方吊销《华尔街日报》三名外国记者记者证为“限制言论自由”,中国外交部发言人耿爽20日在网上例行记者会上表示,这并非言论自由问题,《华尔街日报》公然选用带有种族歧视色彩的标题,违背客观事实,违反职业道德。
  有记者提问,美国国务卿蓬佩奥19日发表声明称,对中方“驱逐”《华尔街日报》3名记者表示“谴责”,并称中方不应限制言论自由。中方对此有何评论?
  耿爽表示,这并非是蓬佩奥先生所说的言论自由问题。《华尔街日报》发表攻击抹黑中国的评论文章,还公然选用带有种族歧视色彩的标题,违背客观事实,违反职业道德,引起中国人民极大愤慨,也遭到了国际社会的广泛谴责。
  “蓬佩奥先生动辄把言论自由挂在嘴边,难道公然发表侮辱一个国家和民族的歧视性文章,并且拒不承认错误,拒不道歉,就是美方所谓的言论自由吗?”耿爽说,“请问蓬佩奥先生:如果你认为《华尔街日报》有张口辱骂别人的自由,被辱骂者有没有还击的权利?”
  另有记者提问,发表辱华文章的是《华尔街日报》的评论部门,而那3名记者来自《华尔街日报》的新闻部门。在吊销这3名与辱华文章并无关联的记者的证件之前,中方是否曾要求《华尔街日报》道歉或尝试过其他调解措施?
  耿爽回应称,《华尔街日报》发表辱华文章后,中方多次向《华尔街日报》提出严正交涉,阐明中方严正立场,要求《华尔街日报》认识到错误的严重性,公开正式道歉并查处相关责任人,同时保留对该报采取进一步措施的权利。但遗憾的是,《华尔街日报》一直推诿、搪塞,既未公开正式道歉,也未查处相关责任人。
  “我们对《华尔街日报》的内部分工不感兴趣。”耿爽说,“世界上只有一份《华尔街日报》,该报必须为自己的言行负责。”(

综合消息:湖北外新增确诊病例16连降 29位外国公民在华确诊

   据中新社北京2月20日电 中国国家卫健委20日通报,19日全国新增确诊病例394例(湖北349例)。截至19日24时,全国现有确诊病例56303例,累计治愈出院病例16155例,累计死亡病例2118例,累计报告确诊病例74576例。累计收到港澳台地区通报确诊病例99例:香港特别行政区65例,澳门特别行政区10例,台湾地区24例。

    除湖北外全国新增确诊病例16连降 全国救治压力逐步减轻

    根据国家卫健委通报的数据,除湖北外,19日全国新增确诊病例45例,连续16天呈下降态势,这也是全国除湖北外的单日新增确诊病例连续3天低于100例。
    根据各地卫健委消息,包括辽宁、上海、福建、江苏、新疆、宁夏、青海、山西、内蒙古、西藏、云南、贵州等在内的多个省份19日无新增确诊病例。
    此外,全国新增治愈病例数连续第二天超过新增确诊病例数,且差值继续扩大。国家卫健委新闻发言人米锋表示,这说明医疗救治效果明显,救治压力正逐步减轻。

    中央指导组:非常战“疫”前所未有 29位外国公民在华确诊2人死亡

    国新办20日在武汉举行新闻发布会,中央赴湖北指导组成员在会议现场起身为疫情中的逝者默哀。
    中央指导组成员、国务院副秘书长丁向阳表示,这场突如其来的疫情,是新中国成立以来的一场非常战“役”,病毒来势之凶,疫情传播之烈,范围扩散之广,全社会所面临的挑战和压力之大,堪称是前所未有。
    丁向阳介绍称,截至19日18时,外国公民在华确诊病例有29例,其中湖北10例,有18人已治愈出院,2例死亡,9人正在接受隔离治疗。
    目前,武汉、湖北及全国的疫情形势出现向好的转变。丁向阳表示,经过大家的努力,下降趋势应该不会改变。但同时也必须清醒地认识到,湖北、武汉防控尽管有好的迹象、有积极的变化,但仍十分严峻,救治任务还十分艰巨。

