桂从友大使就中瑞经贸合作接受《瑞典日报》记者专访

 北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 11月16日,桂从友大使在使馆接受《瑞典日报》记者托恩瓦尔专访,就中瑞经贸关系回答提问。全文如下。

  桂大使说,听说你不久前去中国进行了采访,你感觉中国怎么样?

记者说,我觉得中国很大,令人印象深刻。我主要关注经贸商业领域,中国有很多值得报道的新闻。

  问:首先,请大使先生对中瑞经贸关系作一个总体评价。

答:中瑞经贸关系历史久、基础好、成果大、前景广阔。中瑞经贸关系有300多年历史。特别是270多年前,瑞典“哥德堡”号商船远航中国,从中国运回大量丝绸、茶叶、瓷器,开启了中瑞海上丝绸之路合作。1950年5月9日,瑞典在西方国家中率先同中国建交,揭开了两国友好合作的新篇章。瑞典也是最早同中方签署经贸、科技合作政府间协定的西方国家。这些都为中瑞经贸关系不断发展奠定了良好基础。

特别是中国改革开放40年来,中国向包括瑞典在内的世界各国打开大门搞合作,中瑞经贸关系取得突飞猛进的发展。1950年中瑞建交时双边贸易额只有500万美元,到1994年双边贸易额已达10亿美元。此后,随着中国经济快速发展,中瑞经贸合作迅速扩大,去年双边贸易额达150亿美元,同比增长近20%,创历史新高。瑞典25年来首次在对华贸易中实现顺差,达9亿美元。今年1至9月双边贸易额126亿美元,同比增长近18%,同期瑞典对华贸易顺差9亿美元,与去年全年持平。预计今年中瑞双边贸易额和瑞典对华贸易顺差都将创历史新高。这些数据充分说明中瑞经贸合作的良好势头和广阔前景。

当前中国经济继续保持中高速增长势头,瑞典经济也稳定增长。我们两国都坚持开放发展。中国将进一步扩大对外开放,特别是扩大从国外进口。不久前在上海举办的首届中国国际进口博览会就是中国主动向世界敞开大门、开放市场的又一重大举措。

问:我们知道最近中国政府出台了一系列新政策、新法规,进一步放宽外国对华投资的限制。但包括瑞典在内,国际上仍有不少投资者认为,外国企业对华投资和中国企业在国外投资的条件不对等,比如外国投资者在华投资必须选择当地合作伙伴,某些行业外资仍有占股比例限制。您怎么看?

答:中国改革开放40年来,积极与各国开展经贸投资合作,既带动了中国经济全面发展,同时也惠及其他国家。如果像你所说的,外国企业对华投资和中国企业到外国投资还有些条件不对等,这也是由客观现实决定的。美、欧等西方发达国家的经济发展水平远远高于中国。中国是世界最大的发展中国家。把我们发展中国家吸引外资条件同市场、经济发展水平都远高于我们水平的西方发达国家做机械硬性的对等比较,是不公平、不客观的。

尽管如此,中国从自身经济发展需要、产业结构调整和消费升级出发,采取了一系列扩大对外开放的新举措,目标就是进一步改善营商环境,对中外投资者一视同仁。世界银行最新报告显示,中国的营商环境在世界190个经济体中排名46位,较去年上升32位。今年以来中国政府大幅降低上千种商品进口税率,中国关税总水平已降至7.5%。中国还大幅放宽市场准入,缩减外商投资负面清单,放宽外资金融保险等行业的占股比例。我们已经彻底放开汽车行业外资占股比例,允许外国企业独资在华设厂。美国著名汽车厂商特斯拉已经在上海独资设厂。这些都足以说明中国进一步扩大对外开放的决心和力度。不能将发达国家和发展中国家的相关条件做硬性比较,希望批评者能看到中国对外开放程度的大幅提升。

问:我们注意到近10年来中国对瑞典投资大幅增加。中方不仅对瑞典大企业很感兴趣,比如收购了沃尔沃汽车以及沃尔沃集团的部分股权,对瑞典中小高新技术企业也很感兴趣。而且中国来瑞典投资并购的多数是民营企业。中国政府对中国民营企业赴海外投资怎么看?

答:中国改革开放40年经济快速发展的一条重要经验就是大力吸引外资。长期以来,瑞典的爱立信、ABB等老牌跨国企业对中国进行了大量投资,为中国经济社会发展作出了积极贡献。瑞典企业对华投资累计已达50亿美元。我们欢迎瑞典企业继续抓住中国产业结构调整和消费升级的重要机遇,继续拓展对华投资。瑞典企业对华投资多多益善。也希望你把我这些意见转达给瑞典工商企业界。

随着中国经济发展,中国一大批企业特别是民营、私营以及个体企业迅速壮大。他们具备强大实力,也愿意走出国门对外投资。这既是把中国改革开放的红利带给其他国家,也是对其他国家长期对华投资的回报。瑞典有发达的市场经济、高质量产品、先进技术,是中国企业的重要投资合作对象。民营经济是中国社会主义市场经济的重要组成部分,贡献了60%以上的国内生产总值,对国民经济发展、促进就业、提高人民生活水平发挥着越来越重要的作用。相应的,民营企业成为对外投资的主力军也是很自然的事。

问:中国民营企业对外投资有通盘规划吗?他们选择重点投资领域时,背后有中国政府引导还是自主选择?

答:民营企业投资首先是企业行为,完全根据企业自身发展需要。同时一些民营企业限于自身条件,对外国国情不太了解,出现过一些民营企业对外投资受挫甚至失败的案例。中国政府在鼓励中国民营企业对外投资的同时,也为它们提供服务指导,要求相关部门包括驻外使领馆向企业介绍相关国家国情,供企业参考。同时,中国政府通过制定产业政策,对民营企业对外投资行为进行指导。简单说,中国企业对外投资,既要符合中国的产业政策,也要符合目的地国的产业政策。

  问:现在全世界都在关注两个领域合作,一个是应对气候变化以及环境高新技术,另一个是“一带一路”倡议。大使先生对中瑞在这两个领域的合作怎么看?

  答:中瑞在这两个领域的合作面临新机遇,前景看好。中瑞两国都坚定支持气候变化《巴黎协定》,致力于百分之百履行协定义务。中国不再像过去那样片面追求GDP增长,而是把绿色、环保和可持续发展作为经济发展的优先考量。绿色经济已成为中国经济发展的主旋律。瑞典在绿色经济和可持续发展方面世界领先。在这一领域中瑞是天然的合作伙伴。中国企业把绿色、环保、清洁能源作为对瑞典合作的重点领域。许多访问瑞典的中国政府和企业代表团都会考察哈马碧生态城。今年以来多个中国城市与哈马碧生态城签署了合作协议。生态城管委会也积极帮助中国一些城市培养智慧城市建设专家。我记不清多少次访问生态城了。相信中瑞双方为共同应对气候变化开展的绿色、可持续发展合作在两国合作中的比重会不断提高。

  关于中瑞“一带一路”合作,270多年前“哥德堡号”远航中国,就开启了中瑞海上丝绸之路合作,双方在“一带一路”框架下也是天然的合作伙伴。瑞典政府和企业界对开展“一带一路”合作兴趣浓厚,在双方共同推动下,已经取得了看得见、摸得着的成果。“一带一路”合作首先是基础设施互联互通。今年8月,中国东航开通了上海至斯德哥尔摩的直航,这是继中国国航30年前开通北京至斯德哥尔摩直航后中瑞间第二条空中直航。9月中旬,瑞典达拉纳省因申市至中国江西赣州市的中瑞首趟中欧班列开通,将达拉纳优质的云杉木材运至中国江西赣州市,再从中国和班列沿线国家运回瑞典进口商品。班列全程只需16天,时间短、运费低、效益高。哥德堡港务局负责人也向我们提出希望开通哥德堡至中国的海上直航,我们正在积极推动。此外,贸易投资合作也是“一带一路”合作的重要内容。我们也希望拓展金融、人文等领域交流合作,不断丰富中瑞“一带一路”合作的内涵。

  问:现在瑞典也有人猜测中国是不是要来瑞典建高铁,包括瑞典境内以及连接挪威的线路。与此同时,瑞典社会对中国大规模投资也有担忧。您怎么看?

  答:你不久前刚刚去过中国,乘坐了高铁,相信你对中国高铁有亲身体验,我就不多说了。我们也知道近年来瑞典政府一直在讨论修建高铁计划,但还没有结论。我们对中瑞开展高铁合作持开放态度。只要瑞方有需要,我们愿在技术、资金、施工等方面提供必要协助,开展合作。

  至于瑞典一些人对中国投资有担忧,我不知道他们有什么好担忧的。随着中国企业走出国门到世界各地投资,中国对外投资规模不断扩大,每年超过1000亿美元。中国投资促进了当地经济发展和就业,为当地人民带来了实实在在的好处。中国对瑞典累计投资已达36亿美元,创造了2万多个工作岗位。吉利收购沃尔沃汽车后,迅速打开了沃尔沃汽车在中国的销售市场,并带动了沃尔沃汽车在世界其他国家的销售。去年沃尔沃在华销售约12万辆汽车,全球约60万辆。这是10年前濒临破产的沃尔沃所不能想象的。瑞典哥德堡地区的就业主要依靠汽车产业。如果没有吉利盘活沃尔沃汽车,很难想象哥德堡地区就业状况会如何。吉利沃尔沃还投资数亿美元在哥德堡设立研发中心,给当地带来了新的就业机会。我们对这样的合作感到高兴,这样的合作有什么可担心的?中国对外投资与中国对外援助一样,不附加任何政治条件,也不干涉他国内政。中国政府一贯要求本国企业遵守当地法律法规和风俗习惯,对违规企业还要采取惩戒措施。如果你发现中国企业在瑞典投资不符合瑞典产业政策、违反瑞典法律法规和风俗习惯的情况,可以直接向我们反映,我们会敦促中国企业立即纠正。中国正不断改善投资环境,为外国企业来华投资创造更好条件。我们也希望瑞典为中国企业提供相应的便利。

  问:瑞典社会外资的疑虑不仅针对中国,也针对其他国家。比如瑞典法玛西亚阿斯特拉两家制药公司分别被美国英国企业收购后,很多生产和研发部门都搬瑞典。您对此怎么看?

  答:投资合作是以企业为主体,按市场原则运作。瑞方如果有这方面担忧,可以同美、英投资商商谈,让他们顾及瑞方的合理关切。

  问:现在中国企业不仅投资包括瑞典在内西方国家的传统工业项目,也开始进军媒体和文化产业。比如腾讯公司是瑞典在线音乐公司Spotify的大股东,中国还进军好莱坞等传媒产业。中国企业为什么这么做?西方企业投资中国的文化传媒产业有限制吗?

  答:中国媒体文化产业愿与世界各国开展互利合作。任何投资合作都是两厢情愿的。中国企业投资西方媒体文化产业要尊重当地政府和企业意见,西方企业投资中国媒体和文化产业也要尊重中国政府和企业的意见。

  问:关于中瑞经贸合作,大使先生还有要补充吗?

  答:刚刚成功举办的首届中国国际进口博览会为瑞典扩大对华出口带来了新机遇。瑞典在对华贸易中保有顺差并且继续扩大,但为了满足中国人民对高质量产品的需求,我们愿意进一步扩大自瑞典进口。瑞典基础设施大臣耶纳路特率领200余人的瑞典政商界代表团出席此次进博会,瑞典企业见证签约金额约5.1亿美元。瑞典的猪肉、奶酪、燕麦等生产商也都提出要对华出口,我们都予以积极推动。如果你和你的同事有瑞典企业希对华出口的信息,我们愿意提供协助和服务。推动中瑞经贸合作,既是我作为大使的职责,瑞典媒体也应发挥积极作用,通过你们的报道,向中国民众推介瑞典高质量产品,向瑞典民众推荐中国的高质量产品。让我们共同努力,推动中瑞经贸等各领域友好合作持续深入发展。

Winners at Stockholm International Film Festival 2018

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 17 (Greenpost) -The winners of the 29th Stockholm International Film Festival where announced during an award ceremony at Social At Six in the Swedish capital. The festival’s big winner was the Canadian director Jasmin Mozaffari, whose feature debut Firecrackers was awarded the prestigious Bronze Horse for Best Film as well as the award for Best Actress. Vitaly Mansky’s documentary Putin’s Witnesses about the Russian president’s controversial rise to power received the Bronze Horse for Best Documentary. See all the winners below.