    卫健委:推动卫生健康系统牺牲人员烈士申报工作 多举措保障一线医护人员

    国家卫健委人事司副司长段勇20日在国务院联防联控机制新闻发布会上称,退役军人事务部和中央军委政治工作部日前联合印发《关于妥善做好新冠肺炎疫情防控牺牲人员烈士褒扬工作的通知》,国家卫健委立即研究做好卫生健康系统牺牲人员烈士申报工作,要求各地第一时间推动落实,督促牺牲人员所在单位及时向退役军人事务部门申报烈士。
    据段勇介绍,为更好保护和保障一线医护人员,国家卫健委在印发《关于全力做好一线医务人员及其家属保障工作的通知》同时,会同相关部门在短时间之内快速出台了工伤认定、落实医护人员待遇、申请提高卫生防疫津贴标准、向承担疫情防控任务的医疗卫生机构核增绩效工资总额等一系列待遇保障的政策。
    针对新冠肺炎患者的医保问题,国家医保局医药管理司司长熊先军称,相关部门日前明确提出,确保患者不因费用问题影响就医,确保收治医院不因支付政策影响救治。无论是本地还是异地的患者都实行先救治后结算,在基本医保、大病保险、医疗救助等按规定支付后个人负担部分由财政给予补助。

    武汉结束拉网式大排查 发布“四类人员”分布情况

    17日-19日,武汉市重启为期3天的集中拉网式大排查,以确保确诊患者百分之百应收尽收、疑似患者百分之百核酸检测、发热病人百分之百进行检测、密切接触者百分之百隔离、小区村庄百分之百实行24小时封闭管理。
    排查结束后,武汉市20日公布了“四类人员”分布情况。其中确诊(含临床诊断)患者:医院(86家) 23334人,方舱(15家)9302人,居家972人(核酸检测为阴);疑似患者:医院485人,隔离点1406人。

零号病人-病毒到底从哪里来的?

 据中新社北京2月20日电 题:围绕“零号病人”的“终极三问”
  中新社记者  张素  马海燕
  围绕新冠肺炎疫情“零号病人”众说纷纭,中新社记者采访相关专家回答“终极三问”:是谁?从哪里来?要去哪里?

  “零号病人”是谁?

  首先要厘清什么是“零号病人”。浙江大学生命科学研究院教授王立铭说,对应的学术用语是“原发病例”,通俗理解为在这位患者身上“某种病毒首次从动物进入了人体”。
  以这次为例,研究表明蝙蝠最有可能是新冠病毒的天然宿主,最新发现是穿山甲比蝙蝠身上的冠状病毒更接近人类感染的新冠病毒。无论是哪种哺乳动物,接触了它并由此感染新冠病毒的人即“零号病人”。
  这里还涉及“指示病例”概念,即传染性疾病暴发时被公卫机构所确定发现的首位病人。大多数情况下“原发病例”早于“指示病例”出现。比如,严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)疫情的指示病例是广东厨师黄某,但经追踪发现,黄某出现病症以前已有其他SARS病例。
  “零号病人”一词来源有些“乌龙”。20世纪80年代,美国科学家研究艾滋病流行病学规律时,将把疾病带入美国的“原发病例”盖尔坦·杜加用英文字母“O”进行编号,结果被误读为阿拉伯数字“0”。“零号病人”说法不胫而走。
  需指出的是,艾滋病、埃博拉、SARS等疫情从未明确找到严格意义上的“零号病人”。2016年有研究者从20世纪70年代的血液样本中分离出HIV病毒,而公认的世界首次对艾滋病病例正式记载是在1981年;几内亚一名2岁男童曾被视为埃博拉疫情的首个病例,但研究者直言是因为“调查在这里停下”。

  去哪寻找“零号病人”?

  “寻找‘原发病例’是一件特别困难的事情。”王立铭说,最好在疫情暴发极早期、患者人数极少时完成。他坦言,找到新冠肺炎疫情“零号病人”的可能性不大,但仍要去找,溯源工作至少有三个层面:
  第一,研究病毒如何从动物进入人体;第二,研究病毒在人类世界的进化史;第三,研究病毒的传播规律。
  追寻“零号病人”需要厘清两个关键信息:何时、何地。
  在中国疾病预防控制中心最新发布的新冠肺炎流行病学特征分析报告中,报告病例起始日期是2019年12月8日。这也是武汉市卫生健康委员会此前通报新冠肺炎病例发病的最早日期。
  但据武汉市金银潭医院副院长黄朝林等人刊发在权威医疗期刊《柳叶刀》文章显示,第一例患者发病时间为2019年12月1日。另据该院重症监护室主任吴文娟介绍,这是一位年过七旬的男子,他没有去过武汉华南海鲜市场的记录。有学者说,考虑到潜伏期因素,该患者应在2019年11月被病毒感染。
  对于溯源地点,包括军事科学院军事医学研究院微生物流行病研究所研究员曹务春、中华微生物学会副理事长邵一鸣等在内的多位专家都提到“重返华南海鲜市场”。他们认为,虽然市场为防疫已进行消毒,但仍可以追踪动物是如何被运来的。黄朝林等专家则认为,从发病情况来看华南海鲜市场不是唯一的暴露源。
  “如果在华南海鲜市场出现的是‘人传人’而不是‘动物传人’,很值得追踪‘零号病人’。因为由此可以追到病毒究竟从何而来。”中山大学附属三院感染科副主任林炳亮对中新社记者说。