Best Film at Stockholm International Film Festival 2018: Firecrackers by Jasmin Mozaffari

The Brazilian director Beatriz Seigner was presented with this year’s Stockholm Impact Award for her supernatural refugee story Los Silencios. Stockholm International Film Festival and the City of Stockholm founded the award in 2015, and the winning director receives one million SEK and a unique statuette designed by the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei.

Actress Alba August was named 2018’s Stockholm Rising Star, and the director Julia Thelin won the short film scholarship 1 Km Film. Victor Polster won the award for Best Actor for his role in Girl, and Michaela Kurimsky won the award for Best Actress for her role in Firecrackers. The celebrated film Capernaum by Nadine Labaki won the award for Best Script.

Author and music journalist Ametist Azordegan hosted the awards ceremony, and the rapper Naod performed live on stage.

Winners at Stockholm International Film Festival 2018:

STOCKHOLM XXIX COMPETITION
Best Film: Firecrackers by Jasmin Mozaffari
Best Director: All good by Eva Trobisch
Best Debut: Skate Kitchen by Crystal Moselle
Best Script: Capernaum by Nadine Labaki, Jihad Hojeily, Michelle Keserwany, Georges Kabbaz and Khaled Mouzanar
Best Actor: Victor Polster for Girl
Best Actress: Michaela Kurimsky for Firecrackers
Best Cinematography: Hiroshi Okuyama for Jesus

STOCKHOLM XXIX DOCUMENTARY COMPETITION
Best Documentary: Putin’s Witnesses by Vitaly Mansky

Stockholm Impact AwardLos Silencios by Beatriz Seigner
Stockholm Rising Star: Alba August
Stockholm Lifetime Achievement Award: Mary Harron
Stockholm Visionary Award: Asghar Farhadi
Stockholm Achievement Award: Gunnel Lindblom

STOCKHOLM XXIX SHORT FILM COMPETITION
Best Short Film: The Judgement by Raymund Ribay Gutierrez

1 KM FILM SCHOLARSHIP RECIPIENT: Julia Thelin
1 KM FILM HONORARY MENTION: Ernst De Geer

FIPRESCI Award for Best FilmCold War by Pawel Pawlikowski

Read more about this year’s jury members here: https://www.stockholmfilmfestival.se/sv/years-jury-members

Read all motivations here: https://bit.ly/2DHXOcL

This year’s Audience Award will be announced on Monday, November 19. In total, 17 awards have been presented during the 29th Stockholm International Film Festival.

Additional awards that have been presented during Stockholm International Film Festival are the Swedish Film Institute’s new initiative Wild Card, where Fanny Ovesen, Jerry Carlsson and Ernst De Geer have received 400 000 SEK each for the development of their first feature films. The Swedish Film Institute also presented the initiative Short Pitch, where filmmaker Disa Östrand won financial support for her next short film Badet.

Los Silencios, this year’s winner of the Stockholm Impact Award, will be screened on Saturday, November 17, at 7:00 pm at Klarabiografen. After the film, the press and public will have the opportunity to ask questions to the winning director, Beatriz Seigner.

The two-time winning film Firecrackers by Jasmin Mozaffari will be screened at Sture movie theater at 9:15 pm on Sunday, November 18.

今日头条:上海交通大学副校长徐学敏教授被瑞典皇家理工学院授予荣誉博士学位

北欧绿色邮报网和北欧中华网联合报道(记者陈雪霏)– 上海交大副校长、生物医学工程教授徐学敏16日在斯德哥尔摩获颁瑞典皇家理工学院颁发的荣誉博士学位。

瑞典皇家理工学院校长西布里特.卡尔松宣布授予徐学敏荣誉博士学位。

徐学敏接受荣誉博士帽,博士手环和博士证书。

一同获得荣誉博士学位的还有来自丹麦、美国和瑞典的四位教授。

中国驻瑞典大使桂从友对徐教授表示祝贺。中国驻瑞典大使馆教育参赞曹叠峰博士(右一),瑞典皇家理工学院教授胡晓明(左一)和瑞典皇家理工学院前副院长Ramon Wyss(右二)参加授予仪式。

徐学敏表示,瑞典皇家理工学院(KTH)是一所历史悠久的世界著名高等学府,创新力非常强,获颁瑞典皇家理工学院荣誉博士学位,她深感荣幸。

徐学敏1991年在美国伊利诺伊大学获博士学位,主要从事热物理在癌症治疗方面的应用。她提到 “我们发展了一种通过热物理刺激原位的癌细胞释放抗原,来激发全身免疫的研究,这与当前流行的癌症肿瘤免疫治疗相吻合。研究目前已进入临床实验阶段。”

在谈到如何坚守科研之路,徐学敏寄语青年人要认准一个方向,坚持到底。在科研中也许为遇到这样或那样的困难,可能有人会因为困难而轻易换方向,但从长远来看,科研路上必须有独特的想法,瞄准目标执着、坚定地走下去,才能够收获成功。要注重吸纳借鉴不同文化的长处,要思维开放,视野开阔,注重多学科交叉,善于发现新的创新突破点。同时,她还鼓励学生们注重培养兴趣爱好和增强体育锻炼,丰富业余生活。

作为上海交大副校长,徐学敏强调交大注重培养学生的全球化视野,充分发掘其创新潜质。自2013年双方签署战略合作备忘录和双硕士学位联合培养备忘录以来,交大与瑞典皇家理工学院在学生交换和学位项目等方面合作活跃;2016年9月两校签署战略合作发展基金协议,通过种子基金项目的实施进一步促进了两校教师的交流与合作。访瑞期间,她与瑞典皇家理工学院深入交流,双方探讨如何在工程教育方面进行创新与合作,并在现有合作的基础上,进一步推动科研和教学的深入对接与合作。

徐学敏在获得美国伊利诺大学(UIUC)热物理博士学位后,先后在美国纽约大学、普渡大学机械工程系及生物医学工程系工作十多年,并获得终生教席。她也是前教育部系统生物医学重点实验室主任,上海交大Med-X研究院院长。主要从事荧光分子影像,热物理在生物医学中的应用以及生命现象中的热物理问题研究。研究方向有肺癌同步辐射早期诊断的研究、微纳米药物热靶向输送研究、肿瘤热物理治疗新方法与微循环损伤机理的研究、热物理与细胞相互作用的系统生物学研究、肿瘤早期诊断生物标志物研究。

图文:陈雪霏

观点:贫困与禁忌

北欧绿色邮报网主编 陈雪霏

今天早上起来,我用开水熬了点麦片,这样省的需要时间长,我忘了,然后就会糊锅。用开水,两分钟就开了。马上起锅,又香又好。我拿出大马哈鱼的鱼子酱,舀一汤勺,然后,拌一拌,开吃。没有咸菜,将就吧。

看着那些鱼子,让我想起小时候,我们家其实有很多鱼。生活异常贫困,但是,我父亲很勤快,他会头天晚上把鱼篓放在河里,然后,早上天不亮就把鱼篓拿回家,一篓鱼够我们吃很多天。春天的时候,鱼子很多。

我大哥要吃鱼籽,但是,我奶奶说,不行,吃鱼子不会数数。现在想那就是因为鱼子太多,查不过来,所以,就不能吃。但是,因为没有粮食吃,没有肉吃,好不容易有一点蛋白质,我大哥说,我宁可不会数数,于是,把鱼子都吃了。

我们小的时候,我妈说,小孩不能吃猪蹄,因为如果吃了猪蹄,就会歪歪脚,把鞋帮当鞋底。其实,我没吃猪蹄,也是把鞋帮当鞋底,因此,屁股挨打。小孩也不能吃猪尾巴,因为如果吃了猪尾巴,半夜里走路会感觉后边有尾巴跟着,会害怕。确实,我们家门前的路都没有路灯,漆黑一片。如果晚上出来走路,总是会深一脚浅一脚的。因为路上还有马车的车辙印。

妈妈这么一说,我们小孩子就会见到那些东西生厌,看着爸爸啃猪蹄,吃猪头猪尾巴,都觉得不怎样。为什么?因为那个时候,太穷了。我妈妈对我爸爸好,因为我爸爸常年有胃病,所以就想尽一切办法满足他的胃的需求。想吃好的猪肉,没那么多钱买,或者全家九口人加请客都吃了。剩下的这些零碎就给我爸爸吃。

当时觉得一切都顺理成章。但是,现在想来,这是因为贫困,极度贫困造成的这么多的说法。其实,现在,如果孩子愿意吃,恨不得天天给,但是,人们已经完全不稀罕这些东西了。

同样,我觉得某些禁忌可能就是因为没有。比如一些内陆的人不吃鱼。这是因为他们有的是牛羊,都是好的牛羊肉,为什么要吃鱼呢?鱼是那么稀罕的东西呀。

我记得曾经看过一个电影叫《上帝疯了》,讲的是南部非洲纳米比亚一代的土著人,布什曼人,棕色人种。浑身裸露,只有关键部位遮一下。一天,天上掉下一个瓶子,一个捡到以后,就和所有的人一起商量,怎么办。大家认为这个外来之物肯定不吉祥,所以要把它扔到很远很远的地方。等他们走了很远的路以后,发现了大海,于是把瓶子扔进了大海,这才放心。

通过这些故事,我想说的是,如果你绕地球走过三圈,见多识广,你有足够的经济基础,想吃什么就吃什么,慢慢地,你会发现,当你能吃大鱼大肉的时候,你也会尽力少吃,因为大鱼大肉多了也不健康。当你有了车,可以随意开的时候,你也可能继续选择骑自行车,因为这样可以锻炼身体。

昨天,我和同事里克见面,他就是骑自行车来回,70岁的人了,他不开车,却是背个吉他,骑自行车,还在准备各种演唱会。精神和年轻人没有差别,甚至比我这年轻人还要精神很多。他说他每周进行三次体育锻炼。同时,进出要骑自行车。

看来生活其实是一个由简入奢,再由奢入俭的一个过程。到了老年,人们容易有高血压,心脏病之类的毛病,更需要经常适度运动,光吃药只是一个方面,要想真正感觉好,还是需要适度锻炼,参加一些活动的。

 

时评:瑞典的未来路在何方?

北欧绿色邮报评论员陈雪霏

昨天采访一个瑞典林业方面的专家时,他说,他对瑞典的大选情况感觉很不解,不知道为什么9月9日进行的大选,如今两个月过去了,居然还定不出一个政府内阁来。

今天早上,议会开会投票,第二轮让温和党党首克里斯特松先当首相,结果,投票结果失败。

这个结果在意料之中。因为如果瑞典7个政党一直各持己见,不能达成任何妥协,那么,僵局将永远无解。最可能的就是这样一轮又一轮投票,却无法成功。

为什么会这样呢?因为民主党成为第三大党,占17%的选票,那么,如果想让民主党不能发挥作用,也不想让左翼党,第四大党发挥负面作用,那么唯一的解决办法就是剩下的五大政党或者是六大政党达成妥协,只有这样才能形成一个多数政府。

如果达成少数政府,有目共睹,过去四年,政府的效率并不十分令人满意。因此,社民党支持率也开始下降。但是,社民党依然是得票最多的党,纵观各个党派的党首,能够继续撑起一片天空,能够代表大多数的依然是社民党,及党首勒文。因此,最好的出路应该是议会议长的第一个方案,那就是让社民党的勒文首相组阁,然后包括环境党,中间党,自由党,温和党和基民党都支持。这样就是六个政党的大联合。而且是温和党和社民党中左和中右的大联合。

或者,左翼党如果能够完全支持社民党,不做任何讨价还价,那么也可以是红绿联合,再加中间党和自由党。目前是中间党不能接受左翼党。但是,左翼党在尤纳斯的带领下,这次大选结果不错,成为第四大党。

现在看安妮和克里斯特松,都不太成熟。 或许再历练一届政府以后,或许可能。

瑞典以前是有主动达成妥协的传统的,但是,现在,好像各个政党都有自己的小算盘。温和党和基民党似乎是无论怎样都愿意成为执政党,如果是这样,就要主动接受社民党党首作为首相。然后,问题就可以迎刃而解了。

有人担心,这样的妥协可能会为下届政府埋下不利的种子,但实际上,如果你们有能力,通过执政更有机会在下一次选举中获得多数。

Report: Finland considered a safe and secure country for businesses

 Stockholm, Nov. 14(Greenpost) — As many as 95% of managers with foreign background thought that Finland is a safe and secure country to do business in. Safe and equal work environment, flexible working hours and good work-life balance were listed as strengths of the Finnish working life, while Finnish companies could improve communication practices and make better use of the strengths of employees coming from different cultures.