  这场追寻走向何方?

  诚然,当下有许多比寻找“零号病人”更为紧迫的工作,但这并不意味着不可追寻。中国疾控中心已陆续派出160名病毒溯源、流行病学调查、实验室检测等领域的专家赴湖北。
  “科研、疾控、临床、动物保护等部门要联合起来。”曹务春此前受访时说,找到病毒源头可以打消疑惑,也可对未来突发传染病疫情防控积累经验。
  王立铭注意到,新冠肺炎疫情发展提供了多样化研究场景,比如在新加坡、日本等地,因为患者以输入性为主,基本上可以找到二代病例与输入性患者的交集,特别适合研究病毒从一位或几位“零号病人”到大规模流行的传播规律。而在疫情最为严重的武汉,如果尽可能采集患者体内病毒基因组样本,比较它们的序列差异,“将帮助我们更好理解病毒进入人类世界以后的进化史”。
  专家提醒,在追寻“零号病人”的过程中需要警惕随时可能出现的“污名化”“阴谋论”。以史为鉴,无论是被妖魔化为“艾滋哥伦布”的盖尔坦·杜加,还是被迫隐姓埋名的黄某,他们因“身份”遭受的痛苦不亚于病毒本身。
  中国科学院武汉病毒研究所近日郑重声明,2015年从该所毕业的黄姓同学不是所谓的“零号病人”。该所19日又发出一封公开信,再度声明“某研究生是‘零号病人’”“新冠病毒源于人工合成”等是谣言,“对坚守科研一线的我所科研人员造成极大的伤害”。
  好在越来越多的有识之士意识到由虚假讯息造成的“信息疫情”极具危害。继世界卫生组织计划对“信息疫情”开展研究之后,来自英、德、美、澳等国的27名病毒学家在《柳叶刀》联合发声,他们反对阴谋论,支持奋战在疫情一线的中国科研工作者。
  或许,谣言如同“病毒”,我们也需提防出现“零号病人”。(