人物专访:卡尔松–瑞中文化交流的使者

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者陈雪霏)– 11月14日,我提前预约到斯德哥尔摩市中心的唐饭店去赴约,等到我发现我记错时间正要离开的时候,突然看到使馆文化处的普参和一位瑞典朋友。

结果一交换名片,我发现这位卡尔松先生原来我也曾见过。他是于默奥瑞中友好协会主席。

去拿自助午餐之前,他立即给我打开一个视频,让我边看包,边欣赏视频。结果我一看真让人笑出声来。原来,一位85岁的瑞典老奶奶汉娜用山西普通话讲述了她在山西出生长大的一段故事。原来,她的父亲是瑞典的基督教牧师。她说,她在山西武镇出生,小的时候,听着中国话的摇篮曲睡着,想念中国的饺子,中国的各种食品。会说会唱。她说,她希望子孙们到中国去投资,也祝福武镇的乡亲们。

等我听完,卡尔松先生也拿来了饭。我们开始聊了起来。原来,他和20多个其他瑞中协会的会员和对中国感兴趣的人到中国去旅游,参观了山西。他们了解到当初瑞典著名汉学家高本汉也是在山西搞调研专门研究汉语的结构的。

据了解,太平天国的一个领袖曾就就是瑞典的牧师给洗礼的。所以,传播基督教的传教士里边也包括瑞典传教士。他们在山西建立医院和教育等活动。中国的义和团运动兴起,专门打击这些传教士。所以,山西的传教士也受到了打击。后来,清政府赔偿了他们一部分损失,但是,瑞典传教士们经过讨论,决定这部分钱不能带走。因此他们就捐助建立了山西大学。

卡尔松先生是1950年出生在瑞典北部大城市于默奥,大约10万人口。他的父亲是林场主。他本人也有林地。1964年,他开始收听短波广播,北京电台。北京电台就是Radio Beijing, 在1991年改名为中国国际广播电台, China Radio International.  本人从1990年到2005年在中国国际广播电台整整工作15年,全职。

卡尔松先生说,那个时候,他不但收听北京电台,他还写信给北京电台。然后,他每次都能受到非常认真的回信。纸非常薄,但是,文字非常好,对他询问的例如有关中非关系的问题,回答得都非常清晰透彻。他还订阅Beijing Review和中国画报。通过这些了解中国,一直对中国非常向往。

五十年代,瑞典有一个医生叫安德烈(安德琳)。她是在朝鲜战争期间,中国邀请六名国际专家到朝鲜战场检查是否有生化武器和细菌战的。后来,这位安德琳医生也是对中国非常友好。回到瑞典,她就发表文章,进行演讲,痛批美国领导的联军在朝鲜战场的错误行为。她甚至到莫斯科去演讲。

前年,中国驻瑞典首任大使耿飚的女儿耿滢特意访问瑞典来寻找安德烈的后人来加深中瑞友谊和文化交流,在本记者的协调下,终于找到了安德烈的侄女,得以相见,共续旧情。

据卡尔松说,就是在这样的人物影响和领导下,瑞典有一批人就对中国非常感兴趣,他们或者叫中国朋友,或者叫什么名字,改来改去,但是到1972年正是成立了瑞中友好协会Sweden China Friendship Society. 后来改成瑞中协会,现在叫聚焦中国, Kinafokus.

卡尔松第一次到北京访问是带领20名瑞典人在1978年来的。来了以后,他说他每年可以来四次。北京方面说,不,你们可以来20次。我们现在开始对外开放了,欢迎你们来。就这样,他就开始了中瑞之间不断穿梭的旅程。几十年下来,他到中国已经有400次之多。

于是,在2010年习近平主席访问瑞典的时候,他被浦参推荐参加会见,得到了与习主席握手合影的宝贵机会。不过,最重要的是,多年来,他一直坚持不懈地进行着中瑞之间的文化交流。

2014年于默奥成为欧洲文化首都,中国舞蹈队到那里和萨米歌唱家一起同台演出。 他每年都接待不少来自中国的代表团来访,或者是组织瑞典人到中国去旅游,参观访问。一直坚持在双方交流的轨道上。因为他是林场主的儿子,他自己也有林场,所以,他也从事林业管理和贸易。

当问及他如何评论西方现在对中国有关新疆问题的无端指责时,他说,西方人包括瑞典人不理解也不知道IS之类的恐怖分子有多可怕。他们不了解新疆7.5暴乱,也不知道或者不记得恐怖分子在云南昆明火车站进行恐怖袭击,恐怖分子甚至到天安门广场搞恐怖活动。这一切让中国尽管是一个14亿人的大国也是非常担心恐怖分子的破坏。因此,他们对一些人进行教育,采取严厉的反恐措施,这些行为都是有原因的。并不是一个大国故意欺负一个弱小的少数民族那么简单。

当然,新疆在发展方面,那些年也确实没有内地那么早,那么快,因此,生活水平的差异,也导致一些没有文化的极端分子听信外部挑拨。近年来新疆的发展必然让新疆越来越稳定,越来越繁荣。

记者今年8月到新疆采访,发现新疆确实和记者想象的完全不一样,也和西方媒体报道的完全不一样。新疆历时18个月没有任何爆炸事件。新疆吸引数百万游客,新疆的经济繁荣,各项建设都在有计划有秩序地进行着,人民安居乐业,各民族团结一家亲。呈现和谐共处的景象。

卡尔松先生说,他今年68岁,有两个儿子,一个女儿。妻子也是教师。他们都到了该退休的年龄。但是,他还是希望能继续为瑞中交流作出自己的贡献。

我说,12月15日,我将举行新疆之行瑞典记者眼中的新疆摄影展。他说,欢迎你到于默奥来展。 老骥伏枥,志在千里。但愿梦想能够成真。

I am Ingrid to be shown

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Stockholm, June 2 (Greenpost)– I’m Ingrid, a documentary film by Stig Björkman has moved the audience very much at its premier for the professional film makers and cinema owners as well as journalists.

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Ingrid Bergman, a great actress who won twice the best actress in

Hollywood was remembered by her children and the one who used to work with her.

Stig Björkman can be her biggest fan as he collected all her films,

pictures and many more.

Now with interviews with her four children and her diary, Björkman

directed a successful film.

A Geothermal Heating System is underway in Drejargatan in Stockholm

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 13(Greenpost) — A geothermal project is underway in Drejargatan 1, in Stockholm.

Johan, one of the workers here with the project said they are drilling a 350 meter deep rock and will put the pipes under it. It will take two weeks to do that.

Atlas Copco is doing this project. This area used to be the starting areea of Atlas Popco in 18 70s.

About 50/60 households will enjoy this large investment project, but people believe that in the long run they will save money and more importantly it is clean and will be good for the environment and self sufficient.

Fillmed by Xuefei Chen Axelsson.

阿拉斯加发现白令海峡附近有9000年前的娃娃牙齿

北欧绿色邮报网报道(记者罗森编译陈雪霏)– 据今日北冰洋报道,在阿拉斯加发现一颗9000年前的一个娃娃的牙齿,DNA测试认为它与白令海峡人有关。

该牙齿是2013年发现的,经DNA测试,认为是9000年前,白令海峡地区还是有很多人居住的。 只是后来陆地被海水侵蚀。

其实该牙齿早在1949年就被发现了,一直藏在丹麦。后来被发现这颗牙齿属于一个一岁半的小孩子。其母是吃陆地食物的,而不是吃海产品的。

而且这个孩子的牙齿显示它与美国土著居民的基因是完全不一样的。

考古学家以前也发现过12500年或者是11500年前的遗骸。

是否这些能够证明以前的假说就是美洲印第安人实际上是从亚洲迁移过去的呢?

A 9,000-year-old child’s tooth found in Alaska is another link to the vanished Ancient Beringians

A 9,000-year-old child’s tooth found in Alaska is another link to the vanished Ancient Beringians

By Yereth Rosen

STOCKHOLM, Nov. 13(Greenpost) — DNA from the tooth gives scientists a clearer picture of the Ancient Beringians, a population genetically distinct from modern Native Americans that lived in the North American Arctic. 

Tundra and mountains near the site where a 9,000-year-old tooth was discovered, in what is today the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve on Alaska’s Seward Peninsula. (National Park Service)

A 9,000-year old toddler’s tooth found on northwestern Alaska’s Seward Peninsula has revealed important new information about the continent’s early inhabitants.

The tooth has genetic material that links to the Ancient Beringians, a population that lived in Alaska not long after the Bering Land Bridge was inundated by rising seas, according to a study newly published in the journal Science.

The Ancient Beringians were first identified through remains found in 2013 at the now-famous Upward Sun River site in interior Alaska. Research led by Ben Potter of the University of Alaska Fairbanks identified 11,500-year-old remains there are belonging to a population genetically distinct from modern Native Americans.

The tooth from the Seward Peninsula is the now second discovered piece of Ancient Beringian human remains, officials at UAF said. It is also another piece of information about a population that left distinctive artifacts at several archaeological sites scattered across Alaska and Canada’s Yukon Territory. Those artifacts have long been classified as belonging to the “Denali Complex” tradition.

“This new find confirms our predictions that Ancient Beringians are directly linked with the cultural group known as the Denali Complex, which was widespread in Alaska and the Yukon Territory from 12,500 to about 6,000 years ago,” Potter, who was not involved in the newly published study, said in a statement released by UAF.

An illustration of the Upward Sun River camp in what is now Interior Alaska. New evidence links populations at the site with those on the Seward Peninsula. (Illustration by Eric S. Carlson in collaboration with Ben A. Potter)

The 9,000-year-old toddler tooth is not actually a new discovery. It comes from a place known as the Trail Creek Caves Site, located in what is now Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, that was initially excavated in 1949. But it was held in storage in Denmark for decades and not rediscovered until 2016, when Jeff Rasic, a National Park Service archaeologist, retrieved it as part of his new analysis of the Trail Creek Caves artifacts.

“My inspiration for looking for the tooth was, in short, curiosity,” Rasic, a co-author of the Science paper, said in an email. He was trying to get more precise information about the artifacts from the site, which is special “in that it has excellent preservation of otherwise perishable bone and antler tools.”

Radiocarbon dating revealed that the tooth belonged to a 1 ½-year old child. Study of the tooth included analysis at UAF’s Alaska Stable Isotope Facility, which produced the surprise finding that the child and its mother depended on land-based food, not food from the sea.

“The child’s food sources were entirely terrestrial, a sharp contrast with the other sites that indicate inclusion of anadromous fish and marine resources,” study co-author Matthew Wooller, director of the Alaska Stable Isotope Facility, said in the UAF statement.

The Ancient Beringians, new research shows, were widely dispersed, Rasic said. There are now dozens of known sites that, based on the artifacts found there, have been associated with the Denali Complex or Paleoarctic traditions, he said. Those sites extend across Alaska and into Canada’s Yukon Territory — but have not been found elsewhere in western Canada or in the Lower 48 states, he said.

They are distinct from ancient sites that have been found in southeast Alaska, which hold human remains more than 10,000 years old. DNA analyses in that region “suggest that something different is happening in that area,” Rasic said.

Yereth Rosen is a 2018 Alicia Patterson Foundation fellow.