编辑 陈雪霏     

中科院专家呼吁以“胡萝卜加大棒”促病毒数据及时发布

据中新社北京2月20日电 (记者 孙自法)“在疫情防控的关键时期,及时发布病毒数据更该是我们的道义和责任。希望学术界能够促进数据的传播与共享,避免不必要的发布延误。”
  中国科学院官方微信20日下午发布了中科院北京基因组研究所研究员、《国家科学评论》生命科学评审组长吴仲义和中科院脑科学与智能技术卓越创新中心学术主任、《国家科学评论》执行主编蒲慕明的上述共同呼吁。
  这两位知名专家表示,鉴于当前疫情的严峻形势,选择不公开病毒相关的数据有悖科研道德。应对数据发布,国内已经建立一些开放数据库或开放数据分析平台以及学术期刊,应该采用“胡萝卜加大棒”的方式促进数据发表。
  “胡萝卜”方面,他们建议期刊接收发表初步处理的组学数据,更进一步,基于先期提交的数据完善的分析结果(即便没有新的数据产出),也应该随后继续接收。“大棒”方面,期刊应当对那些隐瞒公共卫生安全数据的论文严肃对待,拒绝发表这种不道德学术行为的研究。“正如不符合动物实验伦理的研究无可转圜地拒稿,隐瞒对公共卫生安全至关重要数据的行为,业内更应该秉持零容忍的态度”。
  吴仲义和蒲慕明说,2020年伊始,由新型冠状病毒引发的肺炎疫情席卷全国。两周前,疫情日益严峻,他们曾呼吁同行,将此病毒的基因组数据尽快公开,因为这些数据对全球公共卫生安全有重大意义,国际学术界也通过不同渠道紧急敦促数据共享。然而事与愿违,需求越来越迫切,而国内数据的发布却非常缓慢。“现在,我们再次呼吁加快新冠病毒的数据发布速度”。
  目前,病毒在人群中进化的初步分析仅能基于有限的公共数据,截至2月10日,共有55条新冠病毒基因组可公开获取。其中,在1月22日以前获取的31份测序数据几乎全部来自中国(仅有1例来自美国),然而1月22日以后,余下的24份数据一律源于境外。“数据背景的断层,使我们很难在时间与地理上找到连续的规律”。
  他们指出,关于测序数据是否应该公开发布和自由获取,在国内网络上颇有争论,根源在于如何保护研究贡献、影响知识产权。研究人员对“高分期刊”过度看重的不良风气,在这次疫情里已显示不仅仅是学术圈内的问题,扣留数据通常不会干扰社会的正常运行,但在当前的危急情形下,影响会严重而深远。的确,第一批发布病毒序列的论文阐明病毒有人传人的可能,但是没及时告知社会。未来回顾这次疫情,这几天的延迟可能是关键。
  这两位专家提醒,虽然看起来病毒似乎进化迟缓,但是有一些信号不能掉以轻心。最坏的可能性是,经历了两个月的“慢进化”模式之后,新冠病毒“摸索”出进化的途径,开始蠢蠢欲动。前述推测不确定性都很高,因为样本数实在不够大,“只有完整并及时地发布数据,才有可能尘埃落定”。(

中方:坚决反对印度政要赴中国藏南地区活动

据中新社北京2月20日电 (黄钰钦)中国外交部发言人耿爽20日在网上例行记者会上表示,中方坚决反对印度政要赴中国藏南地区活动。
  有记者提问,据报道,印度内政部长阿米特·沙于2月20日赴中印边界东段地区,参加所谓“阿鲁纳恰尔邦”“建邦日”活动。请问中方对此有何评论?
  耿爽表示,中国政府对中印边界东段地区即中国藏南地区的立场是一贯的、明确的,从不承认所谓的“阿鲁纳恰尔邦”。
  他指出,中方坚决反对印度政要赴中国藏南地区活动,印方此举侵犯中国领土主权,破坏边境地区稳定,损害两国政治互信,违背双方有关共识。
  “中方敦促印方停止采取任何导致边界问题复杂化的举动,以实际行动维护边境地区的和平与安宁。”耿爽说。(完)

余艳红:大量临床实践证实 中西医结合治疗有效

据中新社武汉2月20日电 (记者 马芙蓉)国务院新闻办公室20日在武汉召开新闻发布会。中央指导组成员、国家中医药管理局副局长余艳红在会上表示,大量临床实践证实,中西医结合治疗新冠肺炎效果是肯定的、有效的。
  她介绍了两个重大中医药课题研究成果。其中,张伯礼院士、刘清泉教授团队在武汉的102例临床对照研究显示,中西医结合治疗轻症患者,临床症状消失时间缩短2天,体温恢复正常时间缩短1.7天,平均住院天数缩短2.2天,CT影像好转率提高了22%,临床治愈率提高33%,普通转重症比率降低27.4%,淋巴细胞提高70%。
  另一个为黄璐琦院士团队在武汉的临床研究。结果显示,中西医结合治疗重症患者,住院天数、核酸转阴时间平均缩短2天以上,血氧饱和度明显提升,脱离吸氧时间缩短,淋巴细胞百分数、乳酸脱氢酶等理化指标明显改善。
  余艳红透露,10个省临床救治观察进一步证实,清肺排毒汤有良好的治疗效果,第六版国家诊疗方案已将其作为通用方推广。
  余艳红指出,目前中医药参与疫情防控取得阶段性进展,参与救治的广度和深度不断提高,中西医密切协作、联合攻关,发现了一批有效方药和中成药,在治疗新冠肺炎中取得了较好疗效。她表示,将进一步落实细化中西医结合机制,进一步发挥中医药作用。
  余艳红介绍,已从全国中医药系统抽调近3200名医务人员驰援湖北,组建4批588人的国家中医医疗队,进驻武汉金银潭医院、雷神山医院、湖北省中西结合医院、接管江夏方舱医院。(完)  

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