Commentary: What is the significance of commemorating the end of the First world War?

By Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Stockholm, Nov 12. (Greenpost) —  A grand celebration was held in Paris with participation of major first world war countries leaders including Putin, Trump, Merkel and Macron.

Actually at the end of 2014, after holding back of my breath for a year and suddenly I felt relieved. Another year went by without the break of any world war. But someone said in fact modern war is a war without smoke.

For example, that year, Russian economy almost crashed with financial crisis with pressure from the US.

But at least the real gunpower was not used.  I think it has great significance to commemorate the first world war.

Recalling back, one can realize that the reason for the first world war was due to the economic market reason and ignited by the accidents of the assasination of the Austrain King.  Nationalism was very strong at that time and there was no thoughts of   how big loss it will be  one all the countries involved in the war.

Looking back, one can see that the war was faught very barbarianly. It was fought with more weapons and lives.  Human beings lost their ration and they fought just because they belonged to different nation or different ethnic groups. It was very primitive and yet, 60 million lives were taken away.

Thus, after four years they all came to the conclusion that they should stop the war. But one lesson was that France wanted to ask Germany to pay much more.  Namely to cut Germany’s colonies.

The Versais Palace Treaty was unfair not just to Germany, mainly it was to China.  China joined the war and fought together with France and other countries, but in the end, its land in Shandong province was given to Japan. It was unfair.

Later Germany thought the treaty was too harsh on it and that led to hatred to the neighbors and wanted to fight back later.  Thus with leadership of Hitler, extremism permeated in Germany.

This could be a great lesson to draw.

Currently  you have a leader like Trump who likes to use his power and you have a leader who doesn’t care about any pressure, such as Putin.

And some Europeans said irresponsibly that there might be a war in South China Sea.  This is very irresponsible.

Through this commemoration, one should realize that the war is so harmful that it will be detrimental to everyone.

Two lessons should be drawn from the first world war. One is to forgive. Like China forgives Japan and didn’t ask Japanese to compensate so much.

Two,  one should treat every country equally.  And these lessons were drawn after the second world war. That was to build the United Nations.

Many other international organizations have been established.

The current world should learn from the lesson and gave up too much nationalism. Internationalism should be promoted. Simply when anybody thought of war, you must try your best to avoid war. If you don’t want to create a war, you shouldn’t stimulate a war, you shouldn’t put people to test.

China is a peace loving country. I don’t think it will launch a war.  But if you push on it a war,  it is a country who will do all it can do to fight back.

History shows that anyone who fought with the Japanese, win it or not, in the end, it all has been Chinized.

For example, the Mongolians and the Manchurians have all been chinized and they all accepted the Chinese culture in the end. Why? Because Chinese culture has great essence in it. It always gives out the best it has and that is always a wisdom and a virtue. Man can not fight with this kind of behaviour.  It always treats people as brothers and sisters.

Its socialist ideas mean that no matter big or small, any country is equal with others. Thus, countries should also help each other, but not fight with each other.

For example, belt and road initiative is jus the idea of peace and development.

Anyway, one should draw lessons from history and try our best to safeguard the world peace and continue development.

Xuefei Chen Axelsson

Kevin Rudd: China’s Economic Reforms Cannot, Should Not Stop

By Kevin Rudd

Former Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd. Caixin file photo.
Former Australian prime minister Kevin Rudd. Caixin file photo.

China has achieved a lot over the last 40 years.

I remember the China of 1978 because in that year I was studying Chinese at Australian National University. The Cultural Revolution had just concluded. Deng Xiaoping had just returned to the leadership.

At university, we began to study Deng Xiaoping’s axioms: “Seek truth from facts,” and “Practice is the only criterion for testing truth.”

After more than a decade of pure ideology, these were welcome sounds to the rest of the world. China, at last, had embarked on a period of reforming its domestic economy based on the fundamental disciplines of price theory. And opening its economy to international markets and raising its own people out of poverty.

By the time I first arrived in this country to work in 1984, it had already been five years since the Third Plenum.

Indeed, the first document I remember reading when I was in the Australian Embassy that year was the Third Plenum of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in November 1984, on what was then called “urban reform” — taking the principle of price-based reform of Chinese agriculture, and beginning to apply it to the rest of the Chinese economy.

China, from the earliest days, has had to deal with the inherent tension between market prices on the one hand, and state planning on the other.

But by and large, your success of the last 40 years has been based on applying market prices to most sectors, from the agricultural sector, to the manufacturing sector, to the services sector, which of course includes the financial services sector.

There is also a tension between full market prices on the one hand, and the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) on the other.

Market prices are about the efficient allocation of resources in the economy, where the principal actors are private firms and individual consumers.

By and large, SOEs have a different social and political purpose.

The truth of the last 40 years is that most of the growth in China’s economy — most of the improvement in people’s living standards, and practically all new jobs which have been created — have been created through Chinese private enterprises.

This is the core lesson of the last 40 years.

The importance of market prices for the future

The discipline of market prices as the efficient allocation mechanism for scarce economic resources is not just an important historical principle.

It must also be a guiding principle for the future.

That is why the decision outlined by China at the Third Plenum of the 18th CPC Central Committee in 2013 is so important in the eyes of the world.

We all remember what that decision said: “Allow the market to play a decisive role in resource allocation.”

I know enough about Chinese domestic economics and politics to know how complicated that decision must have been in 2013.

That decision reflected the domestic consensus within this country on the best resolution of the tensions between the two traditions alive in modern Chinese economic theory and practice: that is, market prices driving the growth of private firms on the one hand, and state planning driving by the continuing role of SOEs on the other.

Indeed, when we foreigners analyzed the 60 sets of reforms in the 2013 “Decision,” the core guiding principle underpinning all of them was the central importance of market prices.

For China’s future, this is important for the growth of its product and service markets.

For market prices to work in the agricultural sector, the manufacturing sector, or the services sector, there must be strong competition.

And for there to be strong competition, there must be competitive neutrality.

And for there to be competitive neutrality, the same rules should be applied to Chinese private firms and SOEs as apply to foreign firms.

That’s why five of the most critical areas in the decisions of the Third Plenum of the 18th CPC Central Committee were competition policy reform, SOE reform, foreign trade reform, foreign investment reform, and financial sector reform.

In the West, we call this creating a level playing field through the creation of a set of rules and regulations, so firms can compete equally to produce the best product at the lowest price for the consumer, thereby representing the most efficient allocation of resources and thus eliminating waste.

If we look around the world today, we see the most successful economies over time are usually the most open and competitive economies.

Just as we see around the world, the most poorly performing economies are those most closed and overregulated, creating advantages for one sector or another.

The role of market prices in the financial sector

This same logic also applies to the financial services sector.

For those who save, their interest rates should be driven by market pressures, so they have a proper incentive to save with an attractive rate.

Similarly, some consumers may need credit to purchase essential goods and services for themselves and their family. They should get the best rates and conditions possible on the market.

Just as for individual firms, either public or private, for them to grow in a sustainable fashion, they too need to have access to capital at a competitive rate.

Interest rates applied to individual loans should also price the risk associated with that loan, in order to discourage entrepreneurs from building businesses that do not have a strong market base.

If credit is created for nonmarket reasons, or for political reasons, then structural risks begin to emerge — as nonperforming businesses inevitably produce nonperforming loans; and if there are too many nonperforming loans, they produce structural problems for individual financial institutions, or even more broadly for the financial system as a whole.

Ten years ago, we saw this in the global financial crisis, which started in the United States. Indeed, this is a problem where asset bubbles emerge in any economy.

That is why, for example, China’s current policy of “deleveraging” is important for the long-term stability and prosperity of the Chinese financial system, and the general economy.

Deleveraging is always a painful process in any economy.

And we all agree — the best thing to do to avoid deleveraging problems in the future is to apply market discipline to manage credit supply in the first place.

The continued role of regulation

What I have said today about market prices as a principle in the economy doesn’t mean there is no future role for economic regulation, legislation, or other national policy priorities.

All countries create regulatory and legislative structures that maximize their definition of public goods.

First and foremost, this is to prevent markets from completely spiraling out of control, as happened during the global financial crisis.

That’s why, through the G-20, we agreed on a whole range of financial regulations worldwide, to prevent the risk of future financial crisis.

Of course, there are other reasons to support government legislation and regulation of markets as well.

And that is to make sure governments can create proper public goods: health, education and welfare.

Free markets do not naturally provide these things.

That’s why government must intervene, so that people with lower incomes have equitable access to these critical public goods.

But each time governments intervene in markets, either to regulate those markets, to prevent systemic risk, or to provide for other forms of state intervention to fund and deliver other public goods, there will always be an economic price to pay in terms of the optimization of resources.

That’s why the government should always weigh carefully the net impact on overall economic efficiency when considering each individual decision to intervene in markets.

In China’s case, SOEs can “crowd out” the ability of private firms to sell their goods and services, thereby impacting the efficiency, living standards, and sustainable employment across the general economy.

Furthermore, if administrative decisions do not allow competitive access to finance for private firms to grow their businesses because SOEs have preferential access to capital, then, once again, overall economic efficiency will be affected, and overall living standards will be reduced, just as individual private firms will employ less people.

China’s current economic circumstances

China has made remarkable progress in the past 40 years.

But the international lesson for all of us, who are in the hard business of market reform, is that the process of reform does not stop.

It is a continuing process.

The uncomfortable truth for all of us is that when market reforms stop, often for understandable political reasons, it soon affects economic development, living standards, and sustainable employment.

China’s economic reform blueprint has produced a mixed record of implementation.

It has also faced other economic challenges for its growth as well. This has included the continuing debate in China on the best balance within this country between the rights of private entrepreneurs on the one hand, and the rights of the party and state on the other.

A third factor influencing the growth environment has been China’s deleveraging campaign, which has needed to be implemented for macro financial management reasons.

Then of course there are further factors arising from the emerging U.S.-China trade war.

Nonetheless, the impact of the trade war has been negative on both global and Chinese business sentiment.

And this may also flow to China’s economic growth over time.

For these various reasons, it has been important in the last few weeks to see the series of definitive statements by President Xi Jinping and Vice Premier Liu He on the central importance of private firms for long-term sustainable economic growth, employment, and improved living standards.

Chinese private firms will need to have confidence in terms of their future competitive status in relation to Chinese SOEs.

This will have particular implications for the future of China’s domestic finance industry. Not just banks, but also the new array of other delivery platforms for financial services right across the Chinese economy.

China’s economic future will be deeply shaped by micro businesses, becoming small businesses, becoming medium businesses, becoming domestic leaders, becoming global champions — in an open and competitive global market.

China’s economic future will be determined in large part by who the next Alibabas, the next Tencents, or the next Haiers will be.

Of course, that rests on the ability of China’s domestic economy to be served by an efficient financial services industry that delivers financial capital on a competitive basis to individual businesses and consumers.

And then there is a wider question of China becoming a bigger provider of financial services to the region and the world.

That’s where China will need to fully implement the financial industry reforms articulated in the Third Plenum of the 18th CPC Central Committee.

Ultimately, the question of the future liberalization and convertibility of China’s currency, and the opening of its capital account is a sovereign decision for China itself.

There are both risks and opportunities involved in these large decisions.

In Australia, we did it back in 1983. And by and large, it has worked well, both for our financial services industry, and for our overall economic prosperity.

Nonetheless, each country is different. With different political circumstances. But these questions do ultimately shape the ability of countries to become global financial centers.

Our general experience in Australia is that greater foreign competition in our domestic financial industry has delivered a more-competitive financial services sector for Australian businesses and consumers.

Proper financial regulation can prevent any systemic risks arising. But proper regulation should not be used as a form of protectionism for local industry.

Kevin Rudd was prime minister of Australia (2007-10, 2013) and is president of the Asia Society Policy Institute and chairman of the International Peace Institute. The article is an excerpt of a speech he gave at the second Qiantang River Forum in Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, on Saturday.

Source  Caixin

Video: A video interview with Kevin Rudd at World Water Week

视频:独家专访前澳大利亚总理陆克文–政府和私营部门都要关注水和卫生问题!

Sweden-China Bridge 瑞中桥